Osteopilus septentrionalis
Osteopilus septentrionalis
(Cuban Treefrog)
Amphibians-Frogs
Exotic
Translate this page with Google
Français Deutsch Español Português Russian Italiano Japanese

Photo1
Denise Gregoire, U.S. Geological Survey
Copyright Info
Photo2
Denise Gregoire, U.S. Geological Survey
Copyright Info
Osteopilus septentrionalis (Duméril and Bibron, 1841)

Common name: Cuban Treefrog

Synonyms and Other Names: Rana platernera

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Osteopilus septentrionalis is a very large, warty, hylid (treefrog) with an adult SVL (snout-vent length) of 28-165 mm (1.1-6.5 in); making it the largest hylid in the U.S. (Carr and Goin, 1955; Ashton and Ashton, 1988; Conant and Collins, 1998; Bartlett and Bartlett, 1999; Meshaka, 2001; Elliott et al., 2009). The toepads (disks) are noticeably large, similar in size to its tympanum (eardrum) (Carr and Goin, 1955; Ashton, 1978; Ashton and Ashton, 1988; Conant and Collins, 1998; Powell et al., 1998; Bartlett and Bartlett, 1999; Dorcas and Gibbons, 2008; Elliott et al., 2009). The dorsal color of Cuban treefrogs, a species which has the ability to change colors, may vary from unpatterned to heavily-patterned gray, tan, brown, bronze, olive-green to blue-green (Wright and Wright, 1949; Behler and King, 1979; Ashton and Ashton, 1988; Conant and Collins, 1998; Bartlett and Bartlett, 1999; Elliott et al., 2009; also illustrated in Carr and Goin, 1955; Duellman and Bell, 1955; Austin, 1973; Ashton, 1978; Smith, 1978; Lazell, 1989; Carmichael and Williams, 1991; Bartlett, 1994, 2002; McKeown, 1996; Powell et al., 1996; Joglar, 1998; Rivero, 1998; Meshaka, 2001, 2011; Savage, 2002; Rivalta González and Díaz Beltrán, 2003; Dorcas and Gibbons, 2008; Knapp, 2008; Krysko et al., 2011a). Unlike indigenous U.S. hylids, the dorsal skin on adult O. septentrionalis is fused to the skull (Mittleman, 1950; Carr and Goin, 1955; Cochran and Goin, 1970; Stevenson, 1976; Powell et al., 1998; Meshaka, 2011). Younger individuals are difficult to distinguish from indigenous U.S. hylids because they lack “warts” and exhibit very little pattern (Conant and Collins, 1998); however, they sometimes lack the light or dark lateral stripe found on many hylid species (Conant and Collins, 1998). Tadpoles are black or darkly pigmented dorsally, with a visible intestinal coil ventrally, and a moderately pigmented tail with light areas on the anterior musculature (Ashton and Ashton, 1988; Altig et al., 1998 [illustrated]; Conant and Collins, 1998 [illustrated], Gregoire, 2005 [illustrated]; Dorcas and Gibbons, 2008).

Unlike other U.S. hylids, the single vocal sac of calling males inflates bilaterally, giving the appearance of two sacs (Conant and Collins, 1998; Bartlett and Bartlett, 1999). The call is a rasping snarl or rubbery snore which may superficially resemble the call of Lithobates [=Rana] sphenocephalus, the southern leopard frog (Carr, 1940; Carr and Goin, 1955; Lee, 1969; Conant and Collins, 1998; Bartlett and Bartlett, 1999; Bartlett, 2000; Knapp, 2008; also CD recordings available from Library of Natural Sounds, 1996; Rivero, 1998; Elliott et al., 2009); however, a higher-pitched, scream-like escape call is used to deter predators (Schwartz and Henderson, 1991; Lukens, 2003; Dorcas and Gibbons, 2008).

Size: SVL (snout-vent length) of 28-165 mm.

Native Range: Osteopilus septentrionalis is indigenous to Cuba, Isla de la Juventud (=Isle of Youth or Isle of Pines), the Bahamas, including San Salvador and Acklins Island, and the Cayman Islands (Barbour and Ramsden, 1919; Duellman and Crombie, 1970; Crombie, 1972; Schwartz and Thomas, 1975; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985, 1991; Conant and Collins, 1998; Estrada and Ruibal, 1999; Hedges, 1999; Meshaka, 2001; Rivalta González and Díaz Beltrán, 2003; Echternacht et al., 2011; Heinicke et al., 2011; Krysko et al., 2011a).

US auto-generated map Legend USGS Logo
Alaska auto-generated map
Alaska
Hawaii auto-generated map
Hawaii
Caribbean auto-generated map
Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
Guam auto-generated map
Guam Saipan
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences: In Florida, U.S., O. septentrionalis was first detected on Key West, Monroe County, well before 1928 (Barbour, 1931, 1945). Since its initial discovery it has spread throughout the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas, the southern half and south-central portion of mainland Florida, and northward mostly along the east coast to include the following counties: Bay, Brevard, Broward, Charlotte, Citrus, Collier, Miami-Dade, De Soto, Flagler (Palm Coast), Glades, Hardee, Hendry, Hernando, Highlands, Hillsborough (including Egmont Key), Indian River, Lake (Fruitland), Lee, Levy (Cedar Key and Fowlers Bluff), Manatee, Martin, Osceola, Okeechobee, Orange, Pasco, Palm Beach, Pinellas, Polk, Sarasota, Seminole, St. Lucie, Sumter, and Volusia (Carr, 1940; Trapido, 1947; Wright and Wright, 1949; Mittleman, 1950; Peterson et al., 1952; Schwartz, 1952; Allen and Neill, 1953; Duellman and Bell, 1955; Duellman and Schwartz, 1958; King, 1960; King and Krakauer, 1968; Lee, 1969; Austin, 1973; Stevenson, 1976; Myers, 1977; Wilson and Porras, 1983; Ashton and Ashton, 1988; Dalrymple, 1988; Lazell, 1989; Carmichael and Williams, 1991; Somma and Crawford, 1993; Bartlett, 1994, 2000, 2002; Meshaka, 1996a, 1997, 1999a, b, 2000, 2001, 2011; Conant and Collins, 1998; Bartlett and Bartlett, 1999; Campbell, 1999; Christman et al., 2000; Meshaka et al., 2000, 2004; Dodd and Griffey, 2002; Townsend et al., 2002; Johnson et al., 2003; Bartareau, 2004; Welker, 2004; Krysko et al., 2005, 2011a, 2011b; Enge et al. 2008; Florida Museum of Natural History, Herpetology Collection records: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/scripts/dbs/herps_pub.asp). Records in northern Florida include Bay, Bradford, Clay (Orange Park), Columbia (including O’Leno State Park), Duval (Jacksonville in 2003), Franklin (Carrabelle), Gadsden (Havana), Holmes, Leon, Marion (Ocala), Nassau, Putnam (Hastings), St. Johns, and Washington counties (Meshaka, 1996a, 2001, 2011; Krysko and King, 1999; Johnson, 2004; Johnston, 2004; Meshaka et al., 2004; Krysko et al. 2005, 2011a; Enge et al. 2008; Wilson and Bechler, 2010; Stevenson and Somma, 2011). Another adult O. septentrionalis was collected in Ocala, Marion County, on 18 October 2004 (Florida Museum of Natural History, Herpetology Collection, UF 142702), and represents a second population that has been established and observed in that city, and spreading into surrounding areas, since at least 2002 (R. Weaver, personal communication 2004; Krysko et al., 2011a).

A Cuban Treefrog was found in a shipment of foliage plants arriving at a nursery in Orange Springs, Marion County, Florida (Florida Museum of Natural History, Herpetology Collection, UF 142699) on 14 December 2004 (mapped in Krysko et al., 2011a). These plants had been shipped from Apopka, Orange County, Florida.

On 3 January 1994, a single Cuban Treefrog was found in fallen palm leaves, knocked down by a storm, on the University of Florida campus, Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida, by J. M. Matter and A. A. Rooney (Juniata College Vertebrate Museum #01703, J. Matter, personal communication 2002). Meshaka (2001:173) recorded a second O. septentrionalis from Gainesville, but did not include a collection date or voucher. Krysko et al. (2005) discovered an established population at SW 34th Street, Gainesville, on 2 October 2002. Since these initial discoveries, O. septentrionalis has become widespread in the city of Gainesville and surrounding areas outside the city (Granatosky and Krysko, 2011; Krysko et al., 2011a; Herpetology Collection, Florida Museum of Natural History: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/scripts/dbs/herps_pub.asp) and includes two tadpoles (UF 151127-28) I collected in a plastic wading pool used to raise aquatic plants on the property of a state agency located in Gainesville (L. Somma, personal observation 2006). In Gainesville I have observed (L. Somma, personal observation 2004-2006) adult O. septentrionalis being sold as pets at a local pet store.

A single adult O. septentrionalis was collected from a backyard pond in Savannah, Chatham County, Georgia, on 23 September 2004 (Bynum, 2004; Johnson, 2007). Since 2004 two other adult Cuban Treefrogs have been collected in Savannah (Knapp, 2008) and at least one other in Brunswick, Glynn County, Georgia (Jensen et al., 2008).

In 1927 a gravid, female O. septentrionalis (USNM 218509) was collected in Baltimore, Maryland, in a shipment of bananas from Cuba (Meshaka, 1996a).

In 1989 a single Cuban Treefrog was found with recently shipped greenhouse plants in the Aurora Mall, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado (Livo et al., 1998).

In 1992, in Warrenton, Fauquier County, Virginia, a single Cuban Treefrog found on an “exotic plant” in a horticultural nursery, was photographed by R. C. Simpson (Mitchell, 1999).

In southern Indiana a single live O. septentrionalis, found in a bag of cypress mulch, was photographed (K. Fuller, personal communication 2000).

McKeown (1996) claims nonindigenous O. septentrionalis occur on Oahu, Hawaii, without providing vouchered evidence (Kraus, 2009). Nonindigenous O. septentrionalis occur in Puerto Rico (Schwartz and Thomas, 1975; Frost, 1985; Schwartz and Henderson, 1991; Joglar, 1998; Joglar et al., 1998; Rivero, 1998; Hedges, 1999; Thomas, 1999; Kraus, 2009; Heinicke et al., 2011).

Other nonindigenous populations of Cuban Treefrogs are reported from the Caribbean:  St. Croix and St. Thomas (U.S. Virgin Islands), Antigua, Dominica, Nevis, Bonaire, St. Barts, Curaçao, St. Maarten/ St.-Martín, Anguilla (U.K.), Turks & Caicos (Frost, 1985; Schwartz and Henderson, 1991; Conant and Collins, 1998; Censky and Kaiser, 1999; Hedges, 1999; Meshaka, 2001; Kraus, 2009; Heinicke et al., 2011; Powell et al., 2011), and Beef Island, Necker Island, Peter Island, Tortola and Virgin Gorda (British Virgin Islands) (Lazell in Meshaka, 1996a; Meshaka, 2001; Owen et al., 2005, 2006; Kraus, 2009; Heinicke et al., 2011; Powell et al., 2011; G. Perry, personal communication 1999).

Nonindigenous Cuban Treefrogs occur in the urban center of Puerto Limón, Limón Province, Costa Rica (Savage, 2002).

“Several” live Cuban Treefrogs have been found in horticultural shipments arriving at the zoo in Toronto, Ontario, Canada (Jackson in Meshaka, 1996a).

Means of Introduction: Osteopilus septentrionalis is usually introduced through horticultural shipments and plantings (especially palm trees) (Meshaka, 1996a, b, 2001, 2011; Jackson in Meshaka, 1996a; Livo et al., 1998; Mitchell, 1999; Owen et al., 2006; Enge et al. 2008; Krysko et al., 2011b; Powell et al., 2011), building materials (Meshaka, 1996b; Dodd and Griffey, 2002; Owen et al., 2005, 2006; Krysko et al., 2011b), and motorized vehicles (Meshaka, 1996a; Enge et al. 2008). In addition to anthropogenic dispersal, it also is possible that they can disperse throughout much of the Caribbean by rafting on floating vegetation (Meshaka, 2001). Several authors have suggested that indigenous Cuban Treefrogs may have existed on Key West and the lower Florida Keys since pre-Colombian times (Lazell, 1989; Meshaka, 2001; Heinicke et al., 2011).

James R. Wiley (personal communication 2005, 2006) has repeatedly observed Cuban Treefrogs hidden between the doors and door jams of his car when leaving Melbourne (Brevard County, Florida) on his way home to Gainesville (Alachua County, Florida) where they escape into his residential neighborhood.

The unverified population on Oahu, Hawaii, is the only example of O. septentrionalis being allegedly introduced (illegally) through pet releases during the 1980s (McKeown, 1996; Meshaka, 2001).

Status: In southern, central, and northern peninsular Florida, including the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas, O. septentrionalis is well-established, invasive, and dispersing northward along the both coasts (Crowder, 1974; Smith and Kohler, 1978; Wilson and Porras, 1983; Ashton and Ashton, 1988; Moler, 1988; Lazell, 1989; Somma and Crawford, 1993; Bartlett, 1994; Dalrymple, 1994; McCoid and Kleberg, 1995; McCann et al., 1996; Meshaka, 1996a, b, 2001, 2011; Butterfield et al., 1997; Conant and Collins, 1998; Bartlett and Bartlett, 1999; Krysko and King, 1999; Frost, 2000; Johnson et al., 2003; Lever, 2003, Goodnough, 2004; Meshaka et al., 2004; Ferriter et al., 2006; Dorcas and Gibbons, 2008; Enge at al. 2008; Elliott et al., 2009; Kraus, 2009; Granatosky and Krysko, 2011; Heinicke et al., 2011; Krysko et al., 2011a, 2011b). In Pinellas County, Florida, Cuban Treefrogs are so common that they are illustrated in a magazine advertisement promoting tourism through the beauty of nature (Anonymous, 2006)!

The status of Cuban Treefrogs further north in colder, temperate Holmes, Leon and Washington counties, the Florida panhandle (Meshaka, 2001; Meshaka et al., 2004), were determined to be erroneous by Johnson (2004; Krysko et al., 2011a). The status of the single verified specimens from Bay, Franklin, and Gadsden counties in the Florida panhandle is unclear (Johnson, 2004; Krysko et al., 2005; Enge et al. 2008). However, other recent northern county records (Alachua, Bradford, Columbia, Duval, Flagler, Levy, Marion, Nassau, Putnam, St. Johns) represent established populations (Krysko and King, 1999; Johnson et al., 2003; R. Weaver, personal communication 2004; Krysko et al., 2005, 2011a, 2011b; Johnson cited in Crabbe, 2007; Enge at al. 2008; Wilson and Bechler, 2010; Granatosky and Krysko, 2011; Stevenson and Somma, 2011; Florida Museum of Natural History, Herpetology Collection records: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/scripts/dbs/herps_pub.asp), that are not adequately mapped in Heinicke et al. (2011). The two earlier specimens from Alachua County, northern peninsular Florida, are waifs that originally did not represent an established population (Meshaka, 2001:173; J. Matter, personal communication 2002), until the discovery of more frogs and breeding populations by Krysko et al. (2005; Krysko cited in Crabbe, 2007; Krysko et al., 2011a).

The single Cuban Treefrog collected at a nursery in Orange Springs, Marion County, Florida (UF 142699; Krysko et al., 2011a), does not represent an established population in that particular city.

Currently, the Cuban Treefrogs collected from Chatham and Glynn Counties, Georgia, do not yet seem to represent established populations (Johnson and Jensen in Bynum, 2004; Dorcas and Gibbons, 2008; Jensen et al., 2008; Knapp, 2008; Kraus, 2009).

No O. septentrionalis populations have become established from the waifs found in Colorado, Indiana, Maryland, Virginia, or Ontario, Canada (Benson et al., 2004; Kraus, 2009).

McKeown (1996) claimed Osteopilus septentrionalis was an established, invasive species in Oahu, Hawaii; however, there is no vouchered evidence to verify this (Kraus, 2008, 2009). In Puerto Rico, Cuban Treefrogs have been established since the 1950s and are invasive (Joglar et al., 1998; Vargas-Salinas, 2006a, b, c; Kraus, 2009; Heinicke at al., 2011).

Almost all other nonindigenous populations of Cuban Treefrogs in the Caribbean and Costa Rica are established except those in Dominica and Curaçao (Conant and Collins, 1998; Censky and Kaiser, 1999; Meshaka, 2001; Savage, 2002; Owen et al., 2005; Kraus, 2009; Heinicke et al., 2011; G. Perry, personal communication 1999), and potentially invasive. The population from St. Maarten/St Martín, was thought to be misidentified Scinax rubra population (Powell and Henderson, 2003; see the species account titled “Scinax rubra (Daudin, 1802)” on this website), but in fact O. septentrionalis are established (Kraus, 2009; Powell et al., 2011). Meshaka (2001, 2011), and Rödder and Weinsheimer (2009) predict that O. septentrionalis will eventually reach Jamaica and other circum-Caribbean localities.

Impact of Introduction: The impact of the highly invasive Cuban Treefrog throughout its nonindigenous range is not yet clear; however, its ability to prey on indigenous frogs is a cause for concern in Puerto Rico (Meshaka, 2001), Costa Rica, and Florida (Lever, 2003; Rice et al., 2011). Butterfield et al. (1997) believe that the notion of competition with indigenous species in Florida is somewhat overplayed, but provide no data to validate their assertion. A laboratory study utilizing Cuban Treefrogs from Florida indicates that they readily feed on adult native hylids even though insects are preferred (Wyatt and Forys, 2004). Populations of native hylids recover and subsequently increase when O. septentrionalis were removed from selected localities in Florida (Rice et al., 2011). Cuban Treefrog tadpoles compete with indigenous anuran larvae in Florida and have a negative impact on their growth and development (Smith, 2005). Smith (2004) found a male O. septentrionalis amplexing with an indigenous female L. sphenocephalus in Hillsborough County, Florida, in May 2002. While these two species cannot hybridize, the result of these pairings may cause reproductive interference with indigenous frogs (Smith, 2004). In Hawaii, where there are no indigenous frogs (McKeown, 1996), their potential impact is negative if they are ever verified as established.

The toxic skin secretions in this species can cause irritation to humans (Carmichael and Williams, 1991; Dalrymple, 1994; Dorcas and Gibbons, 2008; Meshaka, 2011).

Fitcher (1970) makes the dubious, undocumented claim that O. septentrionalis attacks electrical transformers, mistaking the buzzing noise for insects; thus, resulting in electrical shock to the frog and power outages to the immediate neighborhood. However, it is possible that may cause damage to transformers simply by getting caught in them (Perkins cited in Crabbe, 2007).

Their propensity for showing up in and around residences in Florida (including drain pipes and vents) has caused them to be regarded a nuisance (Crabbe, 2007).

Remarks: The most thorough, overall literature reviews on Cuban Treefrogs are by Duellman and Crombie (1970), and Meshaka (2001, 2011). The most current taxonomic reviews are by Duellman and Crombie (1970), Frost (1985, 2000), Maxson (1992), Anderson (1996), Collins and Taggart (2002, 2009), Faivovich et al. (2005), and Frost et al. (2006). Lazell (1989) continued to place O. septentrionalis in the genus Hyla; a taxonomic arrangement that is no longer accepted. Schwartz and Henderson (1991), Rivalta González and Díaz Beltrán (2003), Vargas-Salinas (2006a, b, c), Elliott et al. (2009), and Granatosky and Krysko (2011) have reviewed the natural history of O. septentrionalis, but by far the most thorough review of its natural history, distribution, and dispersal is by Meshaka (2001, 2011, and his other studies listed therein).

Osteopilus septentrionalis is a tropical, mostly arboreal hylid, which has an insectivorous/carnivorous diet (Schwartz and Henderson, 1991; Meshaka, 1996c, 2001, 2011; Conant and Collins, 1998; Bartareau and Meshaka, 2007; Elliott et al., 2009; Granatosky and Krysko, 2011; Granatosky et al., 2011). Smaller vertebrates are eaten, including indigenous frogs, indigenous and nonindigenous lizards, native hylids, and other O. septentrionalis (Allen and Neill, 1953; Meshaka, 1996c, 2000, 2001, 2011; Wyatt and Forys, 2004; Campbell, 2007; Dorcas and Gibbons, 2008; Granatosky and Krysko, 2011). They are in turn preyed upon by native snakes and owls (Meshaka and Ferster, 1995; Meshaka, 2001, 2011; Dorcas and Gibbons, 2008), and parasitized by the nematode, Skrjabinoptera scelopori (Meshaka, 1996d). Adult activity is both arboreal and terrestrial (Meshaka, 2001, 2011; Elliott et al., 2009). Cuban treefrogs have an extended breeding season that may last throughout most of the year in southern Florida (Meshaka, 2001, 2011). Female O. septentrionalis in Puerto Rico exhibit no selectively in mate choice; a reproductive adaptation that may ultimately increase this frog’s invasiveness (Vargas-Salinas, 2006c). Females are continuously fertile, laying very large clutches of 1,200 to over 16,000 eggs (Meshaka, 2001, 2011). Eggs can be laid in any warm, shallow body of water, usually lacking predatory fish; including man-made structures and holes formed by storm-toppled trees (Meshaka, 1993, 2001, 2011; Elliott et al., 2009). Tadpoles are omnivorous, even cannibalistic, and could potentially eat the eggs of indigenous frogs (Babbitt and Meshaka, 2000; Meshaka, 2001, 2011). However, eggs of the nonindigenous toad, Rhinella marina, are toxic to O. septentrionalis tadpoles (Punzo and Lindstrom, 2001).

Cuban Treefrogs are a storm-adapted species that can immediately increase its fecundity and rapidly disperse during and after hurricanes (Meshaka, 1993, 1996b, 2001, 2011). Meshaka (2001, 2011) predicts that O. septentrionalis will eventually disperse to Jamaica, much of the Caribbean and, more speculatively, throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Additionally, Florida populations probably will spread along the Gulf Coast, throughout the coastal United States, then southward into Mexico (Meshaka, 2001, 2011; Rödder and Weinsheimer, 2009). Their northward dispersal in the United States may be limited by climate (Meshaka, 2001; Granatosky and Krysko, 2011) and a decrease in female body size with northward latitude (McGarrity and Johnson, 2009), unless aided by anthropogenic Global Warming (Rödder and Weinsheimer, 2009). However, this fails to take into consideration the future potential for a certain degree of adaptation to a more temperate climate. Osteopilus septentrionalis may eventually spread north of Nassau County, Florida, along the eastern Atlantic coast, as far north as the Georgia coastline. Non-coastal Florida populations might also spread slightly northward, perhaps limited to disjunct populations in highly sheltered, especially anthropogenic, habitat.

References: (click for full references)

Allen, E. R., and W. T. Neill. 1953. The treefrog, Hyla septentrionalis, in Florida. Copeia 1953(2):127-128.

Altig, R., R. W. McDiarmid, K. A. Nichols, and P. C. Ustach. 1998. A key to the anuran tadpoles of the United States and Canada. Contemporary Herpetology Information Series [online] (2):URL: http://www.cnah.org/ch/chis/1998/2/index.htm.

Anderson, K. 1996. A karyological perspective on the monophyly of the hylid genus Osteopilus. Pp. 157-168. In: R. Powell and R. W. Henderson (editors). Contributions to West Indian Herpetology. A Tribute to Albert Schwartz. Contributions to Herpetology 12. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca. 475 pp.

Anonymous. 2006. Discover paradise in Pinellas County on Florida’s Gulf Coast [advertisement]. Going Places (AAA) 25(5; September/October):40.

Ashton, R. E., Jr. 1978. Identification manual to the amphibians and reptiles of Florida. Florida State Museum Associates, University of Florida, Interpretation Series (1):[1-41].

Ashton, R. E., Jr., and P. S. Ashton. 1988. Handbook of Reptiles and Amphibians of Florida. Part Three. The Amphibians. Windward Publishing, Inc., Miami. 191 pp.

Austin, D. F. 1973. Range expansion of the Cuban Treefrog in Florida. Florida Naturalist 46(4):28.

Aycrigg, A. D., T. M. Farrell, and P. G. May. 1998. SOS: Sounds of survival. Reptile & Amphibian Magazine (52):56-63.

Babbitt, K. J., and W. E. Meshaka, Jr. 2000. Benefits of eating conspecifics: Effects of background diet on survival and metamorphosis in the Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis). Copeia 2000(2):469-474.

Barbour, T. 1931. Another introduced frog in North America. Copeia 1931(1):140.

Barbour, T. 1945. A Naturalist in Cuba. Little, Brown and Company, Boston. 317 pp.

Barbour, T., and C. T. Ramsden. 1919. The herpetology of Cuba. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard College 47(2):71-213, plates 1-15.

Bartareau, T. M. 2004. PVC pipe diameter influences the species and sizes of treefrogs captured in a Florida coastal oak scrub community. Herpetological Review 35(2):150-152.

Bartareau, T. M. and W. E. Meshaka [Jr.]. 2007. Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog). Diet. Herpetological Review 38(3):324-325.

Bartlett, R. D. 1994. Florida’s alien herps.  Reptile & Amphibian Magazine (27):56-73, 103-109.

Bartlett, D. [=R. D.] 2000. Keys to the city. Reptiles 8(6):24-28, 30-31.

Bartlett, D. [=R. D.] 2002. Krazy for the Keys. Reptiles 10(4):22-26.

Bartlett, R. D., and P. P. Bartlett. 1999. A Field Guide to Florida Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston. 280 pp.

Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York. 743 pp.

Benson, A. J., C. C. Jacono, P. L. Fuller, E. R. McKercher, and M. M. Richerson. 2004. Summary Report of Nonindigenous Aquatic Species in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Region 5. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Arlington. 142 pp.

Butterfield, B. P., W. E. Meshaka, Jr., and C. Guyer. 1997. Nonindigenous amphibians and reptiles.  Pp. 123-138. In: D. Simberloff, D. C. Schmitz, and T. C. Brown (editors). Strangers in Paradise. Impact and Management of Nonindigenous Species in Florida. Island Press, Washington, D. C. 467 pp.

Bynum, R. 2004. Cuban tree frog found in Georgia. CBSNews.com [online] 2004(21 October). Available on URL: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/10/21/tech/main650682.shtml.

Campbell, T. [S.] 1999. Geographic distribution: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog) USA: Florida: Volusia Co. Herpetological Review 30(1):50-51.

Campbell, T. S. 2007. Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog). Saurophagy. Herpetological Review 38(4):440.

Carmichael, P., and W. Williams. 1991. Florida’s Fabulous Reptiles and Amphibians. World Publications, Tampa. 120 pp.

Carr, A. F., Jr. 1940. A contribution to the herpetology of Florida. University of Florida Publications, Biological Sciences Series 3(1):1-118.

Carr, A. [F., Jr.], and C. J. Goin. 1955. Guide to the Reptiles, Amphibians and Fresh-Water Fishes of Florida. University of Florida Press, Gainesville. 341 pp.

Censky, E. J., and H. Kaiser. 1999. The Lesser Antillean fauna. Pp. 181-221. In: B. I. Crother (editor). Caribbean Amphibians and Reptiles. Academic Press, San Diego. 495 pp.

Christman, S. P., C. A. Young, S. Gonzalez, K. Hill, G. Navtratil, and P. Delis. 2000. New records of amphibians and reptiles from Hardee County, Florida. Herpetological Review 31(2):116-117.

Cochran, D. M., and C. J. Goin. 1970. The New Field Book of Reptiles and Amphibians. G. P. Putnam’s Sons, New York. 359 pp. + 16 plates.

Collins, J. T., and T. W. Taggart. 2002. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles & Crocodilians. Fifth Edition. The Center for North American Herpetology, Lawrence, Kansas.  44 pp.

Collins, J. T., and T. W. Taggart. 2009. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles & Crocodilians. Sixth Edition. The Center for North American Herpetology, Lawrence, Kansas.  44 pp.

Conant, R., and J. T. Collins. 1998. A Field Guide to Reptiles & Amphibians. Eastern and Central North America. Third Edition, Expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 616 pp.

Crabbe, N. 2007. Tree frog proving nuisance in area. The Gainesville Sun, Final Edition 131(337, 13 June):1A, 4a.

Crombie, R. L. 1972. The presence of Hyla squirella in the Bahamas. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 35(1):49-52.

Crowder, J. P. 1974. The Exotic Vertebrates of South Florida. South Florida Environmental Project Ecological Report, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-235 214, U. S. Department of the Interior, Atlanta.

Dalrymple, G. H. 1988. The herpetofauna of Long Pine Key, Everglades National Park, in relation to vegetation and hydrology. Pp. 72-86. In: R. C. Szaro, K. E. Severson, and D. R. Patton (coordinators). Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small Mammals in North America. Proceedings of the Symposium. July 19-21, 1988, Flagstaff, Arizona. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-166, Fort Collins. 458 pp.

Dalrymple, G. H. 1994. Non-indigenous amphibians and reptiles in Florida. Pp. 67-78. In: D. C. Schmitz and T. C. Brown (editors). An Assessment of Invasive Non-indigenous Species in Florida’s Public Lands. Division of Environmental Resource Permitting, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Technical Report No. TSS-94-100, Tallahassee. 303 pp.

Dodd, C. K., Jr., and M. L. Griffey. 2002. Remarks on the current status of the non-marine herpetofauna of Egmont Key, Florida. Florida Scientist 65(1):62-66.

Dorcas, M. [E.], and [J.] W. Gibbons. 2008. Frogs & Toads of the Southeast. The University of Georgia Press, Athens. 238 pp.

Duellman, W. E., and L. N. Bell. 1955. The frogs and toads of the Everglades National Park. Everglades Natural History 3(2):102-113.

Duellman, W. E., and R. I. Crombie. 1970. Hyla septentrionalis. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (92):1-4.

Duellman, W. E., and A. Schwartz. 1958. Amphibians and reptiles of southern Florida. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences 3(5):181-324.

Echternacht, A. C., F. J. Burton, and J. M. Blumenthal. 2011. The amphibians and reptiles of the Cayman Islands: Conservation issues in the face of invasions. Pp. 129-147. In: A. Hailey, B. S. Wilson, and J. A. Horrocks (editors). Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas. Vol. 2. Regional Accounts of the West Indies. Brill, Leiden.

Elliott, L., C. Gerhardt, and C. Davidson. 2009. The Frogs and Toads of North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, New York. 344 pp. + CD-ROM.

Enge, K. M., S. A. Johnson, and K. L. Krysko. 2008. Geographic distribution: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog). USA: Florida. Herpetological Review 39(4):480.

Estrada, A. R., and R. Ruibal. 1999. A review of Cuban herpetology. Pp. 31-62. In: B. I. Crother (editor). Caribbean Amphibians and Reptiles. Academic Press, San Diego. 495 pp.

Faivovich, J., C. B. F. Haddad, P. C. A. Garcia, D. R. Frost, J. A. Campbell, and W. C. Wheeler. 2005. Systematic review of the frog family Hylidae, with special reference to Hylinae: Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 294:1-240.

Ferriter, A., B. Doren, C. Goodyear, D. Thayer, J. Burch, L. Toth, M. Bodle, J. Lane, D. [C.] Schmitz, P. Pratt, [R. W.] S. Snow, and K. Langeland. 2006. The status of nonindigenous species in the South Florida environment. Pp. 9-1 to 9-102. In: S. Efron (prod. manager), and South Florida Environmental Report Production Team (editors). 2006 South Florida Environmental Report. – Vol. 1. South Florida Water Management District and Florida Department of Environmental Protection, West Palm Beach.

Fitcher, G. 1970. The new nature of Florida. Florida Wildlife 24(7):10-15

Frost, D. R. (editor). 1985. Amphibian Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographical Reference. Allen Press, Inc. and The Association of Systematics Collections. Lawrence, Kansas. 732 pp.

Frost, D. [R.] (compiler). 2000. Anura¬—frogs. Pp. 6-17. In: B. I. Crother (chair), and Committee on Standard English and Scientific Names (editors). Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular (29):i-iii, 1-82.

Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. De Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green, and W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297:1-370 + Fig. 50 foldout.

Fuller, K. 2000. Personal communication—Resident, Indiana.

Goodnough, A. 2004. Exotic pets on the loose throughout South Florida. The Gainesville Sun 128(239; 29 Feb.):8B.

Granatosky, M.C., L.M. Wagner, and K.L. Krysko. 2011. Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog): Prey. Herpetological Review 42(1): 8B.

Granatosky, M.C. and K.L. Krysko. 2011. Ontogenetic behavioral shifts in habitat utilization of treefrogs (Hylidae) in North-Central Florida. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 18(4): 194-201.

Gregoire, D. R. 2005. Tadpoles of the Southeastern United States Coastal Plain. United States Geological Survey Report, Florida Integrated Science Center, Gainesville. 60 pp.

Hedges, S. B. 1999. Distribution patterns of amphibians in the West Indies. Pp. 211-254. In: W. E. Duellman (editor). Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians. A Global Perspective. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 633 pp.

Heinicke, M. P., L. M. Diaz, and S. B. Hedges. 2011. Origin of invasive frogs traced to Cuba. Biology Letters 7(3):407-410.

Jensen, J. B., C. D. Camp, [G.] W. Gibbons, and M. J. Elliott (editors). 2008. Amphibians and Reptiles of Georgia. University of Georgia Press, Athens. 575 pp.

Joglar, R. L. 1998. Los Coquíes de Puerto Rico. Su Historia Natural y Conservación. Editorial de las Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan. 232 pp.

Joglar, R. L., N. Rios-López, and M. Cardona. Geographic distribution: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog, rana platanera). Puerto Rico: Coamo. Herpetological Review 29(2):107.

Johnson, S. A. 2004. Geographic distribution: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog). USA: Florida: Gadsden Co. Herpetological Review 35(4):405.

Johnson, S. A. 2007. Geographic distribution: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog). USA: Georgia: Chatham Co. Herpetological Review 38(3):349.

Johnson, S. A., J. S. Staiger, W. J. Barichivich, and S. Barlow. 2003.  Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog). USA: Florida: Levy Co. Herpetological Review 34(4):381.

Johnston, G. R. 2004. Geographic distribution: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog). USA: Florida: Marion Co. Herpetological Review 35(2):184.

King, [F.] W. 1960. New populations of West Indian reptiles and amphibians in southeastern Florida. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 23(1):71-73.

King, [F.] W., and T. Krakauer. 1966. The exotic herpetofauna of southeast Florida. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 29(2):144-154.

Knapp, W. W. 2008. Cuban treefrog – Osteopilus septentrionalis. In: The Frogs & Toads of Georgia [online]. Available on URL: http://wwknapp.home.mindspring.com/docs/cuban.tfrog.html.

Kraus, F. 2008. Alien species. Pp. 75-83. In: B. I. Crother (chair), and Committee on Standard English and Scientific Names (editors). Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth Edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84.

Kraus, F. 2009. Alien Reptiles and Amphibians. A Scientific Compendium and Analysis. Springer, [Dordrecht]. 563 pp. + CD-ROM.

Krysko, K.L., K.M. Enge, and P.E. Moler. 2011a. Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Florida. Project Agreement No. 08013. Final Report. Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission, Tallahassee. 524 pp. Also: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herpetology/atlas/ and http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herpetology/atlas/FinalReportKryskoEngeMolerAtlasofAmphibiansandReptilesinFlorida08013.pdf.

Krysko, K. L., J. P. Burgess, M. R. Rochford, C. R. Gillette, D. Cueva, K. M. Enge, L. A. Somma, J. L. Stabile, D. C. Smith, J. A. Wasilewski, G. N. Kieckhefer III, M. C. Granatosky,  and S. V. Nielsen. 2011. Verified non-indigenous amphibians and reptiles in Florida from 1863 through 2010: Outlining the invasion process and identifying invasion  pathways and status. Zootaxa 3028:1-64 + MorphoBank Project No. p536: URL: http://www.morphobank.org.

Krysko, K. L., K. M. Enge, J. H. Townsend, E. M. Langan, S. A. Johnson, and T. S. Campbell. 2005. New county records of amphibians and reptiles from Florida. Herpetological Review 36(1):85-87.

Krysko, K. L., and F. W. King. 1999. Geographic distribution: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog). USA: Florida: St. Johns Co. Herpetological Review 30(4):230-231.

Lazell, J. D., Jr. 1989. Wildlife of the Florida Keys: A Natural History. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 250 pp.

Lee, D. S. 1969. The treefrogs of Florida. Florida Naturalist 42(3):117-120.

Lever, C. 2003. Naturalized Reptiles and Amphibians of the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 318 pp.

Library of Natural Sounds. 1996. Voices of the Night. The Calls of the Frogs and Toads of Eastern North America. Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Ithaca. Audio CD Recording.

Livo, L. J., G. A. Hammerson, and H. M. Smith. 1998. Summary of amphibians and reptiles introduced into Colorado. Northwestern Naturalist 79(1):1-11.

Matter, J. M. 2002. Personal communication—Zoologist, Department of Biology, Juniata College, Huntingdon, Pennsylvania.

Maxson, L. R. 1992. Tempo and pattern in anuran speciation and phylogeny: An albumen perspective. Pp. 41-57. In: K. Adler (editor). Herpetology. Current Research on the Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Contributions to Herpetology 9. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, Ohio. 245 pp.

McCann, J. A., L. N. Arkin, and J. D. Williams. 1996. Nonindigenous Aquatic and Selected Terrestrial Species in Florida. Status, Pathways, Dates of Introduction, Range Distributions, and Significant Ecological and Economic Effects. Florida Caribbean Science Center, U. S. Geological Survey, Gainesville. 301 pp.

McCoid, M. J., and C. Kleberg. 1995. Non-native reptiles and amphibians. Pp. 433-437. In: E. T. LaRoe, G. S. Farris, C. E. Puckett, P. D. Doran, and M. J. Mac (editors). Our Living Resources: A Report to the Nation on the Distribution, Abundance, and Health of U. S. Ecosystems. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Service, Washington, D. C. 530 pp.

McGarrity, M. E., and S. A. Johnson. 2009. Geographic trend in sexual size dimorphism and body size of Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban treefrog): Implications for invasion in the southeastern United States. Biological Invasions 11(6):1411-1420.

McKeown, S. 1996. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians in the Hawaiian Islands. Diamond Head Publishing, Inc., Los Osos, California. 172 pp.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 1993. Hurricane Andrew and the colonization of five invading species in South Florida. Florida Scientist 56(4):193-201.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 1996a. Vagility and the Florida distribution of the Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis). Herpetological Review 27(1):37-40.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 1996b. Retreat use by the Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis): Implications for successful colonization in Florida. Journal of Herpetology 39(3):443-445.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 1996c. Diet and the colonization of buildings by the Cuban Treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis (Anura: Hylidae). Caribbean Journal of Science 32(1):59-63.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 1996d. Occurrence of the nematode Skrjabinoptera scelopori in the Cuban Treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis: Mainland and island comparisons. Pp. 271-276. In: R. Powell and R. W. Henderson (editors). Contributions to West Indian Herpetology. A Tribute to Albert Schwartz. Contributions to Herpetology 12. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca. 475 pp.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 1997. The herpetofauna of Buck Island Ranch: An altered wetland in south-central Florida. Florida Scientist 60(1):1-7.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 1999a. The herpetofauna of the Kampong. Florida Scientist 62(3/4):153-157.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 1999b. The herpetofauna of the Doc Thomas House in South Miami, Florida. Florida Field Naturalist 27(3):121-123.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 2000. Colonization dynamics of two exotic geckos (Hemidactylus garnotii and H. mabouia) in Everglades National Park. Journal of Herpetology 34(1):163-168.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 2001. The Cuban Tree Frog in Florida. Life History of a Successful Colonizing Species. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 191 pp.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 2011. A runaway train in the making: The exotic amphibians, reptiles, turtles, and crocodilians of Florida. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 6(Monograph 1):1-101.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr., B. P. Butterfield, and J. B. Hauge. 2004. The Exotic Amphibians and Reptiles of Florida. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida. 166 pp.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr., and B. Ferster. 1995. Two species of snakes prey on Cuban Treefrogs in southern Florida. Florida Field Naturalist 23(4):97-98.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr., W. F. Loftus, and T. Steiner. 2000. The herpetofauna of Everglades National Park. Florida Scientist 63(2):84-103.

Mitchell, J. C. 1999. Field notes: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog). VA: Fauquier Co., Warrenton. Catesbeiana 19(1):32.

Mittleman, M. B. 1950. Miscellaneous notes on some amphibians and reptiles from the southeastern United States. Herpetologica 6(1):20-24.

Moler, P. 1988. A Checklist of Florida’s Amphibians and Reptiles. Nongame Wildlife Program, Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee. 18 pp.

Myers, S. 1977. Geographic distribution: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog). USA. Florida. Herpetological Review 8(2):38.

Owen, J., G. Perry, J. Lazell, C. Petrovic, and J. Egelhoff. 2005. Geographic distribution: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Tree Frog). British Virgin Islands. Herpetological Review 36(1):76.

Owen, J., G. Perry, J. Lazell, C. Petrovic, and J. Egelhoff. 2006. Geographic distribution: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Tree Frog). Colonization of the British Virgin Islands. Herpetological Review 37(1):74-75.

Perry, G. 1999. Personal communication—Zoologist, Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.

Peterson, H. W., R. Garrett, and J. P. Lantz. 1952. The mating period of the Giant Treefrog Hyla dominicensis. Herpetologica 8(3):63.

Powell, R., J. T. Collins, and E. D. Hooper, Jr. 1998. A Key to Amphibians & Reptiles of the Continental United States and Canada. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. 131 pp.

Powell, R., and R. W. Henderson. 2003. A second set of addenda to the checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles.  Herpetological Review 34(4):341-345.

Powell, R., R. W. Henderson, K. Adler, and H. A. Dundee. 1996. An annotated checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Pp. 51-91, plates 1-8. In: R. Powell and R. W. Henderson (editors). Contributions to West Indian Herpetology. A Tribute to Albert Schwartz. Contributions to Herpetology 12. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca. 475 pp.

Powell, R., R. W. Henderson, M. C. Farmer, M. Breuil, A. C. Echternacht, G. van Buurt, C. M. Romagosa, and G. Perry. 2011. Introduced amphibians and reptiles in the greater Caribbean: Patterns and conservation implications. Pp. 63-143. In: Hailey, B. S. Wilson, and J. A. Horrocks (editors). Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas. Vol. 1. Conservation Biology and the Wider Caribbean. Brill, Leiden.

Punzo, F., and L. Lindstrom. 2001. The toxicity of eggs of the giant toad, Bufo marinus to aquatic predators in a Florida retention pond. Journal of Herpetology 35(4):693-697.

Rice, K. G., J. H. Waddle,  M. W. Miller, M. E. Crockett,  F. J. Mazzotti, and H. F. Percival. 2011. Recovery of native treefrogs after removal of nonindigenous Cuban Treefrogs, Osteopilus septentrionalis. Herpetologica 67(2):105-117.

Rivalta González, V. and L. M. Díaz Beltrán. 2003. Ranas de las ciudades. Pp. 44-49. In: L. Rodríguez Schettino (editor). Anfibios y Reptiles de Cuba. Instituto de Ecología y Systemática, Ciudad de La Habana. 169 pp.

Rivero, J. A. 1998. Los Anfibios y Reptiles de Puerto Rico. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Puerto Rico. Segunda Edición Revisada. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan. 510 pp. + CD.

Rödder, D., and F. Weinsheimer. 2009. Will future anthropogenic climate change increase the distribution of the alien invasive Cuban treefrog (Anura: Hylidae)? Journal of Natural History 43(19-20):1207-1217.

Savage, J. M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. A Herpetofauna between Two Continents, between Two Seas. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London. 934 pp.

Schwartz, A. 1952. Hyla septentrionalis Dumeril and Bibron on the Florida mainland. Copeia 1952(2):117-118.

Schwartz, A., and R. W. Henderson. 1985. A Guide to the Identification of the Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies Exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee. 165 pp.

Schwartz, A., and R. W. Henderson. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies: Descriptions, Distributions, and Natural History. University of Florida Press, Gainesville. 720 pp.

Schwartz, A., and R. Thomas. 1975. A check-list of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication (1):1-216.

Smith, H. M. 1978. A Guide to Field Identification. Amphibians of North America. Golden Press, New York.

Smith, H. M., and A. J. Kohler. 1978. A survey of herpetological introductions in the United States and Canada. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 1977 80(1-2):1-24.

Smith, K. G. 2004. Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog). Reproductive behavior. Herpetological Review 35(4):374-375.

Smith, K. G. 2005. Effects of nonindigenous tadpoles on native tadpoles in Florida: Evidence of competition. Biological Conservation 123(4):433-441.

Somma, L. A., and D. M. Crawford. 1993. Geographic distribution: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog). USA: Florida: Pinellas Co. Herpetological Review 23(4):153.

Stevenson, H. S. 1976. Vertebrates of Florida. Identification and Distribution. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville. 607 pp.

Stevenson, L. S., and L. A. Somma. 2011. Geographic distribution: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog). USA: Florida: Bradford Co. Herpetological Review 42(1):107-108.

Thomas, R. 1999. The Puerto Rico area. Pp. 169-179. In: B. I. Crother (editor). Caribbean Amphibians and Reptiles. Academic Press, San Diego. 495 pp.

Townsend, J. H., K. L. Krysko, A. T. Reppas, and C. M. Sheehy III. 2002. Noteworthy new records for introduced reptiles and amphibians from Florida, USA. Herpetological Review 33(1):75.

Trapido, H. 1947. Range extension of Hyla septentrionalis in Florida. Herpetologica 3(6):190.

Vargas-Salinas, F. 2006a. Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Tree frog). Reproduction. Herpetological Review 37(2):205.

Vargas-Salinas, F. 2006b. Sexual size dimorphism in the Cuban Treefrog Osteopilus septentrionalis. Amphibia-Reptilia 27(4):419-426 + erratum.

Vargas[-]Salinas, F. 2006c. Breeding behavior and colonization success of the Cuban Treefrog Osteopilus septentrionalis. Herpetologica 62(4):398-408.

Weaver, R. 2004. Personal communication—Botanist, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 1911 SW 34th Street, Gainesville, FL  32614.

Welker, M. E. 2004. Geographic distribution: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog). USA: Florida: Seminole Co. Herpetological Review 35(3):283.

Wiley, J. R. 2005, 2006. Personal communication—Assistant Curator, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry, Entomology Section, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 1911 SW 34th Street, Gainesville, FL  32614.

Wilson, L. D., and L. Porras. 1983. The ecological impact of man on the South Florida herpetofauna. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Special Publication (9):i-vi, 1-89.

Wilson, L. M., and D. L. Bechler. 2010. Geographic distribution: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog). USA: Florida: Nassau Co. Herpetological Review 41(3):376.

Wright, A. H., and A. A. Wright. 1949. Handbook of Frogs and Toads of the United States and Canada. Third Edition. Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London. 640 pp.

Wyatt, J. L. and E. A. Forys. 2004. Conservation implications of predation by Cuban Treefrogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) on native hylids in Florida. Southeastern Naturalist 3(4):695-700.

Other Resources:
Cuban Treefrog (UF Florida Wildlife Extension)

Global Invasive Species Database Factsheet

Author: Somma, Louis A.

Revision Date: 7/27/2012

Citation Information:
Somma, Louis A.. 2016. Osteopilus septentrionalis. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL.
http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=57 Revision Date: 7/27/2012


This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logoU.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: http://nas.er.usgs.gov
Page Contact Information: Pam Fuller - NAS Program (pfuller@usgs.gov)
Page Last Modified: Monday, August 22, 2016

Disclaimer:

The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2016]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [8/25/2016].

Additional information for authors