Pistia stratiotes L.

Common Name: Water lettuce

Synonyms and Other Names:

water-lettuce, water cabbage




Russell Engel - Arizona Game and Fish DepartmentCopyright Info

Identification:  

Stem/Roots: Pistia stratiotes is a free-floating, herbaceous monocot with a rosette of gray-green leaves, resembling a head of lettuce (thus the common name), occurring as a single plant or connected to others by stolons (Dressler et al. 1987; Langeland and Burks 1998). Roots numerous and feathery.

Leaves: Leaves are ovate to obovate, up to 15 cm in length, without a leaf stalk, spongy near the leaf base, densely pubescent, with deeply furrowed parallel veins and wavy leaf margins (Godfrey and Wooten 1981; Dressler et al. 1987; Langeland and Burks 1998).

Flowers: Flowers inconspicuous, perfect, clustered in leaf axils with a single female flower and multiple male flowers (Langeland and Burks 1998).

Fruit/Seeds: Produces abundant seeds with high percentage of seed viability (Dray and Center 1989a, 1989b).

Look-a-likes: none


Size: Rosette generally 6 to 30 cm in diameter (Godfrey and Wooten 1981)


Native Range: The species is pantropical, occurring on all continents except Antarctica (Adebayo et al. 2011). The center of origin for P. stratiotes is unknown. Fossil records for this species can be found around the globe (Stoddard 1989). Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics depict the plant and Greek botanists Dioscorides and Theophrastus described the plant floating on the Nile River more than 2,000 years ago, indicating African origin (Stoddard 1989). Pistia stratiotes in Brazil and Argentina host a large number of co-evolved specialist insect herbivores suggesting a South American origin (Center et al. 2002). In North America, both John and William Bartram described P. stratiotes as early as 1765 and 1773, respectively, along the St. Johns River in Florida, up to 300 river km upstream of the ocean inlet where any ballast material would likely have been deposited from trans-oceanic ships (Bartram and Harper 1942; Bartram and Harper 1943). Since plants were found so far upstream from known seaports, a rationale for Florida nativity has been suggested (Evans 2013). Late Pleistocene/early Holocene fossil records for this species in Florida lend support for this contention (Stoddard 1989; Evans 2013).


Ecology: Pistia stratiotes is a free-floating, fast growing, obligate aquatic that can form vast, dense floating mats, covering the entire water surface of lakes and slow moving rivers (Langeland and Burks 1998). It is the sole species of this genus. In tropical and subtopical climates it is a perennial. In temperate regions the plant behaves as an annual, returning after the winter months from submersed seeds. This species does not tolerate freezing temperatures, although its seeds can survive submerged in water that is 4°C for at least 2 months (Parsons and Cuthbertson 2001). Pistia stratiotes has a low saline tolerance; plants cannot survive in waters with more than 2.5 ppt salinity (Sculthorpe 1967; Haller et al. 1974).

Pistia stratiotes reproduces rapidly by vegetative fragmentation from offshoots on short, brittle stolons. Seed production is also considered a major method of reproduction and dispersal (Dray and Center 1989a, 1989b). Plants can be solitary rosettes, or may have more than a dozen stolon-connected ramets or daughter plants.  Standing crop may be as high as 2 kg/m2 at the peak of the growing season (Dray and Center 1992). Although vegetative reproduction is thought to be the primary means of propagation, seed crop has been reported to be in excess of 700 seeds/m2 in a stand at a south Florida location, with greater than 80% seed viability (Dray and Center 1989a, 1989b).


Means of Introduction: The origin of Pistia stratiotes is contentious. Some argue the species is native to North America due to fossil evidence (Evans 2013), while others agree it was dispersed by transcontinental bird migrations (Stoddard 1989) or by dry ballast during early European colonization of North America (Stuckey and Les 1984; Schmitz et al. 1993; Dray and Center 2002).  

Pistia stratiotes was sold through aquarium and pond supply dealers, both online and in retail garden centers (Rixon et al. 2005); it is still offered for sale online and in several states (Rebecca Howard, USGS, pers. comm.). New introductions are probably the result of improper disposal of ornamental pond plants or waters, or when ponds adjacent to local water bodies overflow (Adebayo et al. 2011).


Status: Established in southern states (Alabama, Arizona, California, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas) where plants may overwinter and also germinate from seed (Dray and Center 1989). Plants north of the Gulf states (Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Wisconsin) likely do not overwinter, and are either extirpated, eradicated, or survive by seed production; the exception being Idaho where populations have established in a hot spring-fed river (Tom Woolf, ID Dept. of Ag., pers.comm.).


Great Lakes Impacts: Pistia stratiotes has a high probability of introduction to the Great Lakes (Confidence level: Moderate).

Potential pathway(s) of introduction: Dispersal, hitchhiking/fouling, unauthorized release, stocking/planting/escape from recreational culture

Pistia stratiotes occurs in close proximity to the Great Lakes basin. It is found during spring through the fall in Lake St. Clair (Adebayo et al. 2011), Detroit River, and inland waters in Ontario, Ohio, New York, and Minnesota (Cochran et al. 2006).

Pistia stratiotes spreads via vegetative fragmentation and water dispersal. Fragments or seeds of P. stratiotes may potentially be introduced to the Great Lakes by dispersal. Pistia stratiotes can be unintentionally transported to the Great Lakes by hitchhiking on boats and recreational equipment.

This species is common in the aquarium trade (Parsons and Cuthbertson 2001). According to a study on aquarium and pet stores near Lakes Erie and Ontario, 20% of stores surveyed carried Pistia stratiotes (Rixon et al. 2005). Pistia stratiotes may be released into the Great Lakes when aquarists dispose this plant into waterways. This species is planted in water gardens and may be unintentionally introduced to the Great Lakes. It is unknown whether this species is commercially cultured in the Great Lakes region. Pistia stratiotes is not known to be taken up or transported by ballast water.

Pistia stratiotes has a moderate probability of establishment if introduced to the Great Lakes (Confidence level: High).

Pistia stratiotes inhabits tropical and subtropical lakes, reservoirs, and slow-flowing streams (Parsons and Cuthbertson 2001). Pistia stratiotes does best in warm waters, as it is killed by frost. Pistia stratiotes exhibits optimal growth at water temperatures of 22-30°C (Kasselmann 1995). It can tolerate temperatures as low as 15°C and as high as 35°C. This species has been observed to overwinter in the Erft River, Germany; the water temperature in that river is abnormally warm (>11°C) and only leaves that remained submerged survived (Hussner et al. 2014). Its seeds can survive for at least 2 months in water at 4°C and for a few weeks in ice at -5°C (Parsons and Cuthbertson 2001); its seeds have the potential to overwinter in the Great Lakes. Pistia stratiotes reproduces rapidly though seed production and vegetative fragmentation. Its short, brittle stolons that are involved in vegetative fragmentation may aid its establishment in the Great Lakes.

Pistia stratiotes has a widespread distribution encompassing 40 countries (Holm 1991), and occurs on every continent except Antarctica. This species is capable of expanding its distribution quickly. After 1 year, this species had rapidly spread and covered an entire lake (Sridhar and Sharma 1980, Venema 2001).

The native and introduced ranges of P. stratiotes have somewhat similar climatic and abiotic conditions as the Great Lakes; the Great Lakes may have lower air temperatures and lower water temperatures. The effects of climate change may make the Great Lakes a more suitable environment for the establishment of P. stratiotes. Warmer water temperatures and shorter duration of ice cover may aid the establishment of P. stratiotes. Freshwater lakes and slow-flowing streams in the Great Lakes may provide suitable habitats for P. stratiotes.

Pistia stratiotes has outcompeted other species where it has been introduced. Three years after it was first observed in Slovenia, it had covered the whole water surface and populations of native freshwater plants, Ceratophyllum demersum, Myriophyllum spicatum, Najas marina, and Trapa natans, had declined (Šajna et al. 2007).

Surveillance and management efforts are currently underway to detect, control, and/or eradicate this plant in Michigan (MI DEQ 2013) and Wisconsin (Falk et al. 2010). However, a basin-wide monitoring program is lacking (Dupre 2011).

Pistia stratiotes has the potential for high environmental impact if introduced to the Great Lakes.

Pistia stratiotes may have detrimental impacts on other species and the environment. Pistia stratiotes produces α-asarone, a phenylpropanoid with antialgal activity (Aliotta et al. 1991), so it may interfere with the growth processes in algae. Pistia stratiotes causes high evapotranspiration rates where it occurs (Sharma 1984). By growing in dense mats, P. stratiotes can shade out and reduce the amount of light available to submerged macrophytes and planktonic algae (Attionu 1976). In addition, its dense cover may reduce water temperature, reduce pH, promote stratification, and inhibit mixing of the water by wind (Attionu 1976). As a result of its inhibition of hydrophyte and algal growth, the respiratory activity of its roots, decomposition when it dies, and the restriction of wind-generated mixing, P. stratiotes can reduce the amount of dissolved oxygen where it occurs (Attionu 1976, Šajna et al. 2007, Sridhar and Sharma 1986). It is suspected that the oxygen and light limitations caused by P. stratiotes may have killed native plants, fish, and wildlife (FL DEP 2007). Three years after P. stratiotes was first observed in Slovenia, there was a decline in native freshwater plants (Ceratophyllum demersum, Myriophyllum spicatum, Najas marina, and Trapa natans) (Šajna et al. 2007).

Pistia stratiotes has the potential for high socio-economic impact if introduced to the Great Lakes.

Pistia stratiotes is among the world’s worst weeds (Holm 1991) and has received significant media attention (e.g. de la Cruz 2014, Spear 2014).

Pistia stratiotes mats provide habitat for disease carrying mosquitos, such as malaria vectors Anopheles and Mansonia (FL DEP 2007, Lounibos and Dewald 1989, Parsons and Cuthbertson 2001, Rejmankova et al. 1991). Mansonia larvae perforate leaves and roots of P. stratiotes to reach air chambers (Lounibos and Dewald 1989). Taeniorhynchus (Mansonioides) africanus and Anopheles gambiae breed in ponds and streams that are clogged with P. stratiotes (Philip 1930).

Pistia stratiotes causes damages to infrastructure. Infestations of this species can block waterways, reducing the efficiency of irrigation and hydroelectric power (Howard and Harley 1998). Dense mats of P. straiotes reduce water flow, damages flood control structures, and can create dams against bridges (FL DEP 2007). Pistia stratiotes may impact recreation, as it interferes with navigation and fishing (Labrada and Fornasari 2002). Florida spent about $1.4 million dollars in 2005-2006 to treat P. stratiotes (FL DEP 2007).

Pistia stratiotes has the potential for moderate beneficial impact if introduced to the Great Lakes.

This plant has the fiber content, carbohydrate, and crude protein levels that are comparable with quality forages (Parsons and Cuthbertson 2001). This plant can be fed to pigs, but cows find it unpalatable. Pistia stratiotes is valued as an ornamental plant in water gardens. Research has been conducted to utilize this species for biofuels and water remediation (Lu et al. 2010, Mishima et al. 2008). Pistia stratiotes is used in Ayurvedic medicine for its diuretic, antidiabetic, and antidermatophytic, antifungal and antimicrobial properties.


Management: Regulations (pertaining to the Great Lakes region)

This species is prohibited in Illinois. It is not prohibited in Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Quebec, or Wisconsin (Great Lakes Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species 2012).

Note: Check federal, state/provincial, and local regulations for the most up-to-date information.

Control

Biological
Research has been conducted to investigate biological control techniques such as the utilization of specialist herbivores (e.g. Spodoptera pectinicornis, Neohydronomus affinis) (Cilliers 1991, Wheeler et al. 1998). A South American beetle, Neohydronomus affinis was released in Australia and reduced P. stratiotes infestations by 40% or more within 12-18 months (Harley et al. 1990).

Physical
Mechanical harvestors and chopping machines can help remove water lettuce from the water and dispose after grinding the plant down to bits (Ramey 2001). The resulting slurry is then sprayed over the water.

Chemical
In general, the most common herbicides used to control water lettuce are herbicides with the active ingredient diquat or glyphosphate (Howard and Harley 1998). Herbicides may cause weed die-off and subsequent decomposition that may remove dissolved oxygen from the water. Herbicides might not be able to kill the seeds of the floating aquatic weed.

Note: Check state/provincial and local regulations for the most up-to-date information regarding permits for control methods. Follow all label instructions.


References: (click for full references)

Adam, M.D., M.C. Colwell, J. Marencik, and M.A. Pfister. 2001. 2000 Summary report of Grandwood Park Lake - Lake County, Illinois. Lake Co Health Department Environmenal Health Services Lakes Management Unit, Waukegan, IL. http://www.co.lake.il.us/health/pdfs/ehs/lakereports/grndwood.pdf.

Adam, M., C.L. Brant, M. Colwell, J. Marencik, and M. Pfister. 2004. 2003 Summary report of Flint Lake - Lake County, Illinois. Lake Co Health Department Environmenal Health Services Lakes Management Unit, Waukegan, IL. http://www.co.lake.il.us/health/pdfs/ehs/lakereports/FlintLake.pdf.

Adebayo, A.A., E. Briski, O. Kalaci, M. Hernandez, S. Ghabooli, B. Beric, F.T. Chan, A. Zhan, E. Fifield, T. Leadley, and H.J. MacIsaac. 2011. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) in the Great Lakes: playing with fire? Aquatic Invasions 6(1):91-96.

Aliotta, G., P. Monaco, G. Pinto, A. pollio, and L. Previtera. 1991. Potential allelochemicals from Pistia stratiotes L. Journal of Chemical Ecology 17(11): 2223-2234.

Anderson, L.C. (curator). 2001. Herbarium Specimen Voucher Data, Florida State University (FSU), Herbarium. Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL. http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu/.

Aquatic Resources Education Center. 1995. List of Aquatic Plants found in Delaware Ponds 1973-1995. Division of Fish and Wildlife, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE.

Attionu, R.H. 1976. Some effects of waters lettuce (Pistia stratiotes, L.) on its habitat. Hydrobiologia 50(3): 245-254.

Aurand, D. 1982. Nuisance Aquatic Plants and Aquatic Plant Management Programs in the United States. Volume 2, Southeast. The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA.

Balgie, S., W. Crowell, S. Enger, D. Hoverson, J. Hunt, G. Montz, A. Pierce, J. Rendall, R. Rezanka, L. Skinner D. Swanson, C. Welling, and H. Wolf. 2010. Invasive species of aquatic plants and wild animals in Minnesota: annual report for 2009. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, MN.

Bartram, J., and F. Harper. 1942. Diary of a journey through the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida from July 1, 1765, to April 10, 1766. Volume 33 part 1. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, PA.

Bartram, W., and F. Harper. 1943. Travels in Georgia, and Florida, 1773-74. A report to Dr. John Fothergill. Volume 33 part 2. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, PA.

Calflora. 2015. The Calflora Database. http://www.calflora.org/. Accessed on 12/04/2015.

Center, T.D., F.A. Dray, Jr., G.P. Jubinsky and M.J. Grodowitz. 2002. Insects and other arthropods that feed on aquatic and wetland plants. USDA/ARS Technical Bulletin.

Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. 2015. EDDMapS: Early detection and distribution mapping system. The University of Georgia, Tifton, GA. http://www.eddmaps.org.

Cilliers, C.J. 1991. Biological control of water lettuce, Pistia stratiotes (Araceae), in South Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment 37(1-3): 225-229.

Cochran, P.A., S. Pociask, H. Warthesen, and N. Proulx. 2006. Noteworthy collection Minnesota. The Michigan Botanist 45: 210-213.

Conover, M. 2007. The Quarterly Newsletter. Long Island Botanical Society. Aquebogue, NY. 2007 (Winter):8 pp. www.sciencenterprise.org/libsnewsletters/v17n1.pdf. Accessed on 07/01/2008.

Consortium of California Herbaria. 2014. Consortium of California Herbaria. Consortium of California Herbaria, Berkeley, CA. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/4fa894f4-b6c6-4ec0-b816-9bb03b3ca106. Created on 01/10/2014. Accessed on 11/20/2015.

de la Cruz, A. 2014. Va CNA contra la plaga del ‘repollito’. Conexion Total August 12, 2014. Available at http://conexiontotal.mx/2014/08/12/va-cna-contra-la-plaga-del-repollito/. Accessed 22 August 2014.

Diggs, G.M., Jr., B.L. Lipscomb, and R.J. O'Kennon. 1999. Shinners and Mahler's Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas. Botanical Research Institute of Texas (BRIT), Fort Worth, Texas.

Dray, Jr., F.A., and T.D. Center. 1989a. Seed production by Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce) in the United States. Aquatic Botany 33(1-2):155-160.

Dray, Jr., F.A., and T.D. Center. 1989b. Waterlettuce seeds in the U.S. Aquatics 11(4):18-21. http://www.fapms.org/aquatics/issues/1989winter.pdf.

Dray, Jr., F.A., and T.D. Center. 1992. Biological control of Pistia stratiotes L. (waterlettuce) using Neohydronomus affinis Hustache (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Technical Report A-92-1, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

Dray, Jr., F.A., and T.D. Center. 2002. Waterlettuce. Pages 65-78 in Van Driesche, R., B. Blossey, M. Hoddle, S. Lyon, and R. Reardon, eds. Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States, USDA Forest Service Publication FHTET-2002-04. USDA Forest Service. Morgantown, WV.

Dressler, R.L., D.W. Hall, K.D. Perkins, and N.H. Williams. 1987. Identification manual for wetland plant species of Florida. 1st edition. Vascular Plant Herbarium, Florida State Museum and UF/IFAS, Gainesville, FL.

Dupre, S. 2011. An assessment of early detection monitoring and risk assessments for aquatic invasive species in the Great Lakes- St.Lawrence Basin. Prepared for the IJC Work Group on Aquatic Invasive Species Rapid Response. Available at http://meeting.ijc.org/sites/default/files/workgroups/RAandMonitoringJuly29.pdf. Accessed 20 August 2014.

Evans, J.M. 2013. Pistia stratiotes L. in the Florida Peninsula: biogeographic evidence and conservation implications of native tenure for an ‘invasive’ aquatic plant. Conservation and Society 11(3):233-246.

Falck, M., S. Garske, and D. Olson. 2010. Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission Invasive Species Program 2009. Administrative Report 10-11. Available at http://www.glifwc.org/Reports/Administrative%20Report%2010-11.pdf. Accessed 20 August 2014.
 
FL DEP (Florida Department of Environmental Protection). 2007. Status of the Aquatic Plant Maintenance Program in Florida Public Waters: Annual Report Fiscal Year 2005-2006. Bureau of Invasive Plant Management. Available at http://www.floridainvasives.org/toolbox/reports/aquaticsfy05-06.pdf. Accessed 20 August 2014.

Freeman, C.C. 2000. Vascular plants new to three states in the central United States. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 103(1/2):51-54. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3627937.

GISD (Global Invasive Species Database). 2005. Pistia stratiotes (aquatic plant). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. Available at http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=285&fr=1&sts=&lang=EN. Accessed 20 August 2014.

Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of the Southeastern United States, dicotyledons. University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

Great Lakes Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species. 2012. Prohibited species in the Great Lakes region. Available at http://www.michigan.gov/documents/deq/wrd-ais-regulated-species_390473_7.pdf. Accessed 11 August 2014.

Grodowitz, M. J., W. Johnson, and L. D. Nelson. 1992. Status of biological control of waterlettuce in Louisiana and Texas using Insects. Miscellaneous Paper A-92-3. U.S. Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

Hall, J.B., and D.U.U. Okali. 1974. Phenology and productivity of Pistia stratiotes L. on the Volta Lake, Ghana. Journal of Applied Ecology 11(2): 709-725.

Haller, W.T, D.L. Sutton, W.C. Barlowe,. 1974. Effects of salinity on growth of several aquatic macrophytes. Ecology 55(4):891-894.

Hansen, B.F. (curator). 1999. Herbarium specimen voucher data, University of South Florida Herbarium (USF). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL. http://www.florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/.

Harley, K.L.S. 1990. Production of viable seeds by water lettuce, Pistia stratiotes L. in Australia. Aquatic Botany 36: 277-279

Harley, K.L.S., R.C. Kassulke, D.P.A. Sands, and M.D. Day. 1990. Biological control of water lettuce, Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) by Neohydronomus affinis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Entomophaga 35(3): 363-374.

Hartmann, L.H. 1994. Prohibited plants on increase in Southeast Texas. Texas Aquatic Plant Management Society, Inc. http://www.tapms.org/newsletter/.

Helton, R.J., and L.H. Hartmann. 1996. Statewide Aquatic Vegetation Survey Summary, 1995 Report. Inland Fisheries Division, District 3-E, Jasper, Texas.

Hodgson, W. (curator). 2015. Desert Botanical Garden Herbarium (DES). Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix, AZ. http://www.dbg.org/.

Holm, L.G. 1991. The world’s worst weeds: distribution and biology. Krieger Publishing Co.

Howard, G.W., and K.L.S. Harley. 1998. How do floating aquatic weeds affect wetland conservation and development? How can these effects be minimized? Wetland Ecology and Management 5: 215-225.

Hussner, A., P. Heidbuechel, and S. Heiligtag. 2014. Vegetative overwintering and viable seed production explain the establishment of invasive Pistia stratiotes in the thermally abnormal Erft River (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany). Aquatic Botany 119: 28-32.

Kasselmann, C. 1995. Aquarienpflanzen. Eger Ulmer GMBH & Co., Stuttgart.

Labrada, R., and L. Fornasari. 2002. Management of problematic aquatic weeds in Africa. FAO Efforts and Achievements During the Period  1991-2001. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

Langeland, K.A., and K.C. Burks (eds.). 1998. Identification and biology of non-native plants found in Florida's natural areas. 1st edition. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Lemke, D.E. 1989. Aquatic macrophytes of the Upper San Marcos River, Hays Co., Texas. Southwestern Naturalist 34(2):289-291.

Louisiana State University Herbarium. 2010. Louisiana State University Herbarium - Vascular Plants. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/56e9c560-bd2a-11dd-b15e-b8a03c50a862. Created on 05/03/2010. Accessed on 11/20/2015.

Lounibos, L.P., and R.L. Escher. 1985. Mosquitoes associated with water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) in southeastern Florida. The Florida Entomologist 68(1):169-178.

Lounibos, L.P., and L.B. Dewald. 1989. Oviposition site selection by Mansonia mosquitos on Water Lettuce. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

Lu, Q., Z.L. He, D.A. Graetz, P.J. Stoffela, X. Yang. 2010. Phytoremediation to remove nutrients and improve eutrophic stormwaters using water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.). Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 17(1): 84-96.

Madsen, J.D. 2010. Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth. Geosystems Research Institute, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS. http://www.gri.msstate.edu/ipams/.

Mehrhoff, L. 1996. Hawaiian flowering plants checklist. The State Museum of Natural and Cultural History, Honolulu, HI. http://wwwbishophawaiiorg. Created on 03/12/1996.

MI DEQ (Michigan Department of Environmental Quality). 2013. Michigan’s Aquatic Invasive Species State Management Plan 2013 Update: Prevention, Detection, and Management in Michigan Waters. Avaiable at http://www.michigan.gov/documents/deq/wrd-ais-smp-public-review_380166_7.pdf. Accessed 20 August 2014.

Michigan State University. 2015. Midwest Invasive Species Information Network (MISIN). Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. http://www.misin.msu.edu/browse/. Accessed on 12/04/2015.

Mishima, D., M. Kuniki, K. Sei, S. Soda, M. Ike, and M. Fujita. 2008. Ethanol production from candidate energy crops: Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.). Bioresource Technology 99: 2495-2500.

Mississippi Museum of Natural Science. 2016. Mississippi Museum of Natural Science Herbarium (MMNS). Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries and Parks, Jackson, MS. https://www.mdwfp.com/seek-study/bio-collections/plants.aspx.

Missouri Botanical Garden. 2007. Missouri Botanical Garden. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/7bd65a7a-f762-11e1-a439-00145eb45e9a. Created on 04/02/2007. Accessed on 11/20/2015.

Naturalis Biodiversity Center. 2013. Naturalis Biodiversity Center (NL) - Botany Leiden. Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, Netherlands. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/10791a2e-9980-49b6-b83e-86643d609b02. Created on 12/23/2013. Accessed on 11/20/2015.

Nelson, J.B. 1993. Noteworthy Collections: South Carolina. Castanea 58(1):59-60.

New York Botanical Garden. 2015. The New York Botanical Garden Herbarium (NY) - Vascular Plant Collection. The New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/d415c253-4d61-4459-9d25-4015b9084fb0. Created on 06/18/2015. Accessed on 11/20/2015.

Parsons, W.T., and E.G. Cuthbertson. 2001. Noxious Weeds of Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, VIC, Australia.

Petr, T. 2000. Interactions between fish and aquatic macrophytes in inland waters. A review. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 396, Rome, FAO. http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/x7580e/x7580e00.htm.

Philip, C. 1930. Studies on the transmission of experimental yellow fever by mosquitos other than Aedes. American Journal of Tropical Medicine 10(1): 1-16.

Pieterse, A.H., L. De Lange and L. Verhagen. 1981. A study on certain aspects of seed germination and growth of Pistia stratiotes L. Acta. Bot. Neerl. 30(1/2): 47-57.

Potter, D. (director), and E. Dean (curator). 2015. U.C. Davis Center for Plant Diversity. The Regents of the University of California, Davis, CA. http://herbarium.ucdavis.edu/collections.html. Accessed on 04/11/2016.

Ramey, V. 2001a. "Pistia stratiotes - Non-Native Invasive Aquatic Plants in the United States." Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of Florida and Sea Grant.  August 2001. Accessed 12/07/2007.<http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/seagrant/pisstr2.html#pauthor>.

Ramey, V. 2001b. Water lettuce (Pistia stratiotesi). Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of Florida, IFAS. Available at http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/node/328. Accessed 20 August 2014.

Rejmankova, E., H.M. Savage, M. Rejmanek, J.I. Arrendondo-Jimenez, and D.R. Roberts. 1991. Multivariate analysis of relationships between habitats, environmental factors, and occurrence of Anopheline mosquito larvae Anopheles albimanus and A. pseudopunctipennis in southern Chiapas, Mexico. Journal of Applied Ecology 28: 827-841.

Regents of the University of California. 2015. Jepsen online interchange for California floristics. University and Jepson Herbaria, University of California, Berkeley. http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/interchange.html.

Rivers, L. 2002. Water Lettuce (Pistia stratiotes). University of Florida and Sea Grant. Accessed 12/04/2007. <http://www.iisgcp.org/EXOTICSP/waterlettuce.htm>

Roe, G. 2015. New invasive species found in La Crosse pond. News 19 WXOW.com. La Crosse, WI. http://www.wxow.com/story/30029104/2015/09/14/new-invasive-species-found-in-la-crosse-pond. Created on 09/14/2015. Accessed on 09/15/2015.

Rixon, C.A.M., I.C. Duggan, N.M.N. Bergeron, A. Ricciardi, and H.J. MacIsaac. 2005. Invasion risks posed by the aquarium trade and live fish markets on the Laurentian Great Lakes. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 1365-1381.

Šajna, N., M. Haler, S. Škornik, and M. Kaligariç. 2007. Survival and expansion of Pistia stratiotes L. in a thermal stream in Slovenia. Aquatic Botany 87: 75-79.

Schmitz, D.C., J.D. Schardt, A.J. Leslie, F.A. Dray, Jr., J.A. Osborne, and B.V. Nelson. 1993. The ecological impact and management history of three invasive alien aquatic plant species in Florida. Pages 173-174 in McKnight, B, ed. Biological pollution: the control and impact of invasive exotic species. Indiana Academy of Science. Indianapolis, IN.

Sculthorpe, C.D. 1967. The biology of aquatic vascular plants. Edward Arnold, London, UK.

Sharma, B.M. 1984. Ecophysiological studies on Water Lettuce in a polluted lake. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 22:17-21.

Smith, L. 1978. Development of the emergent vegetation in a tropical marsh (Kawainui, I'ohu). Newsletter of the Hawaiian Botanical Society. 17 (1/2): 2-27

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. 2015. Botany Collections. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/. Accessed on 07/09/2015.

South Carolina Department of Natural Resources. 2007. South Carolina Aquatic Invasive Species Management Plan. South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Columbia, SC. http://www.dnr.sc.gov/water/envaff/aquatic/aisfiles/draftscmgmtplan8092007.pdf.

Spear, K. 2014. Water lettuce: Florida villain or native? Orlando Sentinel, May 24, 2014. Available at http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/2014-05-24/news/os-water-lettuce-dispute-20140524_1_lettuce-plant-florida-museum. Accessed 22 August 2014.

Sridhar, M.K.C., and B.M. Sharma. 1980. Pistia stratiotes L. in Nigerian waters. Experientia 36: 953-955.

Stoddard, III., A.A. 1989. The phytogeography and paleofloitics of Pistia stratiotes L. Aquatics 11(3):21-24. http://www.fapms.org/aquatics/issues/1989fall.pdf.

Stuckey, R.L., and D.H. Les. 1984. Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) recorded from Florida in Bartrams' travels, 1765-74. Aquaphyte. Gainesville,FL. 4 (2):6.

Texas A&M University Bioinformatics Working Group. 2007. Digital Flora of Texas Herbarium Specimen Browser - Version II. http://botany.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/bwgpost1.htm. Accessed on 03/06/2007.

Texas Invasive Plant and Pest Council. 2015. Texas Invasives Database. http://www.texasinvasives.org/. Accessed on 11/20/2015.

Thomas M. Pullen Herbarium. 2005. Thomas M. Pullen Herbarium. University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS. http://www.herbarium.olemiss.edu/. Accessed on 08/25/2015.

Thomas, R.D., and C.M. Allen. 1993. Atlas of the Vascular Flora of Louisiana. Vol I: Ferns and Fern Allies, Conifers, and Monocotyledons. Volume 1. Moran Colorgraphic Printing, Baton Rouge, LA.

Thompson, S.A. 2007. Araceae. In: Flora of North America. Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 12+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 22.

University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics. 2007. Herbarium (UNA). University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/84f9770e-f762-11e1-a439-00145eb45e9a. Created on 04/03/2007. Accessed on 11/20/2015.

University of Colorado Museum of Natural History. 2007. Specimen Database of Colorado Vascular Plants. University of Colorado Museum of Natural History, Boulder, CO. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/86221faa-f762-11e1-a439-00145eb45e9a. Created on 07/09/2007. Accessed on 11/20/2015.

University of Connecticut. 2011. CONN. University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5288946d-5fcf-4b53-8fd3-74f4cc6b53fc. Created on 09/08/2011. Accessed on 11/20/2015.

University of Kansas Biodiversity Institute. 2008. R. L. McGregor Herbarium Vascular Plants Collection. University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/95c938a8-f762-11e1-a439-00145eb45e9a. Created on 09/23/2008. Accessed on 11/20/2015.

Upadhyay, R.K., and S.K. Panda. 2005. Salt tolerance of two aquatic macrophytes, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia molesta. Biologia Plantarium 49(1): 157-159.

Valentine, J. M. 1976. Plant succession after saw-grass mortality in southwestern Louisiana. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference. SE Assoc. Fish and Wildlife Agencies, 24-27 October 1976, Jackson, MS. :634-640

Venema, P. 2001. Fast spread of water lettuce Pistia stratiotes L. around Meppel. Gorteria 27: 133-135.

Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, and D.H. Lorence. 2005. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Smithsonian Institution & National Tropical Botanical Garden. http://ravenel.si.edu/botany/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm (13 February 2008).

Wheeler, G.S., T.K. Van., and T.D. Center. 1998. Herbivore adaptions to a low-nutrient food: weed biological control specialist Spodoptera pectinicornis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed the floating aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes. Environmental Entomology 27(4): 993-1000.

Wilcox, D.A., and T.H. Whillans. 1999. Techniques for restoration of disturbed coastal wetlands of the Great Lakes. Wetlands 19(4):835-857.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WI DNR). 2010. Aquatic Invasives Data and Maps. Wisconsin Dept of Natural Resources, Madison, Wisconsin. http://dnr.wi.gov/lakes/invasives/BySpecies.aspx.

Yale University Peabody Museum. 2009. Botany Division, Yale Peabody Museum. Yale University, New Haven, CT. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/963f12d0-f762-11e1-a439-00145eb45e9a. Created on 03/13/2009. Accessed on 11/20/2015.


Author: Thayer, D.D., I.A. Pfingsten, V. Howard, and J. Li.


Contributing Agencies:
NOAA GLRI Logo


Revision Date: 6/24/2016


Citation for this information:
Thayer, D.D., I.A. Pfingsten, V. Howard, and J. Li., 2018, Pistia stratiotes L.: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, and NOAA Great Lakes Aquatic Nonindigenous Species Information System, Ann Arbor, MI, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/greatlakes/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=1099, Revision Date: 6/24/2016, Access Date: 11/19/2018

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.