Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common Name: Goldfish

Synonyms and Other Names:

Copyright Info

Identification: Carassius auratus has an elongated, stocky body. Not all individuals have the well-known bright gold color. Wild populations vary in color from gold to olive green or even creamy white. It possesses a long dorsal fin with 15 to 21 rays and a hard serrate spine at the origin of the dorsal and anal fins. The lateral line is complete, with 25–31 scales in a lateral series. It can be distinguished from other Asian cyprinids by the presence of a stiff, serrate spine at the origin of the dorsal and anal fins. Asian cyprinids have a stiff, non-serrate spine at this position (Robison and Buchanan, 1988; Page and Burr, 1991). The anal fin of the male is concave, whereas on the female it is convex. It does not reach the large size attained by carp. The usual life span is 6 to 7 years, with a maximum of 30 years recorded (Robison and Buchanan, 1988). Distinguishing characteristics were provided in Wheeler (1978), Raicu et al. (1981), Trautman (1981) and Page and Burr (1991). Identification keys that include this species and photographs or illustrations are provided in most state and regional fish books (e.g., Hubbs and Lagler 1958; Becker 1983; Etnier and Starnes 1993). There has been considerable confusion concerning the taxonomic status of this species. Many authors have recognized two subspecies in its native range: C. a. auratus (the goldfish, Chinese goldfish, or Asian goldfish) from Asia, and C. a. gibelio (the Prussian carp, gibele carp, or European goldfish) from eastern Europe (Raicu et al. 1981). Others have concluded that the goldfish is a subspecies of the crucian carp Carassius carassius (i.e., C. c. auratus). More recently, it has been reported that C. auratus is a tetraploid derivative of C. carassius (references in Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). There are many mutant goldfish varieties and these exhibit a broad range of body forms and colors. Howells (1992b) reported that some exotic fish experts believe that "goldfish" typically observed in U.S. waters is actually a crucian carp x goldfish hybrid. In addition, goldfish commonly hybridizes with common carp Cyprinus carpio, giving rise to individuals that are intermediate in morphology between the two parent species. Goldfish has been widely and repeatedly stocked in the United States from many points of origin, including both Asia and Europe. As such, U.S. populations represent a complex of morphologically and taxonomically diverse forms.

Size: Typically grows to 120 to 220 mm SL, with a maximum of 410 mm SL (Page and Burr, 1991).

Native Range: Eastern Asia, including China and perhaps adjacent regions (Japan, Republic of Korea); also possibly parts of Europe if C. auratus gibelio is a valid subspecies and not just a feral introduction (Raicu et al. 1981).

Great Lakes Nonindigenous Occurrences: This species has been recorded from virtually every state. 

Carassius auratus has also been collected in Puerto Rico (Erdman 1984; Lee et al. 1983).

Table 1. Great Lakes region nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state/province, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Carassius auratus are found here.

Full list of USGS occurrences

State/ProvinceFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
IL191720183Lake Michigan; Little Calumet-Galien; Pike-Root
IN199920041Little Calumet-Galien
MI1880202119Au Gres-Rifle; Black-Macatawa; Clinton; Detroit; Great Lakes Region; Huron; Kalamazoo; Lake Erie; Lake Huron; Lake Michigan; Lake St. Clair; Lower Grand; Muskegon; Ottawa-Stony; Raisin; Saginaw; St. Clair; Tittabawassee; Upper Grand
MN197520042Lake Superior; St. Louis
NY1982201916Ausable River; Buffalo-Eighteenmile; Cattaraugus; Chaumont-Perch; Eastern Lake Erie; Great Lakes Region; Irondequoit-Ninemile; Lake Erie; Lake Ontario; Lower Genesee; Niagara River; Oak Orchard-Twelvemile; Oneida; Raisin River-St. Lawrence River; Salmon-Sandy; Seneca
OH1927201712Ashtabula-Chagrin; Black-Rocky; Cedar-Portage; Chautauqua-Conneaut; Cuyahoga; Huron-Vermilion; Lake Erie; Lower Maumee; Ottawa-Stony; Sandusky; St. Marys; Upper Maumee
PA197820142Chautauqua-Conneaut; Lake Erie
VT199219921Mettawee River
WI196920137Duck-Pensaukee; Lake Michigan; Lower Fox; Manitowoc-Sheboygan; Milwaukee; Pike-Root; Wolf

Table last updated 2/27/2023

† Populations may not be currently present.

* HUCs are not listed for areas where the observation(s) cannot be approximated to a HUC (e.g. state centroids or Canadian provinces).

Ecology: Goldfish may reach 59 cm TL and up to 3.0 kg (IGFA 2001); however, they generally reach only 15–20 cm TL and weigh 100–300 g (Szczerbowski 2001). Lifespan is typically 6–7 years, but has been reported as long as 30 years (Carlander, 1969).

Typical habitat includes the quiet backwaters of streams and pools, especially those with submerged aquatic vegetation (Hensley and Courtenay 1980; Trautman 1981; Robison and Buchanan 1988). The goldfish is tolerant of high levels of turbidity (Wallen 1951), temperature fluctuations (reviewed by Spotila et al. 1979), and low levels of dissolved oxygen (Zhadin and Gerd 1963; Walker and Johansen 1977). Laboratory results reported pH tolerance levels between 4.5–10.5, and a preference for pH levels between 5.5–7.0 (Szczerbowski 2001). Although laboratory tests suggested that eggs and fry are not particularly salinity tolerant (Murai and Andrews 1977), the goldfish is reported to live in salt lakes on the coast of the Black Sea and to inhabit the floodplain of the Ob delta in Russia (Zhadin and Gerd 1963). The goldfish has been captured in waters with salinities as high as 17 parts per thousand (ppt) (Schwartz 1964), although studies have shown an inability to withstand long exposures exceeding 15 ppt (Lockley 1957).  Adults thrive equally well in salinities between 0–6 ppt (Canagartnam 1959), and can survive water temperatures between 0–41 °C (Carlander 1969; Moyle 2002). Additionally, the species is more tolerant of aquatic pollution than most native North American fishes (Robison and Buchanan 1988).

The ominvorous diet includes planktonic crustaceans, phytoplankton, insect larvae, fish eggs and fry, benthic vegetation, and detritus (Scott and Crossman 1973; Hensley and Courtenay 1980; Robison and Buchanan 1988; Moyle 2002). Foraging goldfish may create high levels of turbidity, which can result in the decline of aquatic vegetation (Richardson et al. 1995).

Means of Introduction: DeKay (1842) reported that goldfish first was brought into the U.S. shortly after the early part of the seventeenth century. Citing that work, Courtenay and Stauffer (1990) reported that the first recorded goldfish releases in the United States occurred during the late 1600s, and they suggested that these earliest introductions resulted from intentional releases by settlers wanting to add it to the North American fish fauna, as opposed to goldfish escaping from ponds. DeKay (1842) reported, likely in reference to the early 1800s, that goldfish in the United States was considered an ornamental species rather than a food fish, even though the fish freely reproduced in ponds in New York and adjacent states. During the late 1800s the U.S. Fish Commission raised the species and was responsible for distributing it to many states, mainly to meet the demand for fish for aquaria, fountains, and ornamental lakes (McDonald 1886, 1893). Johnson and Becker (1980) stated that goldfish was introduced to Wisconsin through a fish exchange program with the Nebraska Fish Commission in the early 1900s. Brock (1960) stated that this species was established in Hawaii before 1900 and that there had doubtless been many reintroductions. Jordan and Evermann (1905) indicated that these fish were introduced into Hawaii from China, but stated that there is no record as to the date. They did state that shipments of goldfish were being made to San Francisco (California) as early as 1867. More recent introductions of C. auratus in the United States were the result of escapes from hatcheries and ponds, escapes and releases of baitfish, and aquarium releases (Knapp 1953; Courtenay and Hensley 1979; Courtenay et al. 1984; Pflieger 1997). In Michigan, the report of the State Superintendent of Fisheries for 1877-1878 states that C. auratus was first introduced into the ponds of the State Hatchery in 1878 (Eschmeyer 1938).

Status: Established or reported in all states except Alaska. Even though the species is one of the most widely distributed foreign fishes in North America, much of its established range is restricted to only portions of certain drainages (Courtenay and Stauffer 1990). Some areas may represent repeated escapes or releases rather than established populations (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.). Courtenay et al. (1984) reviewed the literature and concluded that the species had been taken in the wild in all states except Alaska. They denoted the species as being established in 16 of the lower 48 states, including California, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin. Courtenay et al. (1984) listed it as possibly established, status uncertain, in 17 additional states: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Kansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oregon, and Wyoming. In recent years, the existence of breeding populations has been confirmed for some of the above names states, for example, Connecticut (Whitworth 1996), Missouri (Pflieger 1997), and Wyoming (Stone 1995). Bond (1994) noted that it is present locally in warm, still waters of Oregon. The species is also known from all the major islands of Hawaii and Brock (1960) stated that it was established in that state before 1900. Devick (1991) listed it as definitely established in Hawaii. This species has been recorded from Florida, Maine, Utah, Vermont, and West Virginia, but there is as yet no available data indicating the presence of self-sustaining populations. Countryman (1975) listed it as "naturalized" in Vermont, which suggests presence of reproducing populations. In a recent paper, Courtenay (1993) listed goldfish as established in most states except Alaska and Florida.

Great Lakes Impacts: Current research on the environmental impact of Carassius auratus in the Great Lakes is inadequate to support proper assessment.

Little is known about the ecology of the goldfish in North America. In most states, it is not considered a "pest species." Nevertheless, this species has the potential to produce large populations in American waters (references in Courtenay and Hensley 1979, Moyle 1976, Trautman 1981).

According to Moyle (1976), goldfish probably compete with native fishes for food and space; and similar to common carp, large populations of this species can greatly disturb sport fish habitats. The Sacramento sucker (Catostomus occidentalis) is one native species that suffers in the presence of goldfish (Moyle 1976). However, Laird and Page (1996) concluded that goldfish in Illinois appear unable to compete with native fishes and reported that the species becomes established only in severely disturbed areas. Based on a series of artificial pond experiments, and observations of a feral population, Richardson et al. (1995) found that goldfish is a benthic herbivore whose behavior often results in visible increases in turbidity and decreases in aquatic vegetation.

In Nevada, the establishment C. auratus in Manse Spring was believed to be a major reason for the initial decline during the early 1960s of populations of a subspecies of the now endangered Pahrump poolfish (Empetrichthys latos latos) (Deacon et al. 1964, Lee et al. 1980 et seq.), possibly competing with adult E. l. latos and preying on their young.

There is little or no evidence to support that Carassius auratus has significant socio-economic impacts in the Great Lakes.

Current research on the beneficial effect of Carassius auratus in the Great Lakes is inadequate to support proper assessment.

Carassius auratus has been cultured as both a popular bait fish and aquarium species in the United States, although the extent of its importance in the Great Lakes is unknown (Litvak and Mandrak 1993, see remarks).

Management: Regulations (pertaining to the Great Lakes)
Canadian federal law dictates that no person shall use as bait, or possess for use as bait, in any province any live or dead goldfish (Maritime Provinces Fishery Regulations § SOR 93/55). Provincial law in Quebec also states that goldfish are not to be used as bait (Quebec Fishery Regulations § SOR 90/214).

In the state of New York, it is illegal to use or sell goldfish larvae for bait, and goldfish larvae taken in nets operated pursuant to baitfishing are to be destroyed immediately (NY ECL § 11-1315). In Minnesota, goldfish are a regulated invasive species, making introduction of the species without a permit illegal (Minn. Admin. Rules § 6216.2060, Minn. Admin. Rules § 6216.0265). In the state of Pennsylvania, it is unlawful to use or possess goldfish as baitfish while fishing (58 PA Code § 63.44). In the state of Wisconsin, goldfish are a restricted invasive species (Wis. Admin. Code § NR 40.05).

Note: Check federal, state/provincial, and local regulations for the most up-to-date information.

There are no known biological control methods for this species.

Goldfish can be managed by physical removal, particularly in small ponds and shallow or enclosed embayments (Morgan et al 2005). 

Yamamoto et al. (2006) noted that physical drawdown of water levels has significant negative effects on cyprinid spawning abilities in Lake Biwa, Japan. Carassius spp. and Cyprinus carpio eggs were notably reduced after collection when water levels were lowered by 30 cm, and as little as a 10 cm reduction can significantly reduce available shallow, litter-accumulated spawning areas preferred by cyprinids (Yamamoto et al. 2006).

Of  the four chemical piscicides registered for use in the United States, antimycin A   and rotenone  are considered “general” piscicides (GLMRIS 2012).  However, goldfish are noed to have a relatively high tolerance to these piscicides (Gilderhus et al 1981, Marking and Bills 1976, Marking and Bills 1975, Marking 1975, Schoettger and Svendsen 1970, Walker et al 1964, Turner 1956) - thus levels sufficient for goldfish control would be likely to disproportionately harm desirable native species. 

Liming is listed by CLearwater et al (2008) as a potential control method for goldfish.

Increasing CO2 concentrations, either by bubbling pressurized gas directly into water or by the addition of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been used to sedate fishes with minimal residual toxicity, and is a potential method of harvesting fish for removal, though maintaining adequate CO2 concentrations may be difficult in large/natural water bodies (Clearwater et al. 2008 ). CO2 is approved only for use as an anesthetic for cold, cool, and warm water fishes the US, not for use as euthanasia, and exposure to NaHCO3 concentration of 142-642 mg/L for 5 min. is sufficient to anaesthetize most fish (Clearwater et al. 2008). However, goldfish are tolerant to hypoxic conditions (Roesner et al 2008) so this method may have limited effect or cause disproportionate mortality of non-target fish.

It should be noted that chemical treatment will often lead to non-target kills, and so all options for management of a species should be adequately studied  before a decision is made to use piscicides or other chemicals. Potential effects on non-target plants and organisms, including macroinvertebrates and other fish, should always be deliberately evaluated and analyzed. The effects of combinations of management chemicals and other toxicants, whether intentional or unintentional, should be understood prior to chemical treatment. Boogaard et al. (2003) found that the lampricides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and 2’,5-dichloro-4’-nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) demonstrate additive toxicity when combined. In another study on cumulative toxicity, combinations of niclosamide and TFM with contaminants common in the Great Lakes (pesticides, heavy metals, industrial organics, phosphorus, and sediments) were found to be mostly additive in toxicity to rainbow trout, and one combination of TFM, Delnav, and malathion was synergistic, with toxicity magnified 7.9 times (Marking and Bills 1985). This highlights the need for managers to conduct on-site toxicity testing and to give serious consideration to determining the total toxic burden to which organisms may be exposed when using chemical treatments (Marking and Bills 1985). Other non-selective alterations of water quality, such as reducing dissolved oxygen levels  or altering pH, could also have a deleterious impact on native fish, invertebrates, and other fauna or flora, and their potential harmful effects should therefore be evaluated thoroughly.

Note: Check state/provincial and local regulations for the most up-to-date information regarding permits for control methods. Follow all label instructions.


Remarks: The goldfish is thought to be the first foreign fish species introduced to North America (DeKay 1842; Courtenay et al. 1984). In the United States, large numbers are cultured as bait and as forage for sport fishes, as well as for the production of young fish that are then sold in the aquarium trade, mostly as live food (i.e., feeder fish) for carnivorous ornamental fishes. Although brightly-colored forms popular in the aquarium trade are occasionally taken in North American waters, the surviving progeny of these colorful individuals typically are the natural, cryptic olive-green coloration, partly as a result of selective predation by other animals. In nature, goldfish often hybridize with common carp Cyprinus carpio producing reproductively fertile offspring; cross fertilization and back-crossing is common in some areas, for instance polluted habitats, and in such places hybrid offspring may outnumber the parent species (Trautman 1981; Page and Burr 1991). Goldfish grows rapidly and thus is limited in their usefulness as a forage fish. The use of goldfish as baitfish is prohibited in some states. Detailed background information on the occurrence of this species in the United States was provided by Becker (1983). Knapp (1953) stated that this species is used as a hardy bait fish in many areas or crossed with carp for same purpose. He reported that a population of these hybrids was found in Buffalo Lake, Randall County, in the Texas panhandle. In their summary table, Bailey and Smith (1981) indicated that Carassius auratus is widely distributed in the Great Lakes basin.

Voucher specimens: Alabama (TU 16398, 51965, 52008, 52022, many others), Arkansas (TU 7071, 44838, 46903), California (USNM 4485, 38016), Georgia (UGAMNH, USNM 110111), Hawaii (BPBM 1803, 3623, specimens discarded in1969), Illinois (INHS 710, 726, many others including hybrids with carp), Maryland (USNM 85073, 85217, 85795, 238723, 271219, 271221), Massachusetts (USNM 020091, 77787), Michigan (TNHC 671), Nevada (TU 94343), New York (USNM 020271, TU 36678), Ohio (USNM 28416, TU 6566), Pennsylvania (USNM 335461), Rhode Island (USNM 21658), South Carolina (USNM 271220), Texas (TCWC 0455.01, 1045.01, 1030.01, TNHC 6969, many others), Virginia (USNM 37789, 85694, 283639), West Virginia (USNM 64464).

References: (click for full references)

Alexander, S. 2003. Goldfish become occupying force. (Baltimore Sun).

Associated Press (AP). 2004. Dumped goldfish blamed for killing bass in Ind. Chicago Sun-Times. July 6, 2004.

Bailey, R.M., and M.O. Allum. 1962. Fishes of South Dakota. Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 119:1-131.

Bailey, R.M., and G.R. Smith. 1981. Origin and geography of the fish fauna of the Laurentian Great Lakes basin. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 38:1539-1561.

Baxter, G.T., and J.R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department Bulletin 4, Cheyenne, WY. 168 pp.

Bean, T.H. 1903. Catalogue of the Fishes of New York. New York State Museum Bulletin 60, Zoology 9. University of the State of New York Bulletin 278. 784 pp.

Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI.

Blatchley, W.S. 1938. The Fishes of Indiana: with Descriptions, Notes on Habits and Distribution in the State. The Nature Publishing Co., Indianapolis, IN.

Bond, C.E. 1994. Keys to Oregon freshwater fishes. Oregon State University Bookstores, Inc., Corvallis. 58:1-42, revised.

Boogaard, M.A., T.D. Bills, and D.A. Johnson. 2003. Acute toxicity of TFM and a TFM/niclosamide mixture to selected species of fish, including lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and Mudpuppies (Necturus maculosus), in Laboratory and Field Exposures. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29(Supplement 1):529-541.

Boschung, H.T. 1992. Catalogue of freshwater and marine fishes of Alabama. Alabama Museum of Natural History Bulletin 14:1-266.

Bradley, W.G., and J.E. Deacon. 1967. The biotic communities of southern Nevada. Nevada State Museum Anthropological Papers No. 13, Part 4. 201-273.

Brock, V.E. 1960. The introduction of aquatic animals into Hawaiian waters. Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie 454:463-480.

Brown, C.J.D., and A.C. Fox. 1966. Mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) in a Montana pond. Copeia 1966(3): 614-616.

Brown, C.J.D. 1971. Fishes of Montana. Montana State University Bozeman, MT. 207 pp.

Buchanan, T.M. 1973. Key to the Fishes of Arkansas. Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, Little Rock, AR. 68 pp., 198 maps.

Burr, B.M., and L.M. Page. 1986. Zoogeography of fishes of the lower Ohio-upper Mississippi basin. Pages 287-324 in C.H. Hocutt, and E.O. Wiley, editors. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Burr, B.M., and M.L. Warren, Jr. 1986. A Distributional Atlas of Kentucky Fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission Scientific and Technical Series 4. 398 pp.

Burr, B.M., D.J. Eisenhour, K.M. Cook, C.A. Taylor, G.L. Seegert, R.W. Sauer, and E.R. Atwood. 1996. Nonnative fishes in Illinois waters: What do the records reveal? Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 89(1/2):73-91.

Canagaratnam, P. 1959. Growth of fishes in different salinities. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 16(1):121-130.

Carlander, K.D. 1969. Handbook of freshwater fishery biology. Vol. 1. Iowa State University Press, Ames.

Chapman, W. M. 1942. Alien fishes in the waters of the Pacific northwest. California Fish and Game 28:9-15.

Churchill, E.P., and W.H. Over. 1933. Fishes of South Dakota. South Dakota Department of Game and Fish, Pierre, SD.

Clay, W.M. 1975. The fishes of Kentucky. Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, Frankfort, KY.

Clearwater, S.J., C.W. Hickey, and M.L. Martin. 2008. Overview of potential piscicides and molluscicides for controlling aquatic pest species in New Zealand. Science & Technical Publishing, New Zealand Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand.

Cobb, J.N. 1902. Commercial fisheries of the Hawaiian Islands. 381-499 in Report of the Commissioner for the year ending June 30, 1901. U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Conner, J.V., and R.D. Suttkus. 1986. Zoogeography of freshwater fishes of the western Gulf Slope of North America. 413-456 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Cook, F.A. 1959. Freshwater fishes of Mississippi. Mississippi Game and Fish Commission Jackson, MS.

Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the Northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press University Park, PA.

Copp, G.H., A.S. Tarkan, M.J. Godard, N.J. Edmonds, and K.J. Wesley. 2010. Preliminary assessment of feral goldfish impacts on ponds, with particular reference to native crucian carp. Aquatic Invasions 5(4):413-422.

Countryman, W.D. 1975. Checklist of the recent fishes of Vermont. Norwich University, Northfield, Vermont. Unpublished mimeograph (revised version, October 1975).

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., H.F. Sahlman, W. W. Miley, II, and D. J. Herrema. 1974. Exotic fishes in fresh and brackish waters of Florida. Biological Conservation 6(4):292-302.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and D.A. Hensley. 1979. Survey of introduced non-native fishes. Phase I Report. Introduced exotic fishes in North America: status 1979. Report Submitted to National Fishery Research Laboratory, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Gainesville, FL.

Courtenay, W.R., and J.E. Deacon. 1983. Fish introductions in the American Southwest: a case history of Rogers Spring, Nevada. Southwestern Naturalist 28:221-224.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., D.A. Hensley, J.N. Taylor, and J.A. McCann. 1984. Distribution of exotic fishes in the continental United States. 41-77 in W.R. Courtenay, Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr., eds. Distribution, biology and management of exotic fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr.. 1990. The introduced fish problem and the aquarium fish industry. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 21(3):145-159.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr. 1993. Biological pollution through fish introductions. 35-61 in B. N. McKnight, ed. Biological pollution: the control and impact of invasive exotic species. Proceedings of a symposium, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, IN.

Cross, F.B. 1967. Handbook of Fishes of Kansas. State Biological Survey and University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication 45, Topeka, KS.

Dahlberg, M.D., and D.C. Scott. 1971a. The freshwater fishes of Georgia. Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science 29:1-64.

Dahlberg, M.D., and D.C. Scott. 1971b. Introductions of freshwater fishes in Georgia. Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science 29:245-252.

Deacon, J.E., C. Hubbs, and B.J. Zahuranec. 1964. Some effects of introduced fishes on the native fish fauna of southern Nevada. Copeia 1964(2):384-388.

Deacon, J.E., and J.E. Williams. 1984. Annotated list of the fishes of Nevada. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 97(1):103-118.

DeKay, J.E. 1842. Zoology of New-York, or the New-York fauna. Part IV. Fishes. W. and A. White and J. Visscher, Albany, NY.

Devick, W.S. 1991. Patterns of introductions of aquatic organisms to Hawaiian freshwater habitats. 189-213 in New directions in research, management and conservation of Hawaiian freshwater stream ecosystems. Proceedings of the 1990 symposium on freshwater stream biology and fisheries management, Division of Aquatic Resources, Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources.

Dill, W.A., and A.J. Cordone. 1997. History and status of introduced fishes in California, 1871-1996. California Department of Fish and Game Fish Bulletin, volume 178.

Douglas, N.H., and J.T. Davis. 1967. A checklist of the freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Louisiana Wildlife and Fisheries Commission.

Douglas, N.H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, LA.

Dyche, L.L. 1914. Ponds, pond fish and pond fish culture. Kansas Department of Fish and Game, Bulletin 1:1-208.

Eddy, S., and J.C. Underhill. 1974. Northern fishes, with special reference to the upper Mississippi Valley. 3rd Edition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.

Edwards, R.J., and S. Contreras-Balderas. 1991. Historical changes in the ichthyofauna of the lower Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte), Texas and Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 36(2):201-212.

Ellis, M.M. 1974. Fishes of Colorado. University of Colorado Studies, Boulder, CO 11(1):1-136.

Emery, L. 1985. Review of fish introduced into the Great Lakes, 1819-1974. Great Lakes Fishery Commission Technical Report. 45: 1-31.

Erdman, D.S. 1984. Exotic fishes in Puerto Rico. 162-176 in Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr., eds. Distribution, biology and management of exotic fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Eschmeyer, R.W. 1938. Goldfish. (Fisheries research report: 463). Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Ann Arbor, MI.;view=fulltext.

Etnier, D.A., and W.C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN.

Fago, D. 1992. Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in Wisconsin. VIII. Summary Report. Technical Bulletin, Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI.

Fowler, H.W. 1906. The fishes of New Jersey. 35-477 in Annual Report of the New Jersey State Museum (1905), part II. MacCrellish and Quigley, State Province, Trenton, NJ.

Fowler, H.W. 1952. A list of the fishes of New Jersey, with off-shore species. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia CIV:89-151.

Gerking, S.D. 1945. Distribution of the fishes of Indiana. Investigations of Indiana Lakes and Streams 3:1-137.

GLMRIS. 2012. Appendix C: Inventory of Available Controls for Aquatic Nuisance Species of Concern, Chicago Area Waterway System. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Hall, G.E. 1956. Additions to the fish fauna of Oklahoma with a summary of introduced species. Southwestern Naturalist 1(1):16-26.

Harlan, J.R., E.B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA.

Hartel, K.E., D.B. Halliwell, and A.E. Launer. 1996. An Annotated Working List of the Inland Fishes of Massachusetts. On-line

Hendricks, M.L., J.R. Stauffer, Jr., C.H. Hocutt, and C.R. Gilbert. 1979. A preliminary checklist of the fishes of the Youghiogheny River. Chicago Academy of Sciences, Natural History Miscellanea 203:1-15.

Hensley, D.A., and W.R. Courtenay, Jr. 1980. Carassius auratus (Linnaeus), goldfish, 147 in Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr., eds. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History. Raleigh, NC.

Hill, J.E., and C.E. Cichra. 2005. Eradication of a reproducing population of convict cichlids, Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum (Cichlidae), in north-central Florida. Florida Scientist 68: 65-74.

Holton, G.D. 1990. A Field Guide to Montana Fishes. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks Helena, MT.

Howells, R.G. 1992a. Annotated list of introduced non-native fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and aquatic plants in Texas waters. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Management Data Series 78, Austin, TX. 19 pp.

Howells, R.G. 1992b. Guide to identification of harmful and potentially harmful fishes, shellfishes and aquatic plants prohibited in Texas. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department Special Publication, Austin, TX. 182 pp. (+ appendices).

Hubbs, C.L., and G.P. Cooper. 1936. Minnows of Michigan. Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 8.

Hubbs, C.L., and K.F. Lagler. 1958. Fishes of the Great Lakes Region. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

Hubbs, C., R.J. Edwards, and G.P. Garrett. 1991. An annotated checklist of freshwater fishes of Texas, with key to identification of species. Texas Journal of Science, Supplement 43(4):1-56.

Hubbs, C.L., R.R. Miller, and L.C. Hubbs. 1974. Hydrographic History and Relict Fishes of the North-Central Great Basin. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences VII.

Idaho Fish and Game. 1990. Fisheries Management Plan 1991-1995. Idaho Department of Fish and Game.

International Game Fish Association (IGFA). 2001. Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA.

Illinois Natural History Survey. 2004. Illinois Natural History Survey Fish Collection Database Search Results.

Jenkins, R.E., and N.M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Johnson, M., and G.C. Becker. 1980. Annotated list of the fishes of Wisconsin. Papers of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 58:265-300.

Jordan, D.S. 1882. Report on the fishes of Ohio. Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio 4(1):735-1002.

Jordan, D.S., and B.W. Evermann. 1902. Preliminary report on an investigation of the fishes and fisheries of the Hawaiian Islands. Pages 353-380 in Report of the Commissioner for the year ending June 30, 1901. U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Jordan, D.S., and B.W. Evermann. 1905. The aquatic resources of the Hawaiian Islands. Part I. The shore fishes. Bulletin of the U.S. Fish Commission for 1903, 23:1-574.

Kendall, W.C. 1914. An annotated catalogue of the fishes of Maine. Proceedings of the Portland Society of Natural History 3:1-198.

Knapp, F.T. 1953. Fishes found in the freshwaters of Texas. Rangeland Studio and Litho Printing Company, Brunswick, GA.

Koster, W.J. 1957. Guide to the Fishes of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM.

Kuehne, R.A. 1955. Stream surveys of the Guadalupe and San Antonio Rivers. Texas Game and Fish Commission, IF Report Series 1:1-56.

Kuhne, E.R. 1939. A guide to the fishes of Tennessee and the mid-South. Tennessee Department of Conservation, Nashville, TN.

Laird, C.A., and L.M. Page. 1996. Non-native fishes inhabiting the streams and lakes of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 35(1):1-51.

Lapin, W.J. - Dept. of Environmental Management, Division of Fish and Wildlife, West Kingston, Rhode Island. Response to USGS/BRD-G nonindigenous questionnaire. 1992.

La Rivers, I. 1962. Fishes and fisheries of Nevada. Nevada State Print Office, Carson City, Nevada.

Lee, D.S., S.P. Platania, and G.H. Burgess. 1983. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes - 1983 supplement. 67 pp.

Lee, D. S., A. Norden, C. R. Gilbert, and R. Franz. 1976. A list of the freshwater fishes of Maryland and Delaware. Chesapeake Science 17(3):205-211.

Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980 et seq. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, NC. (Cited as a work rather than as individual accounts in the interest of space).

Linder, A.D. 1963. Idaho's alien fishes. Tebiwa 6(2):12-15.

Litvak, M.K., and N.E. Mandrak. 1993. Ecology of freshwater baitfish use in Canada and the United States. Fisheries 18(12):6-13.

Lockley, A.S. 1957. Adrenal cortical hormones and osmotic stress in three species of fishes. Copeia 1957(3):241-242.

Loyacano, H.A., Jr. 1975. A list of freshwater fishes of South Carolina. Bulletin of the South Carolina Experimental Station 580:1-8.

Maciolek, J.A. 1984. Exotic fishes in Hawaii and other islands of Oceania. 131-161 in W.R. Courtenay, Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr., editors. Distribution, biology, and management of exotic fishes. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Marking, L.L. 1975.  Effects of pH on toxicity of antimycin to fish.  1975.  Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada.  32(6)769-773.

Marking, L.L. and T.D. Bills. 1985. Effects of contaminants on toxicity of the lampricides TFM and Bayer 73 to three species of fish. Journal of Great Lakes Research 11(2):171-178.

Marking, L.L. and T.D. Bills. 1975.  Toxicity of potassium permanganate to fish and its effectiveness for detoxifying antimycin.  Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 104 (3) 1975.

Marking, L.L. and T.D. Bills.  1976.  Toxicity of rotenone to fish in standardized laboratory tests.  Federal Government Series:  Investigations in Fish Control #72. 

Matern, S.A., P.B. Moyle, and L.C. Pierce. 2002. Native and alien fishes in a California estuarine marsh: twenty-one years of changing assemblages. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 131: 797-816.

McDonald, M. 1886. Report on distribution of fish and eggs by the U.S. Fish Commission for the season of 1885-'86. Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission 6(1886):385-394.

McDonald, M. 1893. Report of the Commissioner for 1889 to 1891. Part XVII. U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Washington, DC.

Menhinick, E.F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission.

Mettee, M.F., P.E. O'Neil, and J.M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Inc. Birmingham, AL.

Mezhzherin, S.V., S.V. Kokodii, A.V. Kulish, D.B. Verlatii, and L.V. Fedorenko. 2012. Hybridization of crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) in Ukrainian reservoirs and the genetic structure of hybrids. Cytology and genetics 46(1):28-35.

Miller, R.R., and J.R. Alcorn. 1946. The introduced fishes of Nevada, with a history of their introduction. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 73:173-193.

Miller, R.R., and C.H. Lowe. 1967. Part 2. Fishes of Arizona. 133-151 in C.H. Lowe, ed. The vertebrates of Arizona. University of Arizona Press. Tucson.

Miller, R.J., and H.W. Robison. 1973. The Fishes of Oklahoma. Oklahoma State University Press, Stillwater, OK.

Miller, R.J., and H.W. Robison. 2004. Fishes of Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK.

Minckley, W.L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona. Arizona Fish and Game Department. Sims Printing Company, Inc., Phoenix, AZ.

Minnesota Sea Grant. 2004. Dumping of aquarium fish causing trouble in Duluth (or Something's fishing in Rock Pond). Available at URL

Mississippi Museum of Natural Science. 2004. Mississippi Museum of Natural Science Nonindigenous Fish Records.

Morgan, D. S. Beatty and H. McLetchie.  2005.  Control of feral Goldfish (Carassius auratus) in the Vasse River.  Murdoch University.

Morris, J., L. Morris, and L. Witt. 1974. The fishes of Nebraska. Nebraska Game and Parks Commission Lincoln, NE.

Moyle, P.B. 1976. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Moyle, P.B. 2002. Inland fishes of California. Second Edition. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA.

Moyle, P.B., F.W. Fisher, and H. Li. 1974. Mississippi silversides and logperch in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system. California Department of Fish and Game. 60(2): 145-147.

Mundy, B.C. 2005. Fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Bishop Museum Bulletins in Zoology, Number 6.

Murai, T., and J.W. Andrews. 1977. Effects of salinity on the eggs and fry of the golden shiner and goldfish. The Progressive-Fish Culturist 39(3):121-122.

Myers, J. 2004. Drain a pond, save a stream. May 10, 2004.

Nelson, J. 1890. Descriptive catalogue of the vertebrates of New Jersey. Geological Survey of New Jersey 1890:489-824.

North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences. 2011. Ichthyology Collection Database. or

Nelson, J.S., and S.D. Gerking. 1968. Annotated key to the fishes of Indiana. Project 342-303-815. Department of Zoology, Indiana Aquatic Research Unit, Indiana State University, Bloomington, IN.

O'Donnell, D.J. 1935. Annotated list of the fishes of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 20(5):473-500.

Owen, J.B., D.S. Elsen, and G.W. Russell. 1981. Distribution of Fishes in North and South Dakota Basins Affected by the Garrison Diversion Unit. Fisheries Research Unit, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND.

Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Field Guide Series, volume 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Pearson, W.D., and L.A. Krumholz. 1984. Distribution and status of Ohio River fishes. ORNL/sub/79-7831/1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.

Pflieger, W.L. 1971. A distributional study of Missouri fishes. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 20(3):225-570.

Pflieger, W.L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, MO.

Pflieger, W.L. 1997. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, MO.

Phillips, G.L., W.D. Schmid, and J.C. Underhill. 1982. Fishes of the Minnesota Region. University of Minnesota Press Minneapolis, MN.

Popov, B.H., and J.B. Low. 1953. Game, fur animal, and fish introductions into Utah. Utah State Department of Fish and Game Publication 4, pp. 1-85.

Propst, D.L., and C.A. Carlson. 1986. The distribution and status of warmwater fishes in the Platte River drainage, Colorado. Southwestern Naturalist 31(2):149-167.

Raasch, M.S., and V.L. Altemus, Sr. 1991. Delaware's freshwater and brackish water fishes - a popular account. Delaware State College for the Study of Del-Mar-Va Habitats and the Society of Natural History of Delaware.

Raicu, P., E. Taisescu, and P. Banarescu. 1981. Carassius carassius and C. auratus, a pair of diploid and tetraploid representative species (Pisces, Cyprinidae). Cytologia 46:233-240.

Ramsey, J.S. 1965. Zoogeographic studies on the freshwater fish fauna of rivers draining the southern Appalachian region. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Tulane University, New Orleans, LA.

Rasmussen, J.L. 1998. Aquatic nuisance species of the Mississippi River basin. 60th Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference, Aquatic Nuisance Species Symposium, Dec. 7, 1998, Cincinnati, OH.

Ravenel, W.C. 1896. Report on the propagation and distribution of food-fishes. Pages 6-72 in Report of the Commissioner for the year ending June 30, 1895, Part XXI. U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Washington, D.C.

Ravenel, W.C. 1898. Report on the propagation and distribution of food-fishes. Pages 11-92 in Report of the Commissioner for the year ending June 30, 1896, Part XXII. U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Washington, D.C.

Red River Authority of Texas. 2001. Red and Canadian Basins Fish Inventory: Grayson County. Red River Authority of Texas.

Richardson, M.J., F.G. Whoriskey, and L.H. Roy. 1995. Turbidity generation and biological impacts of an exotic fish Carassius auratus, introduced into shallow seasonally anoxic ponds. Journal of Fish Biology 47:576-585.

Robison, H.W., and T.M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. University of Arkansas Press. Fayetteville, AR.

Roesler, R. 2003. Freed pets taking over. Spokeman Review. October 27, 2003.

Roesner, A. S.A. Mitz, T. Hankeln, and T. Burmester.  2008.  Globins and hypoxia adaptation in the goldfish, Carassius auratus.  FEBS J. 275(14)3633-43.

Ross, S. 2001. The inland fishes of Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi.

Ryon, M.G., and J.M. Loar. 1988. Checklist of fishes on the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation. J. TN Acad. Sci. 63:97-102.

Scarola, J.F. 1973. Freshwater Fishes of New Hampshire. New Hampshire Fish and Game Department, Division of Inland and Marine Fisheries.

Schmidt, K. 1997. Gung ho goldfish. North American Native Fish Association (NANFA). 1997(22): 2.

Schmidt, R.E. 1980. New distribution records of freshwater fishes of North Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 96(1):36-38.

Schmidt, R.E. 1986. Zoogeography of the Northern Appalachians. 137-160 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Schoettger, R.A. and G.E. Svendsen.  1970.  Effects of antimycin A on tissue respiration of rainbow trout and channel catfish.  Investigation in Fish Control.  US Dept. of Interior. 

Schultz, L.P. 1929. Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Oregon and Washington. Pub. Fish., University of Washington 2(4):43-50.

Schwartz, F. 1963. The fresh-water minnows of Maryland. Maryland Conservationist 40(2):19-29.

Schwartz, F.J. 1964. Natural salinity tolerances of some freshwater fishes. Underwater Naturalist 2(2):13-15.

Scott, W.B., and E.J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. Bulletin 184.

Shafland, P.L. 1976. The continuing problem of non-native fishes in Florida. Fisheries 1(6):25.

Sigler, W.F., and R.R. Miller. 1963. Fishes of Utah. Utah Department of Fish and Game, Salt Lake City, UT.

Simon, T.P., J.O. Whitaker, Jr., J.S. Castrale, and S.A. Minton. 1992. Checklist of the vertebrates of Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 101:95-126.

Simpson, J., and R. Wallace. 1978. Fishes of Idaho. University of Idaho Press, Moscow, ID.

Smith, P.W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.

Smith, J.J. 1982. Fishes of the Pajaro River system. 83-170 in P.B. Moyle, J.J. Smith, R.A. Daniels, T.L. Price, and D.M. Baltz, eds. Distribution and ecology of stream fishes of the Sacramento-San Joaquin drainage system, California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

Smith, J.V.C., M.D. 1833. A Natural History of the Fishes of Massachusetts. A reprint of the 1833 edition. Freshet Press, Inc., Rockville Center, NY.

Smith-Vaniz, W.F. 1968. Freshwater Fishes of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, AL.

Sommer, T., B. Harrell, M. Nobriga, R. Brown, P. Moyle, W. Kimmerer, and L. Schemel. 2001. California's Yolo Bypass: Evidence that flood control can be compatible with fisheries, wetlands, wildlife, and agriculture. Fisheries. American Fisheries Society. 26 (8): 6-16.

Spotila, J.R., K.M. Terpin, R.R. Koons, and R.L. Bonati. 1979. Temperature requirements of fishes from eastern Lake Erie and upper Niagara River. Environmental Biology of Fishes 4(3): 281-307.

Starnes, W.C., and D.A. Etnier. 1986. Drainage evolution and fish biogeography of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers drainage realm. 325-362 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Starnes, W.C., J. Odenkirk, and M.J. Ashton. 2011. Update and analysis of fish occurrences in the lower Potomac River drainage in the vicinity of Plummers Island, Maryland-Contribution XXXI to the natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 124(4):280-309.

Stauffer, J.R., Jr., J.M. Boltz, and L.R. White. 1995. The Fishes of West Virginia. West Virginia Department of Natural Resources. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Stiles, E.W. 1978. Vertebrates of New Jersey. Edmund W. Stiles, Somerset, NJ.

Stone, M.D. 1995. Fish stocking programs in Wyoming: a balanced perspective. 47-51 in H.L. Schramm, Jr., and R.G. Piper, eds. Uses and effects of cultured fishes in aquatic ecosystems. American Fisheries Society Symposium 15.

Sublette, J.E., M.D. Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The Fishes of New Mexico. New Mexico Department of Game and Fish, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM.

Sweeney, Z.T. 1902. Biennial Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries and Game for Indiana. Indianapolis, IN.

Swift, C.C., T.R. Haglund, M. Ruiz, and R.N. Fisher. 1993. The status and distribution of the freshwater fishes of southern California. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Science 92(3):101-167.

Szczerbowski, J.A. 2001. Carassius auratus (Linneaus, 1758). pp 5-41 In: P. M. Bãnãrescu & H.-J. Paepke (Eds.) The Freshwater Fishes of Europe, Vol. 5/III; Cyprinidae 2/III and Gasterosteidae. AULA-Verlag GmbH Wiebelsheim. 305 pp.

Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 1993. State Record Listing. May 21, 1993:19-21.

Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 2001. Fish Records: Water Body - All Tackle. April 24, 2001.

Texas System of Natural Laboratories, Inc. and USGS. 1994. Fish collected in streams of the South-Central Texas study unit, Texas. USGS.

Thebault, R. 2021. People dumped their pets into lakes, officials say. Now football-size goldfish are taking over. The Washington Post. Created on 07/11/2021. Accessed on 07/12/2021.

Tilmant, J.T. 1999. Management of nonindigenous aquatic fish in the U.S. National Park System. National Park Service.

Trautman, M.B. 1981. The Fishes of Ohio. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, OH.

Truitt, R.V., B.A. Bean, and H.W. Fowler. 1929. The Fishes of Maryland. Maryland Conservation Department, Conservation Bulletin 3, Annapolis.

Turner, W.R. 1956.  Effectiveness of various rotenone-containing preparations in eradicating farm pond fish populations.  Fisheries Bulletin 25.  Division of Fisheries. 

Uhler, P.R., and O. Lugger. 1876. List of fishes of Maryland. Page 69-176 in Report of the Commissioners of Fisheries of Maryland to the General Assembly, January 1, 1876. John F. Wiley, Annapolis, MD.

University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. 2004. Michigan Fish Atlas Maps.,1607,7-158-12540_13085_13553-30538--,00.html

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1983. The Moapa dace recovery plan. USFWS and NV Department of Wildlife. 32 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2005. National Wildlife Refuge System Invasive Species. (Last accessed 2006)

U.S. Department of Interior Desert Pupfish Task Force. 1971. Status of the desert pupfish. U.S. Department of Interior, Washington, D.C.

Vinyard, G.L. 2001. Fish Species Recorded from Nevada. Biological Resources Research Center 5.

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. 2004. Snakehead found in Virginia waters. US Newswire. May 10, 2004. Available at URL

Walker, C.R., R.E. Lennon, and B.L. Berger.  1964.  Preliminary observations on the toxicity of antimycin A to fish and other aquatic animals.  Investigations in Fish Control.  Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Circular 186.

Walker, R.M., and P.H. Johansen. 1977. Anaerobic metabolism in goldfish, Carassius auratus. Canadian Journal of Zoology 55(8):1304-1311.

Wallen, I.E. 1951. The direct effect of turbidity on fishes. Bulletin of the Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College 48(2):1-27.

Walters, D.M. 1997. The distribution, status, and ecology of the fishes of the Conasauga River system. Master's Thesis, University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

Watters, T.G., and S.H. O'Dee. 1998. Metamorphosis of freshwater mussel glochidia (Bivalvia: Unionidae) on amphibians and exotic fishes. American Midland Naturalist 139:49-57.

Webster, D.A. 1941. The life histories of some Connecticut fishes. Pages 122-227 in State Board of Fisheries and Game. A fishery survey of important Connecticut lakes. Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey 63.

Wheeler, A. 1978. Key to the Fishes of Northern Europe. Frederick Warne Ltd., London, England.

Whitworth, W.R., P.L. Berrien, and W.T. Keller. 1968. Freshwater Fishes of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Bulletin 101.

Whitworth, W.R. 1996. Freshwater Fishes of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Bulletin 114.

Williams, D. 2021. Invasive, football-size goldfish found in a Minnesota lake. Created on 07/14/2021. Accessed on 07/23/2021.

Wiltzius, W.J. 1981. Compendium of introduction date and state and federal annual stocking of various fishes in Colorado, 1972-1978. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO. Unpublished report.

Woodling, J. 1985. Colorado's little fish: a guide to the minnows and other lesser known fishes in the state of Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver, CO.

Wydoski, R.S., and R.R. Whitney. 1979. Inland fishes of Washington. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.

Yamamoto, T., Y. Kohmatsu, and M. Yuma. 2006. Effects of summer drawdown on cyprinid fish larvae in Lake Biwa, Japan. Limnology 7(2):75-82.

Zhadin, V.I., and S.V. Gerd. 1963. Fauna and Flora of the Rivers Lakes and Reservoirs of the U.S.S.R. Originally published in Moskow, 1961 by Gosudarstvennoe Uchebno-Pedagogicheskoe Izdatel'stvo Misisterstva Prosveshcheniya RSFSR. Translated from Russian in 1963 by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem. 626 pp.

Author: Nico, L.G., P.J. Schofield, J. Larson, T.H. Makled, A. Fusaro, and C. Morningstar

Contributing Agencies:

Revision Date: 10/29/2021

Peer Review Date: 8/2/2013

Citation for this information:
Nico, L.G., P.J. Schofield, J. Larson, T.H. Makled, A. Fusaro, and C. Morningstar, 2023, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, and NOAA Great Lakes Aquatic Nonindigenous Species Information System, Ann Arbor, MI,, Revision Date: 10/29/2021, Peer Review Date: 8/2/2013, Access Date: 3/28/2023

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.