Statutes Governing the Introduction of Exotic Species
Lacey Act(injurious wildlife)
1969 AFS Conference on Use of Exotic Fishes and Related Problems
Federal Noxious Weed Act
Presidential Order No. 11987 which restricted federal support
1980 National Aquaculture Act - Gainesville laboratory to
researchbeneficial use of exotic species
Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Control and Prevention Act
National Invasive Species Act of 1996
Executive Order on Invasive Species
The problem started
hundreds of years ago when introductions occurred with the earliest European
settlers. But, the earliest documentation of introductions began in the
1800s, many of which were intentional such as the Asian common carp and the
European brown trout that were introduced by government agencies.
So it began In 1900,
the Lacy Act was the first legislation aimed at controlling unwanted
In 1969, the first
American Fisheries Society meeting on exotics was held headed by R.H. Stroud.
This was about the time when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service started
taking notice of problems caused by invasive species and potential problems
that may cause.
In 1974, the Federal
Noxious Weed Act was legislated.
In 1977 President
Carters Order restricted all federal agencies from actively supporting
projects that would increase the spread of exotics.
In 1980, (A
shameless plug for my office), the National Aquaculture Act stimulated the
USFWS to establish the laboratory in Gainesville, Florida to oversee
development of a research program that will support the use of exotics for
beneficial purposes while protecting the environment. That Center is no
longer functioning that way, instead is attempting to determine impacts and
distributions of all nonindigenous aquatic species.
In 1990, the arrival
of the zebra mussel prompted Congress to pass the Nonindigenous Aquatic
Nuisance Control and Prevention Act.
This Act was later
reauthorized in 1996 as The Invasive Species Act which focused heavily on
ballast water and is up for reauthorization in 2001. Finally in 1999 there
was another Executive Order to stimulate more research.Okay, enough.