Common name: lemonpeel angel
Synonyms and Other Names: Dwarf angelfish; Holocanthus flavissimus (original combination)
available through www.itis.gov
Identification: The family Pomacanthidae (angelfishes) is distinguished from similar families by the presence of one or more prominent spines at the angle of the preopercle. Angelfishes have a single, continuous dorsal fin; some species have filamentous extensions of one or more dorsal rays. Most angelfishes are brightly coloured and many are imported for the aquarium trade.
The lemonpeel has XIV to XV dorsal spines, 15-16 dorsal rays, III anal spines, 16 anal soft rays and 44-50 lateral scale rows. The soft dorsal and anal fins are rounded. The body is bright yellow. Juveniles have a blue-edged black ocellus in the middle of each flank. The eye is encircled in blue. The posterior margin of the opercle has a blue blotch. Median fins are edged in blue. From Pyle (2001) and Froese and Pauly (2004).
Size: to about 9 cm TL (Pyle 2001); reported to 14 cm TL (Froese & Pauly 2004)
Native Range: Native to much of the Western Pacific, from southern Japan to the Tuamotu Archipelago, excluding Hawaii and Johnson Atoll. Also reported from the Great Barrier Reef, the Coral Sea and Ryukyu Islands. See Pyle (2001) for details. Additionally, there is an unusual isolated population in the eastern Indian Ocean (Smith-Vaniz and Randall 1974; Pyle 2001).
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Puerto Rico &
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps
Observed in Oahu, Hawaii, in 1998; verified recent (i.e. post-1995) arrival (Coles et al. 1999).
Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Centropyge flavissima are found here.
Table last updated 5/25/2018
† Populations may not be currently present.
Ecology: The lemonpeel is shallow-water species, inhabiting lagoons and coral reefs at depths of 2 to 15 m (Pyle 2001). Reported to 50 m (Froese and Pauly 2004). It is the most common Centropyge in shallow waters (less than 20 m) in the Marianas and Marshalls, but is relatively rare in the Carolines and extremely rare in Palau (Myers 1999).
Adults forms harems of 3 to 7 individuals. Lemonpeel hybridises with other Centropyge (e.g., C. eibli, C. vrolikii) in the native range (Wedge 1984; Pyle and Randall 1994; Myers 1999; Pyle 2001).
The species is mimicked by juveniles of Acanthurus pyroferus (Pyle 2001).
Means of Introduction: Aquarium release. The lemonpeel is a common species in the aquarium trade. However, it is difficult to maintain successfully.
Status: Reported from Hawaii.
Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.
References: (click for full references)
Coles, S. L., R. C. DeFelice and L. G. Edlredge. 1999. Nonindigenous marine species introduction in the harbours of the south and west shores of Oahu, Hawaii, Hawaii. Bishop Museum Technical Report No. 15. Available online at: http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/pdf/southshore.pdf
Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2004. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org, version (09/2004).
Myers, R. F. 1999. Micronesian Reef Fishes. A field guide for divers and aquarists. Coral Graphics, Davie, FL.
Pyle, R. 2001. Pomacanthidae. Angelfishes. pp 3266-3286 In: Carpenter, K. E. and V. Niem (Eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vo. 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). FAO, Rome.
Pyle, R. L. and J. E. Randall. 1994. A review of hybridization in marine angelfishes (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 41: 127-145.
Smith-Vaniz, W. F. and J. E. Randall. 1974. Two new species of angelfishes (Centropyge) from the Cocos-Keeling Islands Islands. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 126: 105-113.
Wedge, J. M. 1984. The mating game. Sea Frontiers 30: 308-309.
Revision Date: 4/20/2018
Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016
Schofield, P.J., 2019, Centropyge flavissima (Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1831): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=2262, Revision Date: 4/20/2018, Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016, Access Date: 7/16/2019
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.