grass carp is native to the middle and lower Amur River, the Sungari and
Ussuri Rivers, and Lake Khanka, and to eastward flowing rivers of the People's Republic of China south to
Guangzhou, Kwangtung Province (Courtenay et al., 1984).
–US - USGS Grass carp have been
recorded from Alabama (Guillory and Gasaway 1978; Boschung 1992;
Kirk et al. 1994; Mettee et al. 1996); Arizona(Minckley 1973; Guillory and Gasaway 1978;
Courtenay et al. 1984, 1991); Arkansas (Buchanan 1973; Guillory and Gasaway 1978;
Zimpfer et al. 1987);
California (Guillory and Gasaway 1978; Courtenay et
al. 1984, 1991; Dill and Cordone 1997); Colorado
(Guillory and Gasaway 1978; Courtenay et al. 1984, 1991; Woodling 1985); Connecticut (Whitworth 1996); Delaware (Courtenay et al. 1984, 1991; Raasch and
Altemus 1991; Rohde
et al. 1994); Florida (Guillory and Gasaway 1978; Courtenay and
Stauffer 1984; Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission 1989, 1994; Shafland 1995b);
–Gulf of Mexico - GSMFC Stanley,
et al. (1978) noted that this species would likely reproduce widely throughout
North America, once introduced. Despite efforts to limit its distribution in natural systems, its
spread has been extremely rapid. In addition to the Mississippi, it is now
established in Texas (Nobel et al., 1986), in the Ohio River (Jennings, 1989), and in
the Missouri River system (Brown and Coon, 1991).
panopaei and other
barnacles of the order Rhizocephala are parasites on decapod crustaceans,
whose juvenile and adult stages are radically different in form from free-living barnacles. Only
the planktonic nauplius and cypris larvae link these organisms to the
Cirripedia (Gissler 1884;
–GSMFC Reproduction: B. amphitrite has been found to spawn continuously
throughout the year in India (Daniel, 1958; Pillar, 1958). According to
Bookhout (1958), breeding was seasonal with a summer peak in temperate areas.
In Australia, Egan and Anderson (1986) found the barnacles to breed during the spring and summer months.
They also found B.
amphitrite to reach
reproductive maturity at 5.0 mm in length.