Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holmb.

Common Name: Reed mannagrass

Synonyms and Other Names:

Catabrosa hydrophila, Exydra aquatica, Festuca aquatica, Glyceria altissima, Glyceria aquatica, Glyceria spectabilis, Heleochloa aquatica, Hydropoa spectabilis, Molinia maxima, Panicularia aquatica, Poa aquatica, tall mannagrass, English water grass, giant manna grass, reed manna grass, reed-meadow grass, reed sweet grass, sweet reedgrass, water-meadow grass




Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.orgCopyright Info

Identification: Glyceria maxima is a perennial, helophytic, rhizomatous grass with unbranched stems. Leaf sheaths have prominent midribs, visible transverse veins, and are closed to near the top. The unlobed, membranous ligules are 1.2-6 mm long, smooth, and obtuse in shape. Leaf blades are flat, 30-60 cm long, and 0.6-2.0 cm wide. The leaf blades are shallowly grooved, with prominent midribs. The leaf margins have short, stiff hairs that are rough to the touch (Campbell et al. 2010, Forest Health Staff 2006). 

These are bisexual plants with panicles that can be either open (chasmogamous) or contracted and symmetrical. The inflorescence branches have short, stiff hairs similar to those on the leaf margins (Boos et al. 2010, MIPN.org 2008).

Glyceria maxima could be confused with large specimens of native Glyceria grandis, but that species typically only grows up to 1.5 m, has nodding (rather than upright) inflorescences, and has shorter glumes and lemmas (parts of the grass spikelet) (Boos et al. 2000). It could also be mistaken for Puccinellia because of their similar spikelet structure and preference for wet habitats, but G. maxima is distinguished by its inability to tolerate highly alkaline soils, typically more flexible panicle branches, closed leaf sheaths, and single-veined upper glumes.


Size: up to 2.5m


Native Range: Glyceria maxima is native to temperate Eurasia.


Great Lakes Nonindigenous Occurrences: The first North American record of Glyceria maxima came from Cootes Paradise, at the far west end of Lake Ontario, in the mid 1940s (Wei & Chow-Fraser 2006).  It subsequently spread to other areas of Ontario, where it has overtaken native cattails and other species.

Glyceria maxima was first found in the United States in the 1970s in Wisconsin's Racine and Milwaukee counties.  Cultivated populations have also been documented in both Door and Wood Counties, and an un-vouchered specimen is noted from Calumet County.  In the early 1990s it was found at three sites in Massachusetts' Ipswich River Wildlife Sanctuary in Essex county; these sites were subject to aggressive control measures, and only one site required re-treatment as of 2005.

New discoveries have occurred in recent years, with two new states reporting small infestations.  In 2005, small population was detected in a residential pond near Monroe, Washington; control measures are planned for in 2007.  In the fall of 2006, a dense circular patch was detected at Illinois Beach State Park, seemingly growing outward from a recently-replaced manhole cover.  This population was treated in 2006 and monitoring will continue for a number of years (D. Nelson, pers. comm.). 

Other stands occur in British Columbia, Newfoundland and Alaska. Overseas, it has been found invading Tasmania, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, as well as New Zealand.  


Table 1. Great Lakes region nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state/province, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Glyceria maxima are found here.

Full list of USGS occurrences

State/ProvinceYear of earliest observationYear of last observationTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
Illinois200620081Pike-Root
Michigan201620172Flint; St. Joseph
Wisconsin197920177Bad-Montreal; Door-Kewaunee; Fox; Manitowoc-Sheboygan; Milwaukee; Northwestern Lake Michigan; Pike-Root

Table last updated 5/25/2018

† Populations may not be currently present.


Ecology: Glyceria maxima is typically found in open wetlands such as marshes, meadows, shrub-carrs and along shorelines (Campbell et al. 2010, King County 2012). It performs better in waterlogged soils that have direct sunlight, but can be found in partially shaded areas adjacent to woodlands as well (Forest Health Staff 2006, van der Putten et al. 1997).

Glyceria maxima can expand into shallow water (~ 30 cm) and survive prolonged flooding because of its aerenchyma tissue and superficial root system (Lawniczak et al. 2010, Studer-Ehrensberger et al. 1993). The root system and rhizomes can extend 3 feet down into the soil (King County 2012). When growing near open water, reed mannagrass can form floating mats attached to the shore (King County 2012).

This species primarily reproduces vegetatively via rhizomes in North America (Campbell et al. 2010, Forest Health Staff 2006). Reed mannagrass emerges early in the year and concentrates up to 50% of its biomass in its root system (Westlake 1966). The energy stored in the roots and rhizomes enable this species to produce new shoots through the growing season (Buttery and Lambert 1965). Muskrats and beavers may aid the expansion of G. maxima. While foraging, plants may become uprooted and portions of the rhizomes may break off, float down stream, and re-establish (Forest Health Staff 2006).

Glyceria maxima also has florets that can bloom and produce viable seed (IPANE 2004). Individuals are in bloom between June and August. Once the inflorescences are mature, the panicle opens and rises above the other foliage (Campbell et al. 2010, Forest Health Staff 2006). The dark brown seeds are 1.5-2 mm in length, egg-shaped, and smooth except for a deep, slender furrow down the middle (IPANE 2004). Seeds dispersed in the fall will likely germinate the following spring; however, seeds can remain dormant and viable in the soil for several years (King County 2012).
During the winter, reed mannagrass becomes dormant. In early spring, regrowth occurs from rhizomes buds (King County 2012).


Means of Introduction: This species is thought to have been introduced intentionally as a forage species in some cases (Barkworth et al. 2000, USEPA 2008).  Alternative pathways may include ornamental introductions or seeds hitchhiking with packing material, migrating waterfowl or workers and/or their equipment.


Status: Established in the Great Lakes region.


Great Lakes Impacts:  

Glyceria maxima has a moderate environmental impact in the Great Lakes.

Realized:
Glyceria maxima invades numerous wetland ecosystems: swamps, lakes, ponds, slow-moving rivers and creeks, ditches, and wet meadows (Boos et al. 2010). Early emergence in spring and rapid growth enables this species to outcompete other wetland plants (Buttery and Lambert 1965, King County 2012). Glyceria maxima can form monospecific stands and reduce plant diversity along the shore to a depth of about 15 cm (Andersson 2001, Boos et al. 2010, Forest Health Staff 2006). Reed mannagrass is not a suitable food source or nesting site for many wetland species. Expansion of G. maxima degrades the ecological dynamics in the wetland (Forest Health Staff 2006). The displacement of native vegetative often leads to an altered macroinvertebrate community, which can impact the entire food web for the ecosystem (King County 2012).

Glyceria maxima has an extensive system of roots and rhizomes (King County 2012).Dense populations of this species create rhizomal mats that can trap sediment faster than native species. This increased sedimentation can alter the flow of water, restrict or clog small waterway and drainages, and cause flooding (Forest Health Staff 2006, King County 2012).

Potential:
The availability of organic material and denitrifying capacity is high in G. maxima dominant ecosystems (Kallner Bastviken et al. 2007). Glyceria maxima also uptakes available ammonium, which further decreases nitrifying activities (Bodelier et al. 1998). As G. maxima increases in a habitat, the availability of nitrogen in the soil could decrease.

Glyceria maxima may also be a competitive threat to native species of mannagrass. Native species listed as threatened or endangered in at least one Great Lakes state include G. acutiflora Torr., G. arkansana Fernald, G. borealis (Nash) Batchelder, G. grandis S. Watson, and G. obtusa (Muhl.) Trin (PLANTS Team 2012).

There is little or no evidence to support that Glyceria maxima has significant socio-economic impacts in the Great Lakes.

Realized:
Glyceria maxima has been used as forage, however cattle may experience cyanide poisoning if allowed to graze on young shoots (Boos et al. 2010, King County 2012).

Potential:
Large populations of G. maxima can impede water flow, alter hydrology, and restrict access to natural waterways, irrigation, and drainage channels. Reduced flow rates in waterways from siltation and debris build-up also creates breeding habitat for mosquitoes. In Tasmania, populations of G. maxima have created so much additional silt (from reduced water flow) that shallow dams have become useless (Department of Primary Industries 2012).

There is little or no evidence to support that Glyceria maxima has significant beneficial effects in the Great Lakes.

Realized:
Glyceria maxima is sold and used as an ornamental plant (King County 2012).
In areas where G. maxima begins growth early in the season, it can out-compete Phragmites australis (Studer-Ehrenseberger et al. 1993).

Potential:
Glyceria maxima tolerates low oxygen concentrations and thrives in eutrophic environments, making it an ideal species for artificial wetland systems (Sunblad and Robertson 1988). Glyceria maxima has been used to treat the wastewater from swine farms in integrated constructed wetlands (ICW) in Ireland. During an 18-month study, the ICW successfully removed 98.1-99.9% of the ammonia-nitrogen (Harrington et al. 2012). In other ICWs planted with only G. maxima, there was significant reduction in total organic nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, and molybdate reactive phosphorus (Harrington and Scholz 2010). In experiments by Sundblad and Robertson (1988) in the Czech Republic, harvesting G. maxima increased nutrient recovery from wastewater.


Management: Regulations (pertaining to the Great Lakes region

Glyceria maxima poses a high ecological threat to ecosystems; therefore, the New York Invasive Species Council recommends that this species be prohibited (New York Invasive Species Council 2010). The New Invaders Watch Program lists G. maxima on its “watch list” for Illinois (Maurer 2009). Glyceria maxima is prohibited from transport, transfer, or introduction in Wisconsin; however, there are exceptions made for several counties (Bureua of Plant Industry 2012).

The Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission (GLIFWC) has not detected G. maxima within its territories. To keep it from invading, the GLIFWC recommends controlling any individuals of this species immediately (Falck and Garske 2003).

Note: Check federal, state/provincial, and local regulations for the most up-to-date information.

Control
Glyceria maxima is a perennial species; therefore, populations may require treatment for two to three years for complete control (USACE 2011a).

Biological
There are no known biological control methods for this species.

Physical
Small infestations of G. maxima can be dug up; care should be taken to remove all parts of the roots and rhizomes (Forest Health Staff 2006). Subsequent removal of seedlings germinated from the seed bank or missed rhizomes pieces may be necessary (King Country 2012). Small, dense communities of reed mannagrass can also be controlled by being covered with black plastic for 5 or 6 weeks during the growing season (Forest Health Staff 2006).

The vegetative spread of larger populations can be controlled by repeated mowing, cutting, harvesting, roto-tilling, or rotovating (Sundblad and Robertson 1988, USACE 2011b). Where applicable, these treatment methods can be supplemented with artificially created flood conditions (Hroudová and Zákravský 1999). Mowing or cutting two to three times a summer may deplete the energy reserves in the roots and rhizomes. This may reduce G. maxima’s ability to compete and allow other vegetation to expand into the site (King County 2012).

Chemical
A foliar spray of glyphosate (3% solution) applied early to late summer will control populations of G. maxima (King County 2012, USACE 2011a). Rhizomes may survive after initial spraying (USACE 2011a). Braverman (1996) found that glyphosate at 2 kg ai/ha and dalapon (2,2 dichloropropanoic acid) at 10 kg ai/ha controlled G. maxima. Imazapyr is most effective on reed mannagrass when applied in summer or early fall and when water levels are low and plant stems are not submerged (King County 2012, USACE 2011a).

In floating fens in the Netherlands, sulfate was experimentally added to the soil. This caused the free sulfide concentration to increase and resulted in a decrease in the growth of G. maxima (Loeb et al. 2007).

For more information on chemical control methods please see the Pacific Northwest Weed Management Handbook (http://pnwhandbooks.org/weed/agronomic/grass-seed-crops/annual-and-perennial-ryegrass)

Other
For large populations, herbicide treatment will be an effective option. If the decaying plant material falls into a nearby body of water and decomposes, the dissolved oxygen levels could decrease. To avoid this, dead plant material should be removed two to four weeks after herbicides have been applied (King County 2012).

Note: Check state/provincial and local regulations for the most up-to-date information regarding permits for control methods. Follow all label instructions


References: (click for full references)

Andersson, B. 2001. Macrophyte development and habitat characteristics in Sweden's large lakes. Ambio (Sweden) 30(8): 503—513.

Anderson, J.E. and A.A. Reznicek. 1994. Glyceria maxima (Poaceae) in New England. Rhodora 96:97—101.

Barkworth, M. E., K. M. Capels, and L. A. Vorobik (Eds). 2000. Manual of Grasses for North America North of Mexico. Utah State University, Logan, Utah, USA. Available http://www.herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/default.htm Accessed 22 March 2003.

Bodelier, P.L.E., H. Duyts, C.W.P.M. Blom, H.J. Laanbroek. 1998. Interactions between nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in gnotobiotic microcosms plants with the emergent macrophyte Glyceria maxima. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 25: 63—79. Available http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/%28ISSN%291574-6941. Accessed 18 June 2012.

Boos, T., K. Kearns, C. LeClair, B. Panke, B. Scriver, and B. Williams (eds). 2010. A field guide to terrestrial invasive plants in Wisconsin. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Madison, WI.

Braverman, M.P. 1996. Control of mannagrass (Glyceria declineata) and southern watergrass (Luziola fluitans) in water-seeded rice (Oryza sativa). Weed Technology 10(1):68—71.

Bureau of Plant Industry. 2012. Summary of Plant Protection Regulations: Wisconsin. Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection. Madison, WI. 12 pp.

Buttery, B.R., and J.M. Lambert. 1965. Competition beternn Glyceria maxima and Phragmites communis in the region of Surlingham Broad: I. the competition mechanism. Journal of Ecology 53(1):163—181.

Campbell, S., P. Higman, B. Slaughter, and E. Schools. 2010. A Field Guide to Invasive Plants of Aquatic and Wetland Habitats for Michigan. Michigan DNRE, Michigan State University Extension, Michigan Natural Features Inventory. 90 pp.

Clarke, A., P.S. Lake and D.J. O'Dowd. 2004. Ecological impacts on aquatic macroinvertebrates following upland stream invasion by a ponded pasture grass (Glyceria maxima) in southern Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 55(7):709—713.

Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment. 2012. Glyceria, Reed Sweet Grass (Glyceria maxima-Poa aquatica [Hartm.] Holmb.) Control Guide. Invasive Species. Available http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/RPIO-4ZV7D8?open. Accessed 20 August 2012.

Falck, M., and S. Garske. 2003. Invasive Non-native Plant Management During 2002. Administrative Report 02-12. Great Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission (GLIFWC). Odanah, WI. 68 pp.

Forest Health Staff. 2006. Reed Mannagrass: Glyceria maxima (Hartman) Holmb. Weed of the Week. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Newtown, PA. 1 pp.

Harrington, C., M. Scholz, N. Culleton, and P.G. Lawlor. 2012. The use of integrated constructed wetlands (ICW) for the treatment of separated swine wastewaters. Hydrobiologia 692(1):111—119.

Harrington, C., and M. Scholz. 2010. Assessment of pre-digested piggery wastewater treatment operations with surface flow integrated constructed wetland systems. Bioresource Technology 101(18):6950—6960.

Hroudová, Z., and P. Zákravský. 1999. Vegetation dynamic in a fishpond littoral related to human impact. Hydrobiologia 415: 139—145.

Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE). 2004. Glyceria maxima (Reed mannagrass, Reed sweetgrass). Catalog of Species. University of Connecticut. Available http://www.invasive.org/weedcd/pdfs/ipane/Glyceriamaxima.pdf. Accessed 20 August 2012.

Kallner Bastviken, S., P.G. Eriksson, A. Ekström, and K. Tonderski. 2007. Seasonal denitrification potential in wetland sediments with organic matter from different plants species. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 183:25—35.

King County Noxious Weed Control Program. 2012. Reed sweetgrass: Glyceria maxima. Noxious Weeds. King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks. Available http://www.kingcounty.gov/environment/animalsAndPlants/noxious-weeds/weed-identification/reed-sweetgrass.aspx. Accessed 6 August 2012.

Lawniczak, A.E., J. Zbierska, A. Choinski, and W. Szczepaniak. 2010. Response of emergent macrophytes to hydrological changes in a shallow lake, with special reference to nutrient cycling. Hydrobiologia 656:243—254.

Loeb, R., E. van Daalen, L.P.M. Lamers, and J.G.M. Roelofs. 2007. How soils characteristics and water quality influence the biogeochemical response to flooding in riverine wetlands. Biogeochemistry 85(3):289—302.

Maurer, D. 2009. Stopping New Invasive Plants in Their Tracks. New Invaders Watch Program, Outdoor Illinois. 3 pp.

Midwest Invasive Plant Network (MIPN.org). 2008. Keep a Look Out for New Aquatic Invasive Plants in the Midwest! National Park Service. 2 pp.

New York Invasive Species Council. 2010. Final report: a regulatory system for non-native species. Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY. 131 pp.

PLANTS Team. 2012. Threatened & Endangered. PLANTS Database. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). Available http://plants.usda.gov/threat.html. Accessed 20 August 2012.

van der Putten, W.H., B.A.M. Peters, and M.S. van den Berg. 1997. Effects of litter on substrate conditions and growth of emergent macrophytes. New Phytologist 135:527—537.

Studer-Ehrensberger, K., C. Studer, and R.M.M. Crawford. 1993. Competition at community boundaries: mechanisms of vegetation structure in a dune-slack complex. Functional Ecology 7(2):156—168.

Sunblad, K., and K. Robertson. 1988. Harvesting reed sweetgrass (Glyceria maxima, Poaceae): effects on growth and rhizome storage of carbohydrates. Economic Botany 42(4): 495—502.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). 2011a. Aquatic Herbicides. 8 pp.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). 2011b. Manual harvest and mechanical control methods. 9 pp.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 2008. Predicting future introductions of nonindigenous species to the Great Lakes. Washington, DC. 138 pp.

Wei, A. & P. Chow-Fraser. 2006. Synergistic impact of water level fluctuation and invasion of Glyceria on Typha in a freshwater marsh of Lake Ontario. Aquatic Botany 84(2006): 63—69.

Westlake, D.F. 1966. The biomass and productivity of Glyceria maxima: I. seasonal changes in biomass. Journal of Ecology 54(3):745—753.


Author: Berent, L., and V.M. Howard


Contributing Agencies:
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Revision Date: 8/22/2012


Citation for this information:
Berent, L., and V.M. Howard, 2019, Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holmb.: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, and NOAA Great Lakes Aquatic Nonindigenous Species Information System, Ann Arbor, MI, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/greatLakes/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=1120&Potential=N&Type=0&HUCNumber=DGreatLakes, Revision Date: 8/22/2012, Access Date: 3/18/2019

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.