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The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.




Myriophyllum spicatum
Myriophyllum spicatum
(Eurasian watermilfoil)
Plants
Exotic
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Myriophyllum spicatum L.

Common name: Eurasian watermilfoil

Synonyms and Other Names: Eurasian water-milfoil

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Myriophyllum spicatum has thin stems, which can be appear green, brown, or pinkish white. The stems grow to 1-3 meters in length and get progressively thinner the further they grow from the main stem (Aiken et al. 1979). There are typically four feather-like, deeply-dissected leaves whorled around the stems with 14 or more uniform (in diameter) leaflets on each leaf (Patten 1954).

The small, yellow four-parted flowers rise 5-10 cm above the surface of the water from the terminal spike (Aiken et al. 1979; Patten 1954). Male and female flowers can be found on the same inflorescence. The stem thickness below the inflorescence is almost double that of the lower stem, as well as curved to allow the lower stem to run parallel to the water surface (Aiken 1981).

Myriophyllum spicatum can easily be confused with native milfoil species that also may have four deeply-dissected leaves per whorl (e.g., M. heterophyllumM. sibiricum, M. verticillatum). As a general rule, Eurasian watermilfoil typically has more than 14(12-20) leaflet pairs per leaf and reduced bracts on inflorescences, in contrast to native milfoils which have fewer than 14(5-10) leaflet pairs, as in M. sibiricum, and bracts at least twice as long as the flowers, as in M. heterophyllum and M. verticillatum (Aiken 1981; Gerber and Les 1994; Patten 1956). Bud (turion) production distinguishes between the exotic M. spicatum and the native M. sibiricum and M. verticillatum, as the native species produce winter buds, while the exotic does not (Patten 1954).

Size: 1-3 meters in length (Aiken et al. 1979)

Native Range: Europe, Asia, and northern Africa (Patten 1954).

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Alaska
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Hawaii
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Puerto Rico &
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Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Myriophyllum spicatum are found here.

StateYear of earliest observationYear of last observationTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
Alabama196220188Guntersville Lake; Middle Alabama; Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub; Mississippi Coastal; Mobile Bay; Mobile-Tensaw; Pickwick Lake; Wheeler Lake
Arizona194520149Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Imperial Reservoir; Lower Colorado; Lower Salt; Middle Little Colorado; San Simon Wash; Upper Gila-Mangas; Upper San Pedro; Upper Verde
Arkansas199620153Boeuf; Lower Arkansas; Ouachita Headwaters
California1888201844Big Chico Creek-Sacramento River; Butte Creek; Central Coastal; Cottonwood-Tijuana; Fresno River; Honcut Headwaters-Lower Feather; Honey-Eagle Lakes; Imperial Reservoir; Lake Tahoe; Lower American; Lower Colorado; Lower Eel; Lower Klamath; Lower Pit; Lower Sacramento; Madeline Plains; Middle Fork Feather; Middle San Joaquin-Lower Chowchilla; Mojave; North Fork American; Russian; Sacramento-Stone Corral; Salinas; Salton Sea; San Diego; San Francisco Bay; San Gabriel; San Joaquin Delta; San Luis Rey-Escondido; San Pablo Bay; Santa Ana; Scott; Suisun Bay; Thomes Creek-Sacramento River; Tomales-Drake Bays; Truckee; Tulare Lake Bed; Upper Merced; Upper Mokelumne; Upper Pit; Upper Putah; Upper Tuolumne; Upper Yuba; Whitewater River
Colorado1998201410Alamosa-Trinchera; Cache La Poudre; Clear; Huerfano; Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek; South Platte Headwaters; St. Vrain; Upper Arkansas; Upper Arkansas-John Martin Reservoir; Upper South Platte
Connecticut198320108Farmington; Housatonic; Lower Connecticut; Lower Hudson; Quinebaug; Quinnipiac; Saugatuck; Shetucket
Delaware199719971Brandywine-Christina
District of Columbia194219421Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan
Florida1964201723Apalachee Bay-St. Marks; Apalachicola; Crystal-Pithlachascotee; Econfina-Steinhatchee; Escambia; Florida Southeast Coast; Kissimmee; Lower Chattahoochee; Lower Ochlockonee; Lower St. Johns; Lower Suwannee; Oklawaha; Peace; Pensacola Bay; Santa Fe; St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays; Tampa Bay; Upper St. Johns; Upper Suwannee; Waccasassa; Withlacoochee; Withlacoochee; Yellow
Georgia196620146Lower Chattahoochee; Lower Flint; Lower Ogeechee; Middle Savannah; Spring; Upper Ocmulgee
Idaho1998201615Brownlee Reservoir; Coeur d'Alene Lake; Lower Boise; Lower Clark Fork; Lower Kootenai; Middle Snake-Payette; Middle Snake-Succor; North Fork Payette; Payette; Pend Oreille; Pend Oreille Lake; Priest; St. Joe; Upper Snake-Rock; Upper Spokane
Illinois1916201527Apple-Plum; Big Muddy; Chicago; Des Plaines; Green; Kankakee; Little Calumet-Galien; Little Wabash; Lower Fox; Lower Illinois; Lower Illinois; Lower Ohio; Lower Ohio-Bay; Lower Rock; Lower Sangamon; Lower Wabash; Pecatonica; Rock; Saline; Upper Fox; Upper Illinois; Upper Illinois; Upper Mississippi Region; Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau; Upper Mississippi-Meramec; Vermilion; Wabash
Indiana1980201523Chicago; Driftwood; Eel; Eel; Highland-Pigeon; Kankakee; Lake Michigan; Little Calumet-Galien; Lower East Fork White; Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon; Lower White; Middle Wabash-Busseron; Middle Wabash-Deer; Muscatatuck; Patoka; Silver-Little Kentucky; St. Joseph; St. Joseph; Tippecanoe; Upper Maumee; Upper Wabash; Upper White; Whitewater
Iowa1993201220Apple-Plum; Blackbird-Soldier; Boone; Coon-Yellow; Copperas-Duck; East Fork Des Moines; Grant-Little Maquoketa; Keg-Weeping Water; Lake Red Rock; Little Sioux; Maquoketa; Middle Cedar; Middle Des Moines; Shell Rock; Upper Cedar; Upper Des Moines; Upper Grand; Upper Iowa; Upper Wapsipinicon; West Fork Cedar
Kansas1995201513Ladder; Lower Kansas; Lower Little Blue; Lower Marais Des Cygnes; Middle Kansas; Middle Neosho; Solomon; Spring; Upper Cimarron-Bluff; Upper Marais Des Cygnes; Upper Neosho; Upper Smoky Hill; Upper South Fork Solomon
Kentucky197720067Kentucky Lake; Lower Levisa; Middle Ohio-Laughery; North Fork Kentucky; Ohio Brush-Whiteoak; Silver-Little Kentucky; Tradewater
Louisiana197920169Atchafalaya; East Central Louisiana Coastal; Eastern Louisiana Coastal; Lake Maurepas; Lake Pontchartrain; Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta; Lower Mississippi-New Orleans; Vermilion; West Central Louisiana Coastal
Maine200420182Lower Kennebec; Presumpscot
Maryland1952201710Cacapon-Town; Chester-Sassafras; Gunpowder-Patapsco; Lower Potomac; Lower Susquehanna; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; North Branch Potomac; Severn; Youghiogheny
Massachusetts197120189Blackstone; Charles; Concord; Housatonic; Merrimack River; Middle Connecticut; Narragansett; Nashua; Westfield
Michigan1961201855Au Gres-Rifle; Au Sable; Betsie-Platte; Black-Presque Isle; Boardman-Charlevoix; Brevoort-Millecoquins; Brule; Cass; Cedar-Ford; Cheboygan; Clinton; Dead-Kelsey; Detroit; Flint; Great Lakes Region; Huron; Kalamazoo; Kawkawlin-Pine; Keweenaw Peninsula; Lake Erie; Lake Huron; Lake Michigan; Lake St. Clair; Lake Superior; Lone Lake-Ocqueoc; Lower Grand; Manistee; Maple; Menominee; Michigamme; Muskegon; Northeastern Lake Michigan; Northwestern Lake Michigan; Ontonagon; Ottawa-Stony; Pere Marquette-White; Pine; Raisin; Saginaw; Shiawassee; Southeastern Lake Michigan; Southwestern Lake Huron; Southwestern Lake Huron-Lake Huron; St. Clair; St. Joseph; St. Marys; Sturgeon; Tahquamenon; Thornapple; Thunder Bay; Tiffin; Tittabawassee; Upper Grand; Upper Wisconsin; Western Lake Erie
Minnesota1935201828Beartrap-Nemadji; Buffalo-Whitewater; Cannon; Chippewa; Clearwater-Elk; Crow; Crow Wing; Elk-Nokasippi; Kettle; Lake Superior; Le Sueur; Leech Lake; Long Prairie; Lower Minnesota; Lower St. Croix; Mississippi Headwaters; Pine; Platte-Spunk; Prairie-Willow; Rum; Rush-Vermillion; Sandhill-Wilson; Sauk; Snake; South Fork Crow; St. Louis; Twin Cities; Zumbro
Mississippi197920144Pascagoula; Tibbee; Town; Upper Tombigbee
Missouri196220148Cahokia-Joachim; Current; Eleven Point; Lake of the Ozarks; Lower St. Francis; Meramec; Upper Gasconade; Whitewater
Montana2007201311Beaver; Big Dry; Big Muddy; Fort Peck Reservoir; Gallatin; Jefferson; Lower Clark Fork; Lower Milk; Redwater; Stillwater; Upper Missouri
Nebraska197720156Lewis and Clark Lake; Lower Platte; Middle Platte-Buffalo; Middle Platte-Prairie; Salt; Upper Elkhorn
Nevada199520185Lake Tahoe; Middle Carson; Pyramid-Winnemucca Lakes; Truckee; Upper Carson
New Hampshire199220167Black-Ottauquechee; Merrimack River; Nashua; Piscataqua-Salmon Falls; Upper Connecticut-Mascoma; Waits; West
New Jersey195220185Cohansey-Maurice; Hackensack-Passaic; Middle Delaware-Musconetcong; Mullica-Toms; Raritan
New Mexico199620143Rio Chama; Rio Grande-Santa Fe; Upper San Juan
New York1880201751Ausable River; Black; Buffalo-Eighteenmile; Cattaraugus; Chateaugay-English; Chaumont-Perch; Chautauqua-Conneaut; Chemung; Chenango; Conewango; East Branch Delaware; French; Hackensack-Passaic; Headwaters St. Lawrence River; Housatonic; Hudson-Hoosic; Hudson-Wappinger; Indian; Irondequoit-Ninemile; Lake Champlain; Lake Ontario; Lower Genesee; Lower Hudson; Mettawee River; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Middle Hudson; Mohawk; Niagara; Northern Long Island; Oak Orchard-Twelvemile; Oneida; Oswegatchie; Oswego; Owego-Wappasening; Raquette; Rondout; Sacandaga; Salmon; Salmon-Sandy; Saranac River; Saugatuck; Schoharie; Seneca; Southern Long Island; St. Regis; Tioga; Upper Allegheny; Upper Delaware; Upper Genesee; Upper Hudson; Upper Susquehanna
North Carolina196620154Albemarle; Fishing; Lower Roanoke; Roanoke Rapids
North Dakota199619991Lower Sheyenne
Ohio1952201831Ashtabula-Chagrin; Black-Rocky; Blanchard; Cedar-Portage; Cuyahoga; Hocking; Huron-Vermilion; Lake Erie; Licking; Little Miami; Little Muskingum-Middle Island; Little Scioto-Tygarts; Lower Maumee; Lower Scioto; Mahoning; Middle Ohio-Raccoon; Mohican; Muskingum; Ohio Brush-Whiteoak; Raccoon-Symmes; Sandusky; St. Joseph; Tuscarawas; Upper Great Miami; Upper Ohio; Upper Ohio-Shade; Upper Ohio-Wheeling; Upper Scioto; Walhonding; Western Lake Erie; Wills
Oklahoma1982201521Bird; Cache; Clear Boggy; Deep Fork; Dirty-Greenleaf; Farmers-Mud; Little; Lower Canadian; Lower Canadian-Walnut; Lower Cimarron; Lower North Canadian; Lower Verdigris; Lower Washita; Middle Washita; Northern Beaver; Polecat-Snake; Robert S. Kerr Reservoir; Upper Beaver; Upper Cimarron; Upper Washita; Washita Headwaters
Oregon1972201824Alsea; Applegate; Coast Fork Willamette; Imnaha; Little Deschutes; Lower Columbia; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Columbia-Sandy; Lower Crooked; Lower Owyhee; Lower Willamette; Middle Columbia-Hood; Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula; Middle Fork Willamette; North Fork John Day; Siletz-Yaquina; Siuslaw; South Santiam; Sprague; Tualatin; Umatilla; Upper Deschutes; Upper Klamath; Upper Willamette
Pennsylvania1950201622Clarion; Conemaugh; Connoquenessing; Crosswicks-Neshaminy; French; Kiskiminetas; Lackawaxen; Lake Erie; Lehigh; Lower Delaware; Lower Monongahela; Middle Allegheny-Redbank; Middle Allegheny-Tionesta; Middle Delaware-Musconetcong; Raystown; Schuylkill; Shenango; Upper Juniata; Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna; Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock; Upper West Branch Susquehanna; Youghiogheny
Rhode Island201520152Narragansett; Pawcatuck-Wood
South Carolina198719983Middle Savannah; Stevens; Wateree
South Dakota199920152Fort Randall Reservoir; Lower Lake Oahe
Tennessee1955200711Holston; Kentucky Lake; Lower Clinch; Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake; Lower Cumberland-Sycamore; Lower Little Tennessee; Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga; Obey; Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull Reservoir; Upper Elk; Watts Bar Lake
Texas1962201624Austin-Oyster; Austin-Travis Lakes; Bois D'arc-Island; Buchanan-Lyndon B. Johnson Lakes; Caddo Lake; Cedar; East Matagorda Bay; Elm Fork Trinity; Farmers-Mud; Lake Fork; Lake Meredith; Lake O'the Pines; Lower Angelina; Lower Colorado-Cummins; Lower Guadalupe; Middle Sabine; Navasota; San Marcos; Sulphur Headwaters; Toledo Bend Reservoir; Upper Neches; Upper North Fork Red; Upper Salt Fork Red; Upper West Fork Trinity
Utah199320166East Fork Sevier; Fremont; Little Bear-Logan; Lower Bear-Malad; Lower Weber; Middle Sevier
Vermont1962201713Black-Ottauquechee; Deerfield; Hudson-Hoosic; Lake Champlain; Lamoille River; Mettawee River; Missiquoi River; Otter Creek; St. Francois River; Upper Connecticut-Mascoma; Waits; West; Winooski River
Virginia1881201613Albemarle; Conococheague-Opequon; Great Wicomico-Piankatank; Hampton Roads; Lower Potomac; Lower Rappahannock; Lynnhaven-Poquoson; Middle James-Buffalo; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva; South Fork Shenandoah; Upper Roanoke
Washington1965201843Banks Lake; Chief Joseph; Colville; Deschutes; Dungeness-Elwha; Duwamish; Grays Harbor; Lake Chelan; Lake Washington; Little Spokane; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Cowlitz; Lower Crab; Lower Skagit; Lower Snake; Lower Snake-Tucannon; Lower Spokane; Lower Yakima; Methow; Middle Columbia-Hood; Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula; Moses Coulee; Naches; Nisqually; Nooksack; Okanogan; Palouse; Pend Oreille; Pend Oreille Lake; Puget Sound; Puyallup; Queets-Quinault; Similkameen; Skykomish; Snohomish; Strait of Georgia; Upper Chehalis; Upper Columbia-Entiat; Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids; Upper Crab; Upper Spokane; Upper Yakima; Willapa Bay
West Virginia198520142South Branch Potomac; Upper Monongahela
Wisconsin1962201747Bad-Montreal; Baraboo; Beartrap-Nemadji; Black; Black-Presque Isle; Brule; Buffalo-Whitewater; Castle Rock; Coon-Yellow; Des Plaines; Door-Kewaunee; Duck-Pensaukee; Flambeau; Grant-Little Maquoketa; Jump; Kickapoo; La Crosse-Pine; Lake Dubay; Lake Michigan; Lake Superior; Lake Winnebago; Lower Chippewa; Lower Fox; Lower St. Croix; Lower Wisconsin; Manitowoc-Sheboygan; Menominee; Middle Rock; Milwaukee; Namekagon; Northwestern Lake Michigan; Oconto; Ontonagon; Pecatonica; Peshtigo; Pike-Root; Red Cedar; South Fork Flambeau; St. Louis; Sugar; Upper Chippewa; Upper Fox; Upper Fox; Upper Rock; Upper St. Croix; Upper Wisconsin; Wolf

Table last updated 10/12/2018

† Populations may not be currently present.


Ecology: Myriophyllum spicatum can be found in depths of 1-10 m in lakes, ponds, shallow reservoirs and low energy areas of rivers and streams, and can grow in a variety of conditions; fresh or brackish water, a wide temperature and a soil pH of 5.4-11 (Aiken et al. 1979). This species has an affinity for alkaline waters (Patten 1956) and grows well in areas that have experienced disturbances such as nutrient loading, intense plant management, or abundant motorboat use (Aiken et al. 1979).

M. spicatum is a perennial that flowers twice a year, typically mid-June and late-July, followed by autofragmentation of the plant after each flowering (Nichols 1975; Patten 1956). Myriophyllum spicatum dies back in the fall, but the root system can survive the winter (Perkins and Sytsma 1987; Titus and Adams 1979). These root crowns begin growing the following spring once water temperatures reach about 60°F (Smith and Barko 1990).

Unlike many aquatic plants, this species does not produce turions (dormant vegetative structures that survive the winter) (Patten 1954). Each plant is able to produce approximately 100 seeds per season, but this species is much more successful at vegetative reproduction via fragments and runners (Patten 1956). After flowering, this species can undergo auto-fragmentation; new roots at nodes along the stem, and then the plant will break of at these nodes (Gustafson and Adams 1973; Nichols 1975). Plant fragments can be transported via wind, waves, or by human activity (Kimbel 1982).

Means of Introduction: Myriophyllum spicatum was probably intentionally introduced to the United States (Couch and Nelson 1985). Long distance dispersal has been linked to the aquarium and aquatic nursery trade (Reed 1977). Spread occurred as the species was planted into lakes and streams across the country, distributed as far as Mountian Lake in San Francisco Bay by 1888 (CalFlora 2012).

Stem fragments are important for the colonization of new habitats while local colony expansion occurs mainly by stolons (Aiken et al. 1979; Madsen et al. 1988). Water currents disseminate vegetative propagules through drainage areas, while motorboat traffic contributes to natural seasonal fragmentation and the distribution of fragments throughout lakes.

Transport on boating equipment plays the largest role in introducing fragments to new waterbodies. Road checks in Minnesota have found aquatic vegetation on 23% of all trailered watercraft inspected (Bratager 1996).

Status: One of the most widely distributed of all nonindigenous aquatic plants; established in 48 U.S. states (absent in Hawaii and Wyoming), and in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec.

Impact of Introduction: Now considered a major nuisance species throughout the Northeast, northern Midwest and Pacific Northwest of the United States (Couch and Nelson 1985; Patten 1956; White et al. 1993)

Eurasian water-milfoil competes aggressively to displace and reduce the diversity of native aquatic plants. It elongates from shoots initiated in the fall, beginning spring growth earlier than other aquatic plants. Tolerant of low water temperatures, it quickly grows to the surface, forming dense canopies that overtop and shade the surrounding vegetation (Madsen et al. 1991). Canopy formation and light reduction, are significant factors in the decline of native plant abundance and diversity observed when Eurasian water-milfoil invades healthy plant communities (Smith and Barko 1990; Madsen 1994).

Although in small tank experiments the native northern watermilfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum Kom.) appears competitively superior, in the field, however, M. spicatum has replaced M. sibiricum over much of the temperate range of this species in North America (Valley and Newman, 1998). Both eelgrass (Vallisneria americana) and southern naiad (Najas guadalupensis) are known to have been displaced by this nonindigenous species in the Mobile Delta of Alabama (Bates and Smith 1994). Its establishment in Lake George, New York, reduced native plants from 5.5 to 2.2 species per square meter, in just two years (Madsen et al 1991). Its presence in the Rio Grande has caused concern for regional irrigation systems (NMAISAC 2008). In the tidal Delaware River, M. spicatum can tolerate conditions where salt intrusion and industrial pollution are eliminating native submersed plants (Schuyler et al. 1993).

Eurasian water-milfoil has less value as a food source for waterfowl than the native plants it replaces (Aiken et al. 1979). And although fish may initially experience a favorable edge effect, the characteristics of Eurasian water-milfoil's overabundant growth negate any short-term benefits it may provide fish in healthy waters. At high densities, its foliage supports a lower abundance and diversity of invertebrates, organisms that serve as fish food (Keast 1984). Dense cover allows high survival rates of young fish, however, larger predator fish lose foraging space and and are less efficient at obtaining their prey (Lillie and Budd 1992; Engel 1995). Madsen et al. (1995) found growth and vigor of a warm-water fishery reduced by dense Eurasian water-milfoil cover.

The growth and senescence of thick vegetation degrades water quality and depletes dissolved oxygen levels (Honnell 1992; Engel 1995). Typical dense beds restrict swimming, fishing and boating, clog water intakes and result in decaying mats that foul lakeside beaches.

Millions of dollars have been spent nationwide for control efforts (U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 1993). In New York state alone, annual costs are estimated at $500,000.

Remarks: High phenotypic plasticity within the genus Myriophyllum, especially among M. sibiricum and M. spicatum, has been documented under various habitat conditions (Gerber and Less 1994), making identification difficult without flowers or turions.

Hybridization was documented between M. spicatum and M. sibiricum [Myriophyllum spicatum X sibiricum] in Idaho, Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Washington (Moody and Les 2002; Moody and Les 2007). The hybrid must be determined by molecular analysis, as morphology is indistinguishable from both parent species.

The occurrence of sixteen species including Potamogeton illinoensis and Potamogeton pectinatus may be indicaters of conditions suitable for Eurasian water-milfoil invasion. Searching areas colonized by these species may provide early detection, the best method for preventing new invasion (Nichols and Buchan 1997).

References: (click for full references)

Aiken, S.G., P.R. Newroth and I. Wile. 1979. The biology of Canadian weeds. 34. Myriophyllum spicatum L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 59:201-215.

Aiken, S. 1981. A Conspectus of Myriophyllum (Haloragaceae) in North America. Brittonia 33(1):57-69.

Alaska Natural Heritage Program (AKNHP). 2015. AKEPIC Data Portal. Alaska Natural Heritage Program, Anchorage, AK. http://aknhp.uaa.alaska.edu/maps-js/integrated-map/akepic.php#. Created on 01/10/2015. Accessed on 09/08/2015.

Anderson, L.W. J. and F.J. Ryan. 1996. Eurasian watermilfoil in Lake Tahoe: a threat to a national treasure. Pp. 18-19 in Abstracts Thirty-sixth Annual Meeting of the Aquatic Plant Management Society, Inc. July 14-17 1996, Burlington, VT.

Arizona State University. 2003. Herbarium Specimen Voucher, Arizona State University (ASU) Vascular Plant Herbarium, Collections Database. http://seinetasuedu/collections/selectionjsp?cat=plantae.

Aurand, D. 1982. Nuisance Aquatic Plants and Aquatic Plant Management Programs in the United States. Volume 2, Southeast. The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA.

(BAPM) Bureau of Aquatic Plant Management. 1982-1994. Florida Aqautic Plant Management Surveys, electronic data. Bureau of Aquatic Plant Management, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee, Florida.

Bargeron, C. T., D.J. Moorehead, G.K. Douce, R.C. Reardon, and A. E. Miller. 2003. Invasive Plants of the Eastern U.S.: Identification and Control. USDA Forest Service - Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team. Morgantown, WV. Available http://www.dnr.state.il.us/stewardship/cd/eppc/watermilfoil.html. Accessed 25 April 2013.

Bates, A.L., and C.S. Smith. 1994. Submersed plant invasions and declines in the Southeastern United States. Lake and Reservoir Management 10(1):53-55.

Bayne, D.R. 1979. The most troublesome aquatic weeds of Alabama. Proceedings of the Southern Weed Science Society 32:280-283.

Beal, E.O., and J.W. Thieret. 1986. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Kentucky. Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission, Frankfort, KY.

Benson, A. J., C.C. Jacono, P.L. Fuller, E. R. McKercher., and M. M. Richerson. 2004. Summary Report of Nonindigenous Aquatic Species in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Region 5. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Arlington, Va. 145 pp.

Best, M. D. and K. E. Mantai. 1978. Growth of Myriophyllum: sediment or lake water as the source of nitrogen and phosphorus. Ecology 59(5): 1075—1080.

Bode, J, S. Borman, S. Engel, D. Helsel, F. Koshere, and S. Nichols. 1993. Eurasian Water Milfoil in Wisconsin: A Report to the Legislature. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI. 36 pp.

Bonar, S.A., G.L. Thomas, S.L. Thiesfeld, G.B. Pauley, and T.B. Stables. 1993. Effect of triploid grass carp on the aquatic macrophyte community of Devil's Lake, Oregon. North American Journal Fisheries Management. 13(4):757-765.

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Brewer, C., and M. Parker. 1990. Adaptations of macrophytes to life in moving water: upslope limits and mechanical properties of stems. Hydrobiologia 194:133-142.

Calflora. 2012. Berkeley, California: The Calflora Database. http://www.calflora.org/. Accessed on 09/06/2012.

Carpenter, S.R. and D.M. Lodge. 1986. Effects of submersed macrophytes on ecosystem process. Aquatic Botany 26:341-370.

Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH). 2004. Information Sheet 10: Spiked Water Milfoil. Natural Environment Research Council; Centre for Aquatic Plant Management. 2 pp.

Ceska, O. and A. Ceska. 1985. Myriophyllum Haloragaceae species in British Columbia: problems with identification. Pp. 39-50 in: L.W.J. Anderson [ed.] Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum and related Haloragaceae species. Aquatic Plant Management Society, Vicksburg, Mississippi.

Chabreck, R.H., and R. E. Condrey. 1979. Common Vascular Plants of the Louisiana Marsh. Sea Grant Publication No. LSU-T-79-003. Louisiana State University Center for Wetland Resources, Baton Rouge, LA.

Cohen, A.N., and J.T. Carlton. 1995. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species In A United States Estuary: A Case Study Of The Biological Invasions Of The San Francisco Bay and Delta. A Report for the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington D.C.

Colorado Parks and Wildlife. 2014. Known Positive Waters for ANS in Colorado – January 2014. http://CPW.state.co.us/Documents/WildlifeSpecies/AquaticNuisance/PositiveANSWaters.pdf. Created on 01/01/2014. Accessed on 09/11/2015.

Cooke, G.D., A.B. Martin, and R.E. Carlson. 1990. The effect of harvesting on macrophyte regrowth and water quality in LaDue Reservoir, Ohio. Journal of Iowa Academy of Science 97(4):127-132.

Couch, R., and E. Nelson. 1985. Myriophyllum spicatum in North America. Pp. 8-18 in L.W.J. Anderson (ed.). First International Symposium Watermilfoil and Related Haloragaceae Species. 23-24 July 1985, Vancouver, B.C. Aquatic Plant Management Society, Vicksburg, MS.

Creed Jr., R. P. 1998. A biogeographic perspective on Eurasian watermilfoil declines: Additional evidence for the role of herbivorous weevils in promoting declines? Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 36: 16-22.

Creed Jr., R. P. 2000a. The weevil-watermilfoil interaction at different spatial scales: what we know and what we need to know. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 38: 78-81.

Creed, R. P., and S. P. Sheldon. 1991. The potential for biological control of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum): results of Browington Pond, Vermont, study and multi-state lake survey. Pages 183-193 in Proc. 25 Annual Meeting of the Aquatic Plant Control Research Prog. Misc. Paper A-91-3, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

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Author: Pfingsten, I.A., L. Berent, C.C. Jacono, and M.M. Richerson.

Revision Date: 1/25/2018

Citation Information:
Pfingsten, I.A., L. Berent, C.C. Jacono, and M.M. Richerson., 2018, Myriophyllum spicatum L.: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=237, Revision Date: 1/25/2018, Access Date: 10/23/2018

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Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2018]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [10/23/2018].

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