NAS - Nonindigenous Aquatic Species

Rhinella marina
(Cane Toad)
Amphibians-Frogs
Native Transplant
Translate this page with Google
Français Deutsch Español Português Russian Italiano Japanese

Photo1
U.S. Geological Survey ©
Copyright Info
Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common name: Cane Toad

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Rhinella marina is an enormous, warty bufonid (true toad) with a SVL (snout-vent length) of 100-238 mm (4-over 9.25 in) (Conant and Collins, 1998; Lever, 2001). Individuals found in the U.S. rarely exceed 178 mm (7 in) (Conant and Collins, 1998).  Females may weigh up to 1.5 kg (3.3 lbs) (Conant and Collins, 1998).  Large individuals sitting on roadways are easily mistaken for boulders (Lee, 1996). Adult males have more robust forelimbs than adult females (Lee, 2001). These massive brown or dark-mottled toads have a pair of enormous, deeply pitted parotoid glands, each extending from the temporal region of the head, far down the side of the body, well past the axillary region (Lee, 1996; Conant and Collins, 1998; Powell et al., 1998; Lever, 2001; McCranie and Wilson, 2002; McCranie et al. 2006). The call is a low-pitched, staccato trill that is slow and often likened to the sound of a distant tractor (Lee, 1996; Conant and Collins, 1998; Lever, 2001; Savage, 2002; Duellman, 2005). Recordings of the calls of R. marina are available on several CDs (Library of Natural Sounds, 1996; Bogert, 1998; Rivero, 1998). The tadpoles are black dorsally, with a venter (belly) that is silvery white with black spots (Ashton and Ashton, 1988; Lee, 1996; Altig et al. 1998). Tadpoles of R. marina are illustrated in Lee (1996), McKeown (1996), Lever (2001), Savage (2002), and Duellman (2005).

Cane Toads are commonly illustrated and appear in an enormous variety of publications (Vellard and Penteado, 1930a, b; Wright and Wright, 1949; Oliver and Shaw, 1953; Oliver, 1955; Alexander, 1964; McKeown, 1978, 1996; Smith, 1978; Behler and King, 1979; Sengoku, 1979; Freiberg and Walls, 1984; Chan and Young, 1985; [Mathui], 1985; Garrett and Barker, 1987; Mattison, 1987; Ashton and Ashton, 1988; Hoser, 1989; Lazell, 1989; Lewis, 1989; Tyler, 1989; Carmichael and Williams, 1991; Bartlett, 1994; McCoid and Kleberg, 1995; Lee, 1996, 2001; Meyer and Foster, 1996; Murphy, 1997; Renjifo, [1997]; Campbell, 1998; Carpenter, 1998; Conant and Collins, 1998; Joglar, 1998; Powell et al., 1998; Rivero, 1998; Zweifel, 1998; Bartlett and Bartlett, 1999a, b; Cogger, 2000; Crump, 2000; Lever, 2001; Zug et al., 2001; McCranie and Wilson, 2002; Savage, 2002; Schlaepfer and Pilgrim, 2003; Meshaka et al., 2004; Beltz, 2005; Duellman, 2005; McCranie et al. 2006; Pramuk, 2006).

Size: SVL is 100-238 mm (4-over 9.25 in).

Native Range: Cane Toads are indigenous to northern South America (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Paraguay, Venezuela, the Guianas, mainland Honduras, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago), Central America, and Mexico northward to extreme southern Texas (Cameron, Hidalgo, Jim Hogg, Starr, Webb, and Zapata Counties) (Blair, 1947; Axtell and Wasserman, 1953; Neill, 1965; Smith and Smith, 1973, 1976, 1993; Zug and Zug, 1979; Frost, 1985; Easteal, 1986; Garrett and Barker, 1987; Flores-Villela, 1993; Lee, 1996; Meyer and Foster, 1996; Murphy, 1997; Renjifo, [1997]; Campbell, 1998, 1999; Conant and Collins, 1998; Bartlett and Bartlett, 1999a; Duellman, 1999a, 2005; Duellman and Sweet, 1999; Auth et al., 2000; Dixon, 2000; Lever, 2001; McCranie and Wilson, 2002; Savage, 2002; McCranie et al., 2006).
US auto-generated map Legend USGS Logo
Alaska auto-generated map
Alaska
Hawaii auto-generated map
Hawaii
Caribbean auto-generated map
Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
Guam auto-generated map
Guam Saipan
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences: A R. marina was collected in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, in 1991 (Cardoza et al., 1993; Benson et al., 2004).

In Florida, 200 R. marina were intentionally introduced to Canal Point and Belle Glade, Palm Beach County, prior to 1936 (Lobdell, 1936, 1937), and another group of Cane Toads were introduced to Clewiston, Hendry County, prior to 1944 (Oliver, 1949; Riemer, 1958; Lever, 2001).  Further introductions were made to Miami-Dade and Sarasota Counties prior to 1958 (Riemer, 1958; Crowder, 1974; Lever, 2001).  Other introductions of R. marina occurred in Miami-Dade County (Kendall) in 1964 and prior to 1966 (Miami International Airport), and Pembroke Park, Broward County in 1963 (King and Krakauer, 1966; Crowder, 1974).  Over the years Cane Toads have been recorded from the following Florida counties: Bay, Citrus, Clay, Glades, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lee, Marion, Martin, Monroe, Okeechobee, Orange, Pasco, Pinellas, and Polk (Duellman and Schwartz, 1958; Krakauer, 1968; Stevenson, 1976; Easteal, 1981; Wilson and Porras, 1983; Ashton and Ashton, 1988; Lazell, 1989; Stevenson and Crowe, 1992; McCann et al., 1996; Butterfield et al., 1997; Meshaka, 1997, 1999a, b; Conant and Collins, 1998; Meshaka et al., 2000, 2004; Lever, 2001; Krysko et al., 2005; Himes, 2007).

Several introductions of R. marina to Louisiana have been made, many prior to 1935, one of which could have been on the Grand Terre Islands (Jefferson and Plaquemines Parishes) (Easteal, 1981; Lever, 2001).

Howland (1996) lists nonindigenous R. marina collected from an unspecified locality in Arizona.

Rhinella marina were first introduced to Oahu, Hawaii in 1932 (Pemberton, 1933; Oliver, 1949; Oliver and Shaw, 1953; McKeown, 1978, 1996; Lever, 2001).  Descendants of this original introduction were subsequently spread, intentionally, throughout the Hawaiian Islands (Oliver, 1949; Oliver and Shaw, 1953; Easteal, 1981; McKeown, 1996; Lever, 2001, 2003).

A variety of introductions of R. marina have been made to several United States possessions, territories, trusts, and commonwealths including Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam (including Cocos Island) and Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and Republic of Palau (Lobdell, 1936, 1937; Oliver, 1949; Schwartz and Thomas, 1975; Easteal, 1981; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985, 1991; McCoid, 1993; McCoid and Kleberg, 1995; Powell et al., 1996; Lever, 2001, 2003).

Cane Toads have been introduced throughout much of the Caribbean including Antigua, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada and Carriacou Island, Guadeloupe, Grand Cayman Island, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Jamaica (including Cabarita Island), Marie Galante, Martinique, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Tortola, and Isla de Guanaja (Honduras) (Schwartz and Thomas, 1975; Easteal, 1981; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985, 1991; Powell et al., 1996, 1999; Censky and Kaiser, 1999; Crombie, 1999; Hedges, 1999; Thomas, 1999; Lever, 2001, 2003; McCranie and Wilson, 2002; Burton and Echternacht, 2003; Powell and Henderson, 2003; Paice, 2005).

In the Pacific, R. marina have been introduced to Australia, Japan, Taiwan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Cook Islands, Micronesia, Fiji Islands, Kiribati, Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Solomon Islands, Republic of Palau and Tuvalu (Oliver, 1949; Matsui, 1975; Zug et al., 1975; Sengoku, 1979; Easteal, 1981, 1986; Hoser, 1989; Lewis, 1989; Tyler, 1989, 1999; Ota, 1999; Cogger, 2000; Lever, 2001, 2003; Beltz, 2005).

Other worldwide introductions include Bermuda, Egypt, Mauritius, Thailand, Korea, and Diego Garcia of the Chagos Archipelago (Easteal, 1981, 1986; Lever, 2001, 2003; Wingate, [2002]).

Means of Introduction: Both in the U.S. and worldwide, R. marina is normally introduced intentionally in a misguided attempt to control insect agricultural pests, primarily in cane fields (Pemberton, 1933; Lobdell, 1936, 1937; Oliver, 1949, 1955; Oliver and Shaw, 1953; Riemer, 1958; King and Krakauer, 1966; Zug et al., 1975; Easteal, 1981, 1986; Lewis, 1989; Hoser, 1989; McCoid and Kleberg, 1995; McCann et al., 1996; Zweifel, 1998; Cogger, 2000; Lever, 2001; Meshaka et al., 2004).  In Florida, intentional and accidental releases from animal importers also have occurred (King and Krakauer, 1966).  Those R. marina collected from Bay County, in the Florida Panhandle, escaped from a local zoo (Himes, 2007). Some nonindigenous Cane Toads released in Papua New Guinea were from animals used in laboratories for human pregnancy testing (Zug et al., 1975; Lever, 2001, 2003).

Status: The only Cane Toad found in Massachusetts was collected; it is not established in this state (Cardoza et al., 1993).

In Florida, R. marina is apparently established in Bay, Broward, Miami-Dade, Citrus, Glades, Highlands, Hillsborough, Lee, Martin, Monroe (including Stock Island and Key West), Okeechobee, Orange, Palm Beach, Pasco, Pinellas, and Polk Counties (Duellman and Schwartz, 1958; Fitcher, 1970; Stevenson, 1976; Wilson and Porras, 1983; Ashton and Ashton, 1988; Moler, 1988; Lazell, 1989; Carmichael and Williams, 1991; Stevenson and Crowe, 1992; Bartlett, 1994, 2002; Dalrymple, 1994; Beltz, 1995; McCoid and Kleberg, 1995; McCann et al., 1996; Butterfield et al., 1997; Meshaka, 1997, 1999a, b; Conant and Collins, 1998; Bartlett and Bartlett, 1999b; Duellman and Sweet, 1999; Meshaka et al., 2000, 2004; Lever, 2001; Ferriter et al., 2006; King, 2006; Himes, 2007).  Cane Toads introduced to Hendry and Sarasota Counties failed, along with the original, but not subsequent, introductions to Palm Beach and Miami-Dade (prior to 1958) Counties (Lever, 2001).  The R. marina collected from Clay County, northern Florida, represents a single specimen (Florida Museum of Natural History records; Meshaka et al., 2004) and is not indicative of an established population.  Specimens found in Ocala, Marion County, by R. Ashton (in McCann et al., 1996) require further verification to determine if a viable population exists in this county.  (Note:  The range map of Florida depicted in Lever [2001] is inaccurate in that it depicts the range of R. marina as occurring in most of the southwestern counties of the state, rather than the southeastern counties.  Smith [2002] also has criticized this map.) 

Cane Toads failed to establish any reproductive colonies in Louisiana (Easteal, 1981; Lever, 2001, 2003).

Rhinella marina is not established in Arizona; Howland (1996) is somewhat vague about its ultimate status and it is not listed by Brennan and Holycross (2006).

In Hawaii, R. marina remains established on the islands of Kauai, Hawaii (Big Island), Maui, Molokai, and Oahu (Smith and Kohler, 1978; Chan and Young, 1985; McCoid and Kleberg, 1995; McKeown, 1996; Collins and Taggart, 2002; Lever, 2003; Thomas, 2006).

Rhinella marina remains established in Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam (including Cocos Island) and Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and Republic of Palau (Oliver, 1949; McCoid, 1993; McCoid and Kleberg, 1995; Powell et al., 1996; Joglar, 1998; Rivero, 1998; Hedges, 1999; Thomas, 1999; Lever, 2001, 2003).

Most of the other worldwide introductions (listed above) have produced successfully established populations (Zug et al., 1975; Easteal, 1981, 1986; [Mathui], 1985; Hoser, 1989; Schwartz and Henderson, 1991; Censky and Kaiser, 1999; Crombie, 1999; Hedges, 1999; Powell et al., 1999; Tyler, 1999; Cogger, 2000; Ota, 1999; Lever, 2001, 2003; McCranie and Wilson, 2002; Burton and Echternacht, 2003; Phillips et al., 2003; Brown et al., 2007) with the notable exceptions of Taiwan, Thailand, Korea, Egypt, Mauritius, Cuba, Dominica, Carabita Island of Jamaica, Cook Islands, and the Marshall Islands (Schwartz and Thomas, 1975; Schwartz and Henderson, 1991; Lever, 2001, 2003).  The most successfully established populations of nonindigenous R. marina are best described as Pan-Pacific and Pan-Caribbean.


Impact of Introduction: In many nonindigenous localities, such as Florida and Hawaii, the exact impact of R. marina on indigenous ecosystems remains unclear.  Pets that eat or bite Cane Toads become seriously ill from the milky venom contained within the massive parotoid glands and human poisonings are not unknown (Oliver, 1949; Ashton and Ashton, 1998; Lee, 1996; McCann et al., 1996; Lever, 2001, 2003; Beltz, 2005).  The complex toxic secretion from these glands can be squirted into the eyes when toads are handled roughly, causing intense pain and a potential medical emergency (Blair, 1947; Lewis, 1989; Lever, 2001).  The widely touted use of R. marina venom as a narcotic in the U. S. may be an urban myth, at least for this particular species of bufonid; it is difficult to determine what complex method would have to be devised to selectively neutralize some of the toxins so that it can be used as a hallucinogen (Lee, 1996; Lever, 2001; Beltz, 2005). However, some cultures utilize extracts from the venom to concoct traditional medicines (Crump, 2000; Beltz, 2005). Lee (1996) provides an extensive discussion on the toxicity and potential pharmacological properties of Cane Toad venom.

Large numbers of R. marina aggregate around artificial bee hives placed near ground level and eat domestic honey bees (Oliver, 1949). Sizable breeding aggregations of chorusing males are a loud nuisance in Puerto Rico (Oliver, 1949).

Although North American predators that normally eat bufonids and their tadpoles may be adapted to dealing with such toxic meals, in areas such as Australia, Papua New Guinea, and Bermuda were no indigenous bufonids occur, anuran predators can suffer ill effects or death (Hoser, 1989; O’Shea, 1990; McCann et al., 1996; Greer, 1997; Crossland and Azevedo-Ramos, 1999; Davenport et al., 2001; Lever, 2001). The toxins found in the eggs and tadpoles can poison some but not all tadpole predators (Crossland and Azevedo-Ramos, 1999; Punzo and Lindstrom, 2001). The same may be true of indigenous Hawaiian predators; however, McKeown (1996) observed a Palea steindachneri (wattle-necked softshell), a nonindigenous turtle, eating a R. marina, and a similar observation was made of an indigenous opossum in Panama, Didelphis marsupialis, successfully consuming this bufonid with no ill effects (Laurance and Laurance, 2007).

In Australia, most species of indigenous snakes are potentially, adversely impacted the toxins (Phillips et al., 2003; Phillips and Shine, 2006a). Mortality in populations of two species indigenous of snakes that have regularly ingested these toxic toads has resulted in the selection against snakes with a gape size large enough to swallow them (Phillips and Shine, 2004; Phillips and Shine, 2006b). Juvenile and small adult Australian snakes of several species may suffer disproportionately greater mortality (Phillips and Shine, 2006b, c); however, a varying effect may occur in within a single species of indigenous snake due to niche partitioning between the sexes, and between adults and juveniles (Webb et al., 2005). Additionally, Cane Toads adversely impact Australian invertebrate fauna through predation, resulting in a massive nutrient sink in floodplain ecosystems (Greenlees et al., 2006). More intrepid humans in Australia have invented a variety of recipes for consuming Cane Toad legs (Liner, 2005). The most recent research on Cane Toads in Australia is conducted by Rick Shine’s lab and continually updated on its webpage (Elphick, 2008). Shine (2010) suggested that indirect impacts occur in the trophic webs through the reduction in predator populations, and population increases in the species formerly consumed by those predators.

In Bermuda, R. marina is a potential predatory threat to an endangered endemic lizard, the Bermudian rock skink, Plestiodon longirostris, which also might be poisoned by eating the juvenile toads (Davenport et al., 2001; Wingate, [2002]).

In residential areas of Florida, R. marina may displace the native bufonid, Anaxyrus terrestris (Krakauer, 1968; Wilson and Porras, 1993).  It is probably the voracious predatory abilities of R. marina that may have the most serious impact upon indigenous wildlife (Zweifel, 1998); however, this aspect of its impact remains unstudied (McCann et al., 1996).  The nonindigenous tick, Amblyomma rotundatum, was introduced to Florida through parasitized R. marina, and the common dog hookworm, Aclyostoma caninum, was found in the feces of Cane Toads from Tampa (Oliver et al., 1993; Meshaka et al., 2004). Cane Toad tadpoles in Florida, in combination with the presence of the nonindigenous Cuban Treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis, can negatively impact native tadpole species (Smith, 2005).

Remarks: Several authorities have provided morphological and taxonomic reviews or summaries of R. marina (Zug and Zug, 1979; Frost, 1985, 2000, 2007; Easteal, 1986; Lever, 2001, 2003; Collins and Taggart, 2002; Haas, 2003; Powell and Henderson, 2003; Pauly et al., 2004; Pough et al., 2004; Bever, 2005; Frost et al., 2006, 2008; Pramuk, 2006; Chaparro et al., 2007). Frost et al. (2006) transferred all New World bufonids out of the genus Bufo, consequently placing “Bufo” marinus into the genus Chaunus in their sweeping taxonomic revision of the Amphibia. Systematic research by Pramuk (2006) suggested an additional split within this South American group. More recently, Chaparro et al. (2007) transferred this and some other South American bufonid species into the genus Rhinella (Frost, 2007; Frost et al. 2008). The taxonomy of this group remains dynamic. Liner (1994) provided a Spanish vernacular name for R. marina in Mexico. Various studies and summaries of the natural history of R. marina have been published (Oliver, 1949, 1955;Wright and Wright, 1949; Krakauer, 1968, 1970; Zug et al., 1975; Zug and Zug, 1979; Schwartz and Henderson, 1991; Meyer and Foster, 1996; Murphy, 1997; Campbell, 1998; Lever, 2001; Schlaepfer and Pilgrim, 2003; Vaz-Silva and da Frota, 2004; Manzanilla et al., 2005; Vargas-Salinas, 2005; Duellman, 2005; Laurance and Laurance, 2007).  Summaries of the complex history of introductions of Cane Toads worldwide are provided by Oliver (1949), Easteal (1981, 1986, 1989), Easteal and Floyd (1986), and Lever (2001, 2003).

In the wild these monster toads are largely nonselective, opportunistic carnivores that consume a wide variety of invertebrates, vertebrates (including other frogs and smaller R. marina), and carrion, occasionally supplementing their diet with plant matter (Oliver and Shaw, 1953; Oliver, 1955; Zug et al., 1975; Zug and Zug, 1979; Ashton and Ashton, 1988; Campbell, 1998; Lever, 2001; Meshaka et al., 2004; Duellman, 2005; Hagman and Shine, 2008). In urban and suburban environments, R. marina living near human habitations will eat dog and cat food left outdoors for resident pets, along with a variety of household garbage including carrot peelings, lettuce, rutabagas, cooked rice, rotting avocados, and feces (Alexander, 1964; Ashton and Ashton, 1988; Savage, 2002; Meshaka et al., 2004). In the 1970s, J. Wiley (personal communication 2006) observed Cane Toads entering an open doorway to a restaurant in Guanacaste, Costa Rica, in order to feed on table scraps that had fallen beneath patrons’ tables. Patrons tossing scraps down to the toads encouraged this foraging behavior. In another unusual incident, a Cane Toad snapped up a lit cigarette butt with no noticeable negative effects (Lewis, 1989; Lever, 2001). While vision is the principle means of detecting prey, R. marina can use olfaction to detect immobile food items (Lever, 2001, 2003; Meshaka et al., 2004).

Rhinella marina reproduces at almost any time of the year unless the temperature is too cold, laying thousands or tens-of-thousands of eggs, encased in gelatinous strings, in any temporary or permanent body of water, including brackish waters (Krakauer, 1968; Crump, 1974; Zug et al., 1975; Zug and Zug, 1979; Schwartz and Henderson, 1991; Murphy, 1997; Lever, 2001).  In Florida, these toads will opportunistically utilize new breeding sites created by hurricanes, often in urban environments (Meshaka, 1993, 2001; Meshaka et al., 2004). Their high tolerance to saline waters (Lever, 2001; Wingate, [2002]) may have given rise to their specific scientific name (Lever, 2001). Rhinella marina at the first wave of invasion fronts in Australia have significantly longer legs and consequent greater dispersal speeds than those in older, established populations; thus, indicating a rapid adaptive shift in morphology that allows for increased invasiveness in this species (Phillips et al., 2006).

The clearing of forests for agriculture and roadways in Amazonian South America creates new habit that is quickly invaded by R. marina (Duellman, 1999b). In Australia Cane Toads are able to disperse rapidly by using sparsely vegetated roadside clearings as corridors (Brown et al., 2006). Sensitivity to cold weather and their restriction to disturbed anthropogenic habitats may eventually halt the slow, northward spread of R. marina in Florida (Krakauer, 1968, 1970; McCann et al., 1996). However, this prediction ignores the positive impact that thermal adaptation and Global Warming could have on the ability of R. marina to disperse.  Worldwide R. marina is regarded as an icon of an introduced species that has become a major pest (Sharp, 1969; Fitcher, 1970; Rundquist, 1978; Lewis, 1989; Belleville, 1994; Beltz, 1995; McCoid and Kleberg, 1995; Frank and McCoy, 1995; Simberloff, 1997; Zweifel, 1998; Hiaasen, 1999; Cogger, 2000; Zug et al., 2001; Beltz, 2006).

References: (click for full references)

Alexander, T. R. 1964. Observations on the feeding behavior of Bufo marinus (Linne). Herpetologica 20(4):255-259.

Altig, R., R. W. McDiarmid, K. A. Nichols, and P. C. Ustach. 1998. A key to the anuran tadpoles of the United States and Canada. Contemporary Herpetology Information Series [online] (2):URL: http://www.cnah.org/ch/chis/1998/2/index.htm.

Ashton, R. E., Jr., and P. S. Ashton. 1988. Handbook of Reptiles and Amphibians of Florida. Part Three. The Amphibians. Windward Publishing, Inc., Miami. 191 pp.

Auth, D. L., H. M. Smith, B. C. Brown, and D. Lintz. 2000. A description of the Mexican amphibian and reptile collection of the Strecker Museum. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 35(4):65-85.

Axtell, R. W., and A. O. Wasserman. 1953. Interesting herpetological records from southern Texas and northern Mexico. Herpetologica 9(1):1-6.

Bartlett, R. D. 1994. Florida’s alien herps.  Reptile & Amphibian Magazine (27):56-73, 103-109.

Bartlett, D. [=R. D.] 2002. Krazy for the Keys. Reptiles 10(4):22-26.

Bartlett, R. D., and P. D. Bartlett. 1999a. A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston. 331 pp.

Bartlett, R. D., and P. P. Bartlett. 1999b. A Field Guide to Florida Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston. 280 pp.

Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York. 743 pp.

Belleville, W. 1994. Critter patrol. The Orlando Sentinel (149; 29 May); Florida [news magazine insert] 41(22):8-12, 15.

Beltz, E. 1995. HerPET-POURRI. Poisonous amphibians. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 30(9):197.

Beltz, E. 2005. Frogs. Inside Their Remarkable World. Firefly Books Ltd, Richmond Hill, Ontario, and Buffalo, New York. 175 pp.

Benson, A. J., C. C. Jacono, P. L. Fuller, E. R. McKercher, and M. M. Richerson. 2004. Summary Report of Nonindigenous Aquatic Species in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Region 5. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Arlington. 142 pp.

Bever, G. S. 2005. Variation in the ilium of North American Bufo (Lissamphibia; Anura) and its implications for species-level identification of fragmentary anuran fossils. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25(3):548-560.

Blair, A. P. 1947. Defensive use of parotoid secretion by Bufo marinus. Copeia 1947(2):137.

Bogert, C. M. 1998. Sounds of North American Frogs. The Biological Significance of Voice in Frogs. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Washington, D.C. Audio CD Recording.

Brennan, T. C., and A. T. Holycross. 2006. Amphibians and Reptiles in Arizona. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix. 150 pp.

Brown, G. P., B. J. Phillips, J. K. Webb, and R. Shine. 2006. Toad on the road: Use of roads as dispersal corridors by Cane Toads (Bufo marinus) at an invasion front in tropical Australia. Biological Conservation 133(1):88-94.

Brown, G. P., C. Shilton, B. L. Phillips, and R. Shine. 2007. Invasion, stress, and spinal arthritis in Cane Toads. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 104(45):17698-17700.

Burton, F. J., and A. C. Echternacht. 2003. Geographic distribution: Bufo marinus (Cane Toad). British West Indies: Cayman Islands: Grand Cayman. Herpetological Review 34(3):257.

Butterfield, B. P., W. E. Meshaka, Jr., and C. Guyer. 1997. Nonindigenous amphibians and reptiles.  Pp. 123-138. In: D. Simberloff, D. C. Schmitz, and T. C. Brown (editors). Strangers in Paradise. Impact and Management of Nonindigenous Species in Florida. Island Press, Washington, D. C. 467 pp.

Campbell, J. A. 1998. Amphibians and Reptiles of Northern Guatemala, the Yucatán, and Belize. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma. 380 pp.

Campbell, J. A. 1999. Distribution patterns of amphibians in Middle America. Pp. 111-210. In: W. E. Duellman (editor). Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians. A Global Perspective. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 633 pp.

Cardoza, J. E., G. S. Jones, T. W. French, and D. B. Halliwell. 1993. Exotic and Translocated Vertebrates of Massachusetts. Fauna of Massachusetts Series 6. Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Westborough, Massachusetts. 106 pp.

Carmichael, P., and W. Williams. 1991. Florida’s Fabulous Reptiles and Amphibians. World Publications, Tampa. 120 pp.

Carpenter, C. C. 1998. Reptile & amphibian behavior. Pp. 36-41. In: H. G. Cogger and R. G. Zweifel (editors). Encyclopedia of Amphibians & Reptiles. Second Edition. Academic Press, San Diego. 240 pp.

Censky, E. J., and H. Kaiser. 1999. The Lesser Antillean fauna. Pp. 181-221. In: B. I. Crother (editor). Caribbean Amphibians and Reptiles. Academic Press, San Diego. 495 pp.

Chan, J. G., and L. Y. Young. 1985. Bufo marinus (Marine Toad). Anomaly. Herpetological Review 16(1):23-24.

Chaparro, J. C., J. B. Pramuk, and A. G. Gluesenkamp. 2007. A new species of arboreal Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae) from cloud forest of southeastern Peru. Herpetologica 63(2):203-212..

Cogger, H. G. 2000. Reptiles & Amphibians of Australia. Sixth Edition. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, Florida. 808 pp.

Collins, J. T., and T. W. Taggart. 2002. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles & Crocodilians. Fifth Edition. The Center for North American Herpetology, Lawrence, Kansas.  44 pp.

Conant, R., and J. T. Collins. 1998. A Field Guide to Reptiles & Amphibians. Eastern and Central North America. Third Edition, Expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 616 pp.

Crombie, R. I. 1999. Jamaica. Pp. 63-92. In: B. I. Crother (editor). Caribbean Amphibians and Reptiles. Academic Press, San Diego. 495 pp.

Crossland, M. R., and C. Azevedo-Ramos. 1999. Effects of Bufo (Anura: Bufonidae) toxins on tadpoles from native and exotic Bufo habitats. Herpetologica 55(2):192-199.

Crowder, J. P. 1974. The Exotic Vertebrates of South Florida. South Florida Environmental Project Ecological Report, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife PB-235 214, U. S. Department of the Interior, Atlanta.

Crump, M. L. 1974. Reproductive strategies in a tropical anuran community. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication (61):1-68.

Crump, M. [L.] 2000. In Search of the Golden Frog. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London. 299 pp.

Dalrymple, G. H. 1994. Non-indigenous amphibians and reptiles in Florida. Pp. 67-78. In: D. C. Schmitz and T. C. Brown (editors). An Assessment of Invasive Non-indigenous Species in Florida’s Public Lands. Division of Environmental Resource Permitting, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Technical Report No. TSS-94-100, Tallahassee. 303 pp.

Davenport, J., J. Hills, A. Glasspool, and J. Ward. 2001. Threats to the critically endangered endemic Bermudan skink Eumeces longirostris. Oryx 35(4):332-339.

Dixon, J. R. 2000. Amphibians and Reptiles of Texas. Second Edition. Texas A & M University Press, College Station. 421 pp.

Duellman, W. E. 1999a. Distribution patterns of amphibians in South America. Pp. 255-328. In: W. E. Duellman (editor). Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians. A Global Perspective. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 633 pp.

Duellman, W. E. 1999b. Global distribution of amphibians: Patterns, conservation, and future changes. Pp. 1-30. In: W. E. Duellman (editor). Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians. A Global Perspective. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 633 pp.

Duellman, W. E. 2005. Cusco Amazónico. The Lives of Amphibians and Reptiles in an Amazonian Rainforest. Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press. 433 pp.

Duellman, W. E., and A. Schwartz. 1958. Amphibians and reptiles of southern Florida. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences 3(5):181-324.

Duellman, W. E., and S. S. Sweet. 1999. Distribution patterns of amphibians in the Nearctic Region of North America. Pp. 31-109. In: W. E. Duellman (editor). Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians. A Global Perspective. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 633 pp.

Easteal, S. 1981. The history of introductions of Bufo marinus (Amphibia: Anura); a natural experiment in evolution. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 16(2):93-113.

Easteal, S. 1986. Bufo marinus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (395):1-4.

Easteal, S. 1989. The effects of genetic drift during range expansion on geographical patterns of variation: A computer simulation of the colonization of Australia by Bufo marinus. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 37(4):281-295.

Easteal, S., and R. B. Floyd. 1986. The ecological genetics of introduced populations of the Giant Toad, Bufo marinus: Dispersal and neighbourhood size. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 27(1):17-45.

Elphick, M. 2008. Welcome to the Shine Lab [online]. Available on URL: http://www.bio.usyd.edu.au/Shinelab/. School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney.

Ferriter, A., B. Doren, C. Goodyear, D. Thayer, J. Burch, L. Toth, M. Bodle, J. Lane, D. [C.] Schmitz, P. Pratt, [R. W.] S. Snow, and K. Langeland. 2006. The status of nonindigenous species in the South Florida environment. Pp. 9-1 to 9-102. In: S. Efron (prod. manager), and South Florida Environmental Report Production Team (editors). 2006 South Florida Environmental Report. – Vol. 1. South Florida Water Management District and Florida Department of Environmental Protection, West Palm Beach.

Fitcher, G. 1970. The new nature of Florida. Florida Wildlife 24(7):10-15.

Flores-Villela, O. 1993. Herpetofauna Mexicana. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication (17):i-iv, 1-73.

Frank, J. H., and E. D. McCoy. 1995. Introduction to insect behavioral ecology: The good, the bad, and the beautiful: Non-indigenous species in Florida. Invasive adventive insects and other organisms in Florida. Florida Entomologist 78(1):1-15.

Freiberg, M., and J. G. Walls. 1984. The World of Venomous Animals. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. 191 pp.

Frost, D. R. (editor). 1985. Amphibian Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographical Reference. Allen Press, Inc. and The Association of Systematics Collections. Lawrence, Kansas. 732 pp.

Frost, D. [R.] (compiler). 2000. Anura¬—frogs. Pp. 6-17. In: B. I. Crother (chair), and Committee on Standard English and Scientific Names (editors). Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular (29):i-iii, 1-82.

Frost, D. [R.] 2007. Amphibian Species of the World 5.1, an Online Reference. American Museum of Natural History, New York. Available on URL: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php.

Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. De Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green, and W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297:1-370 + Fig. 50 foldout.

Frost, D. R., R. W. McDiarmid, and J. R. Mendelson III. 2008. Anura—frogs. Pp. 2-12. In: B. I. Crother (chair), and Committee on Standard English and Scientific Names (editors). Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth Edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular (37):1-84.

Garrett, J. M., and D. G. Barker. 1987. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Texas. Texas Monthly Press, Austin. 225 pp.

Greenlees, M. J., G. P. Brown, J. K. Webb, B. L. Phillips, and R. Shine. 2006. Effects of an invasive anuran [the Cane Toad (Bufo marinus)] on the invertebrate fauna of a tropical Australian floodplain. Animal Conservation 9(4):431-438.

Greer, A. E. 1997. The Biology and Evolution of Australian Snakes. Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Limited, Chipping Norton, Australia. 358 pp.

Haas, A. 2003. Phylogeny of frogs as inferred from primarily larval characters (Amphibia: Anura). Cladistics 19(1):23-89.

Hagman, M., and R. Shine. 2008. Deceptive digits: The functional significance of toe waving by cannibalistic Cane Toads, Chaunus marinus. Animal Behaviour 75(1):123-131.

Hedges, S. B. 1999. Distribution patterns of amphibians in the West Indies. Pp. 211-254. In: W. E. Duellman (editor). Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians. A Global Perspective. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 633 pp.

Hiaasen, C. 1999. Land snakes! Pythons seem to like it here. Pp. 15-17. In: D. Stevenson (editor). Kick Ass. Selected Columns of Carl Hiaasen. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. 447 pp.

Himes, J. G. 2007. Geographic distribution. Bufo marinus (Marine Toad). USA: Florida: Bay Co. Herpetological Review 38(4):473.

Hoser, R. T. 1989. Australian Reptiles & Frogs. Pierson & Co, Sydney. 238 pp.

Howland, J. M. 1996. Herps of Arizona. The Desert Monitor (Phoenix) 27(1):12-17.

Joglar, R. L. 1998. Los Coquíes de Puerto Rico. Su Historia Natural y Conservación. Editorial de las Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan. 232 pp.

King, F. W. 2006. Checklist of Florida Amphibians and Reptiles [online]. Available on URL: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herpetology/FL-GUIDE/Flaherps.htm. Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville.

King, [F.] W., and T. Krakauer. 1966. The exotic herpetofauna of southeast Florida. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 29(2):144-154.

Krakauer, T. 1968. The ecology of the neotropical toad, Bufo marinus, in South Florida. Herpetologica 24(3):214-221.

Krakauer, T. 1970. Tolerance limits of the toad, Bufo marinus, in South Florida. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 33(1):15-16.

Krysko, K. L., K. M. Enge, J. H. Townsend, E. M. Langan, S. A. Johnson, and T. S. Campbell. 2005. New county records of amphibians and reptiles from Florida. Herpetological Review 36(1):85-87.

Laurance, S. G., and W. F. Laurance. 2007. Chaunus marinus (Cane Toad). Predation. Herpetological Review 38(3):320-321.

Lazell, J. D., Jr. 1989. Wildlife of the Florida Keys: A Natural History. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 250 pp.

Lee, J. C. 1996. The Amphibians and Reptiles of the Yucatán Peninsula.  Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London. 500 pp.

Lee, J. C. 2001. Evolution of a secondary sexual dimorphism in the toad, Bufo marinus. Copeia 2001(4):928-935.

Lever, C. 2001. The Cane Toad. The History and Ecology of a Successful Colonist. Westbury Academic and Scientific Publishing, Otley, West Yorkshire, England.  230 pp.

Lever, C. 2003. Naturalized Reptiles and Amphibians of the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 318 pp.

Lewis, S. 1989. Cane Toads. An Unnatural History. Dolphin/Doubleday, New York. 99 pp.

Library of Natural Sounds. 1996. Voices of the Night. The Calls of the Frogs and Toads of Eastern North America. Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Ithaca. Audio CD Recording.

Liner, E. A. 1994. Scientific and common names for the amphibians and reptiles of Mexico in English and Spanish. Nombres científicos y comunes en Ingles y Españole de los anfibios y los reptiles de México. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular (23):i-vi, 1-113.

Liner, E. A. 2005. The Culinary Herpetologist. Bibliomania!, Salt Lake City. 384 pp.

Lobdell, R. N. 1936. Field and laboratory studies upon insect pests of South Florida with particular reference to methods of control. State Project 87. University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Annual Report 1936:123-124.

Lobdell, R. N. 1937. Insect pests and their control. State Project 87. University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Annual Report 1937:141-142.

Manzanilla, J., I. Martínez-Solano, M. García-Paris, and D. Buckley. 2005. Bufo marinus (Cane Toad). Predation. Herpetological Review 36(3):298-299.

[Mathui, K.] 1985. [Amphibians and Reptiles of Japan. Shōgakūkau, Tokyo.] [In Japanese.] 160 pp.

Matsui, M. 1975. On the record of the Giant Toad, Bufo marinus, from Minami-Daitojima, Ryukyu Archipelago. Japanese Journal of Herpetology 6(2):43-47.

Mattison, C. 1987. Frogs & Toads of the World. Facts on File, Inc, New York. 191 pp.

McCann, J. A., L. N. Arkin, and J. D. Williams. 1996. Nonindigenous Aquatic and Selected Terrestrial Species in Florida. Status, Pathways, Dates of Introduction, Range Distributions, and Significant Ecological and Economic Effects. Florida Caribbean Science Center, U. S. Geological Survey, Gainesville. 301 pp.

McCoid, M. J. 1993. The “new” Herpetofauna of Guam, Mariana Islands. Herpetological Review 24(1):16-17.

McCoid, M. J., and C. Kleberg. 1995. Non-native reptiles and amphibians. Pp. 433-437. In: E. T. LaRoe, G. S. Farris, C. E. Puckett, P. D. Doran, and M. J. Mac (editors). Our Living Resources: A Report to the Nation on the Distribution, Abundance, and Health of U. S. Ecosystems. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Service, Washington, D. C. 530 pp.

McCranie, J. R., J. H. Townsend, and L. D. Wilson. 2006. The Amphibians and Reptiles of the Honduran Mosquitia. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida. 291 pp.

McCranie, J. R., and L. D. Wilson. 2002. The Amphibians of Honduras. Contributions to Herpetology 19. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca. 625 pp.

McKeown, S. 1978. Hawaiian Reptiles and Amphibians. The Oriental Publishing Company, Honolulu. 80 pp.

McKeown, S. 1996. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians in the Hawaiian Islands. Diamond Head Publishing, Inc., Los Osos, California. 172 pp.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 1993. Hurricane Andrew and the colonization of five invading species in South Florida. Florida Scientist 56(4):193-201.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 1997. The herpetofauna of Buck Island Ranch: An altered wetland in south-central Florida. Florida Scientist 60(1):1-7.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 1999a. The herpetofauna of the Kampong. Florida Scientist 62(3/4):153-157.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 1999b. The herpetofauna of the Doc Thomas House in South Miami, Florida. Florida Field Naturalist 27(3):121-123.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 2001. The Cuban Tree Frog in Florida. Life History of a Successful Colonizing Species. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 191 pp.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr., B. P. Butterfield, and J. B. Hauge. 2004. The Exotic Amphibians and Reptiles of Florida. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida. 155 pp.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr., W. F. Loftus, and T. Steiner. 2000. The herpetofauna of Everglades National Park. Florida Scientist 63(2):84-103.

Meyer, J. R., and C. F. Foster. 1996. A Guide to the Frogs and Toads of Belize. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida. 80 pp.

Moler, P. 1988. A Checklist of Florida’s Amphibians and Reptiles. Nongame Wildlife Program, Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee. 18 pp.

Murphy, J. C. 1997. Amphibians and Reptiles of Trinidad and Tobago. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida. 245 pp. + 172 plates.

Neill, W. T. 1965. New and noteworthy amphibians and reptiles from British Honduras. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences 9(3):78-130.

Oliver, J. A. 1949. The peripatetic toad. Natural History 58(1):29-33.

Oliver, J. A. 1955. The Natural History of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton. 359 pp.

Oliver, J. A., and C. E. Shaw. 1953. The amphibians and reptiles of the Hawaiian Islands. Zoologica (New York) 38(5):65-95.

Oliver, J. H., M. P. Hayes, K. E. Keirans, and D. R. Lavender. 1993. Establishment of the foreign parthenogenetic tick Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae) in Florida. Journal of Parasitology 79(5):786-790.

O’Shea, M. T. 1990. The highly and potentially dangerous elapids of Papua New Guinea. Pp. 585-640. In: P. Gopalakrishnakone and L. M. Chou (editors). Snakes of Medical Importance (Asia-Pacific Region). Venom and Toxin Research Group, National University of Singapore, and International Society on Toxinology (Asia-Pacific Section), Singapore. 676 pp.

Ota, H. 1999. Introduced amphibians and reptiles of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Pp. 439-452. In: G. H. Rodda, Y. Sawai, D. Chiszar, and H. Tanaka (editors). Problem Snake Management: The Habu and the Brown Treesnake. Cornell University Press, Ithaca. 534 pp.

Paice, M. R. 2005. Geographic distribution: Bufo marinus (Cane Toad). Lesser Antilles: St. Vincent: The Grenadines. Herpetological Review 36(3):331-332.

Pauly, G. B., D. M. Hillis, and D. C. Cannatella. 2004. The history of a Nearctic colonization: Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Nearctic toads (Bufo). Evolution 58(11):2517-2535.

Pemberton, C. E. 1933. Introduction to Hawaii of the tropical American Toad Bufo marinus. Hawaiian Planters’ Record 38:15-16.

Phillips, B. L., G. P. Brown, and R. Shine. 2003. Assessing the potential impact of Cane Toads on Australian snakes. Conservation Biology 17(6):1738-1747.

Phillips, B. L., G. P. Brown, J. K. Webb, and R. Shine. 2006. Invasion and the evolution of speed in toads. Nature (London) 439(7078):803.

Phillips, B. L., and R. Shine. 2004. Adapting to an invasive species: Toxic Cane Toads induce morphological change in Australian snakes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101(49):17150-17155.

Phillips, B. L., and R. Shine. 2005. The morphology, and hence impact, of an invasive species (the Cane Toad, Bufo marinus): Changes with time since colonisation. Animal Conservation 8(4):407-413.

Phillips, B. L., and R. Shine. 2006a. Spatial and temporal variation in the morphology (and thus, predicted impact) of an invasive species in Australia. Ecography 29(2):205-212.

Phillips, B. L., and R. Shine. 2006b. An invasive species induces rapid adaptive change in a native predator: Cane Toads and black snakes in Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 273(1593):1545-1550 + online supplement URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.3479.

Phillips, B. L., and R. Shine. 2006c. Allometry and selection in a novel predator–prey system: Australian snakes and the invading Cane Toad. Oikos 112(1):122-130.

Pough, F. H., R. M. Andrews, J. E. Cadle, M. L. Crump, A. H. Savitzky, and K. D. Wells. 2004 [2003]. Herpetology. Third Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. 726 pp.

Powell, R., J. T. Collins, and E. D. Hooper, Jr. 1998. A Key to Amphibians & Reptiles of the Continental United States and Canada. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. 131 pp.

Powell, R., and R. W. Henderson. 2003. A second set of addenda to the checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Herpetological Review 34(4):341-345.

Powell, R., R. W. Henderson, K. Adler, and H. A. Dundee. 1996. An annotated checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Pp. 51-91, plates 1-8. In: R. Powell and R. W. Henderson (editors). Contributions to West Indian Herpetology. A Tribute to Albert Schwartz. Contributions to Herpetology 12. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca. 475 pp.

Powell, R., J. A. Ottenwalder, and S. J. Incháustegui. 1999. The Hispaniolan herpetofauna: Diversity, endemism, and historical perspectives, with comments on Navassa Island. Pp. 93-168. In: B. I. Crother (editor). Caribbean Amphibians and Reptiles. Academic Press, San Diego. 495 pp.

Pramuk, J. B. 2006. Phylogeny of South American Bufo (Anura: Bufonidae) inferred from combined evidence. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 146(3):407-452.

Punzo, F., and L. Lindstrom. 2001. The toxicity of eggs of the Giant Toad, Bufo marinus to aquatic predators in a Florida retention pond. Journal of Herpetology 35(4):693-697.

Renjifo, J. M. [1997]. Ranas y Sapos de Colombia. Editorial Colina, Medellín [and] Santafé de Bogatá. 130 pp.

Riemer, W. J. 1958. Giant Toads in Florida. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 21(3):207-211.

Rivero, J. A. 1998. Los Anfibios y Reptiles de Puerto Rico. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Puerto Rico. Segunda Edición Revisada. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan. 510 pp. + CD.

Rundquist, E. M. 1978. Rebuttal to Smith and Kohler on introduced species. Herpetological Review 9(4):131-132.

Savage, J. M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica. A Herpetofauna between Two Continents, between Two Seas. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London. 934 pp.

Schlaepfer, M.A., and K. A. Pilgrim. 2003. Geographic distribution: Bufo marinus (Cane Toad). Costa Rica: Puntarenas. Herpetological Review 34(2):161.

Schwartz, A., and R. W. Henderson. 1985. A Guide to the Identification of the Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies Exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee. 165 pp.

Schwartz, A., and R. W. Henderson. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies: Descriptions, Distributions, and Natural History. University of Florida Press, Gainesville. 720 pp.

Schwartz, A., and R. Thomas. 1975. A check-list of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication (1):1-216.

Sengoku, S. 1979. [Amphibians and Reptiles. Ienohikari (House of Light) Corporation, Tokyo.] [In Japanese.] 206 pp.

Sharp, E. 1969. Walking catfish, super snail, and now comes a Giant Toad. Gainesville Sun 1969(October 20):15.

Shine, R. 2010. The ecological impact of invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) in Australia. The Quarterly Review of Biology 85(3): 253- 291.

Simberloff, D. 1997. The biology of invasions. Pp. 3-17. In: D. Simberloff, D. C. Schmitz, and T. C. Brown (editors). Strangers in Paradise. Impact and Management of Nonindigenous Species in Florida. Island Press, Washington, D. C. 467 pp.

Smith, H. M. 1978. A Guide to Field Identification. Amphibians of North America. Golden Press, New York.

Smith, H. M., and A. J. Kohler. 1978. A survey of herpetological introductions in the United States and Canada. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 1977 80(1-2):1-24.

Smith, H. M., and R. B. Smith. 1973. Synopsis of the Herpetofauna of Mexico. Volume II. Analysis of the Literature Exclusive of the Mexican Axolotl. John Johnson Natural History Books, North Bennington, Vermont. 367 pp.

Smith, H. M., and R. B. Smith. 1976. Synopsis of the Herpetofauna of Mexico. Volume IV. Source Analysis and Index for Mexican Amphibians. John Johnson, North Bennington, Vermont. 15 pp. + A-G.

Smith, H. M., and R. B. Smith. 1993. Synopsis of the Herpetofauna of Mexico. Volume VII. Bibliographic Addendum IV and Index, Bibliographic Addenda II-IV, 1979-1991. University Press of Colorado, Niwot, Colorado. 1082 pp.

Smith, K. G. 2002. Book review: The Cane Toad: The History and Ecology of a Successful Colonist by Christopher Lever. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 37(6):107-108.

Smith, K. G. 2005. Effects of nonindigenous tadpoles on native tadpoles in Florida: Evidence of competition. Biological Conservation 123(4):433-441.

Stevenson, D., and D. Crowe. 1992. Geographic distribution: Bufo marinus (Giant Toad). USA: Florida: Pasco Co. Herpetological Review 23(3):85.

Stevenson, H. S. 1976. Vertebrates of Florida. Identification and Distribution. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville. 607 pp.

Thomas, P. [A.] 2006. Alien Species in Hawaii [online]. Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) Project, Halenkala Field Station, U. S. Geological Survey, Maui. Available on URL: http://www.hear.org/AlienSpeciesIn Hawaii/index.html.

Thomas, R. 1999. The Puerto Rico area. Pp. 169-179. In: B. I. Crother (editor). Caribbean Amphibians and Reptiles. Academic Press, San Diego. 495 pp.

Tyler, M. J. 1989. Australian Frogs. Viking O’Neil, Penguin Books Australia Ltd, Ringwood. 220 pp.

Tyler, M. J. 1999. Distribution patterns of amphibians in the Australo-Papuan region. Pp. 541-556. In: W. E. Duellman (editor). Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians. A Global Perspective. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 633 pp.

Vargas-Salinas, F. 2005. Bufo marinus (Cane Toad). Amplexus displacement. Herpetological Review 36(4):431-432.

Vaz-Silva, W., and J. G. da Frota. 2004. Bufo marinus (Marine Toad). Defensive behavior. Herpetological Review 35(4):371.

Vellard, J. and J. Penteado. 1930a. Emploi des rayons x pour l’étude du squelette et las classification des petits vertébrés. Jornal de Radiologia e Electrologia (Rio) 1930(1):1-6.

Vellard, J. and J. Penteado. 1930b. Application de la radiographie à l’étude de l’anatomie des vertébrés inférieurs. Note préliminaire. Jornal de Radiologia e Electrologia (Rio) 1930(2):7-9.

Webb, J. K., R. Shine, and K. A. Christian. 2005. Does intraspecific niche partitioning in a native predator influence its response to an invasion by a toxic prey species? Australian Ecology 30(2):201-209.

Wiley, J. R. 2006. Personal communication—Assistant Curator, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Entomology Section, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 1911 SW 34th Street, Gainesville, Florida, 32614-7100.

Wilson, L. D., and L. Porras. 1983. The ecological impact of man on the South Florida herpetofauna. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Special Publication (9):i-vi, 1-89.

Wingate, D. [2002.] Saving the skink. Wildlife Bermuda [2002]:30-32.

Wright, A. H., and A. A. Wright. 1949. Handbook of Frogs and Toads of the United States and Canada. Third Edition. Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London. 640 pp.

Zug, G. R., E. Lindgren, and J. R. Pippet. 1975. Distribution and ecology of the Marine Toad, Bufo marinus, in Papua New Guinea. Pacific Science 29(1):31-50.

Zug, G. R., L. J. Vitt, and J. P. Caldwell. 2001. Herpetology. An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Second Edition. Academic Press, San Diego. 630 pp.

Zug, G. R., and P. B. Zug. 1979. The Marine Toad, Bufo marinus: A natural history resumé of native populations. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology (284):i-iv, 1-58.

Zweifel, R. G. 1998. Frogs & Toads. Pp. 76-105. In: H. G. Cogger and R. G. Zweifel (editors). Encyclopedia of Amphibians & Reptiles. Second Edition. Academic Press, San Diego. 240 pp.

Other Resources:
Nonindigenous Species Website Links

Frogs and Toads of Florida

Bufo marinus (Marine Toad) (Gulf of Mexico Program)

Bufo marinus (Global Invasive Species Database)

Marine toads (Bufo marinus) (University of Florida, IFAS)

Author: Louis A. Somma

Revision Date: 2/4/2011

Citation Information:
Louis A. Somma. 2016. Rhinella marina. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL.
http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?SpeciesID=48 Revision Date: 2/4/2011


This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logoU.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: http://nas.er.usgs.gov
Page Contact Information: Pam Fuller - NAS Program (pfuller@usgs.gov)
Page Last Modified: Friday, January 08, 2016

Disclaimer:

The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2016]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [7/25/2016].

Additional information for authors