Eubosmina maritima
(a cladoceran)
Crustaceans-Cladocerans
Exotic
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Eubosmina maritima P. E. Müller, 1867

Common name: a cladoceran

Synonyms and Other Names: Bosmina maritima

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: This water flea has a relatively long carapace. Its antennules run half the length of the body and lay towards the posterior end along the ventral side. The mucro is around 20–55 μm in length and juts out diagonally from the body. The postabdominal claw exhibits proximal pecten with a total of 13 spines: 6 very short, 6 larger and similar in size, and 1 separating the two groups. The rostrum recurves ventrally to the compound eye and there is a lateral circular head pore located next to the mandibular articulation (De Melo and Hebert 1994).

Size: Parthenogenetic females range in length from 595–720 μm in the Great Lakes (De Melo and Hebert 1994)

Native Range: Eubosmina maritima is native to the Baltic and Barents Seas as well as inland lakes surrounding these drainages (De Melo and Hebert 1994).

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Nonindigenous Occurrences: The first occurrence of E. maritima in the Great Lakes dates from 1988 in Lake Michigan. It has also been recorded from Lake Erie in 1991 and 1992 and Lake Huron in 1992 (De Melo and Hebert 1994).

Ecology: Eubosmina maritima has adapted to freshwater environments in the Great Lakes, where it is most abundant and sometimes dominant in the winter zooplankton community. In its native range in Europe it is a brackish water cladoceran, producing its resting eggs in estuarine and marine environments. E. maritima feeds on phytoplankton. It is capable of surviving massive cyanobacteria blooms in the Baltic Sea, even though this type of phytoplankton is not an ideal food source (Berzins 1949; Madhupratap et al. 1996; Witt et al. 1996; Hebert and Cristescu 2002; Schmidt et al. 2002; Duggan et al. 2005).            

Eubosmina maritima is capable of producing resting eggs (ephippia) through sexual reproduction. These ephippia can stay dormant in the sediments until favorable environmental conditions occur. Parthenogenetic females give rise to juveniles asexually. In the Great Lakes, only asexual females have been recorded. In the Baltic Sea, E. maritima utilizes sexual reproduction more frequently in areas where selection pressures are higher (Kankaala 1983; De Melo and Hebert 1994; Viitasalo and Viitasalo 2004; Wonham et al. 2005).

Means of Introduction: Eubosmina maritima was very likely introduced in ballast water by ships entering the Great Lakes from Europe (De Melo and Hebert 1994; Duggan et al. 2005; Gray et al. 2005).

Status: Established where recorded.

Impact of Introduction: Unknown.

Remarks: The current taxonomic status of this species is somewhat uncertain, although recent genetic analyses indicate that E. maritima collected from the Great Lakes is very likely of Palearctic origin (Haney and Taylor 2003).

References: (click for full references)

Berzins, B. 1949. On the biology of the Latvian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.). Hydrobiologia 2(1): 64-71.

De Melo, R., and P.D.N. Hebert. 1994. A taxonomic reevaluation of North American Bosminidae. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72: 1808-1825.

Duggan, I.C., C.D.A. van Overdijk, S.A. Bailey, P.T. Jenkins, H. Limen, and H.J. MacIsaac. 2005. Invertebrates associated with residual ballast water and sediments of cargo-carrying ships entering the Great Lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62: 2463-2474.

GLMRIS. 2012. Appendix C: Inventory of Available Controls for Aquatic Nuisance Species of Concern, Chicago Area Waterway System. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Gray, D.K., S.A. Bailey, I.C. Duggan, and H.J. MacIsaac. 2005. Viability of invertebrate diapausing eggs exposed to saltwater: implications for Great Lakes’ ship ballast management. Biological Invasions 7:531-539.

Haney, R.A., and D.J. Taylor. 2003. Testing paleolimnological predictions with molecular data: the origins of Holarctic Eubosmina. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 16: 871-882.

Hebert, P.D.N., and M.E.A. Cristescu. 2002. Genetic perspectives on invasions: the case of the Cladocera. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59: 1229-1234.

Kankaala, P. 1983. Resting eggs, seasonal dynamics, and production of Bosmina longispina maritima (P. E. Muller) (Cladocera) in the northern Baltic proper. Journal of Plankton Research 5(1): 53-69.

Madhupratap, M., S. Nehring, and J. Lenz. 1996. Resting eggs of zooplankton (Copepoda and Cladocera) from the Kiel Bay and adjacent waters (southwestern Baltic). Marine Biology 125(1): 77-87.

Ontario's Invading Species Awareness Program. Spiny and Fishhook Waterfleas. http://www.invadingspecies.com/invaders/invertebrates/spiny-and-fishhook-waterflea/. Accessed on 05/31/2013.

Santagata, S., Z.R. Gasiunaite, E. Verling, J.R. Cordell, K. Eason, J.S. Cohen, K. Bacela, G. Quilez-Badia, T.H. Johengen, D.F. Reid, and G.M. Ruiz. 2008. Effect of osmotic shock as a management strategy to reduce transfers of non-indigenous species among low-salinity ports by ships. Aquatic Invasions 3(1):61-76.

Schmidt, K., M. Koski, J. Engstrom-ost, and A. Atkinson. 2002. Development of Baltic Sea zooplankton in the presence of a toxic cyanobacterium: a mesocosm approach. Journal of Plankton Research 24(10): 979-992.

Suchy, K.D. and B.J. Hann. 2007. Using microfossil remains in lake sediments to examine the invasion of Eubosmina coregoni (Cladocera, Bosminidae) in Lake of the Woods, Ontario, Canada. Journal of Great Lakes Research 33(4):867-874.

Viitasalo, S., and M. Viitasalo. 2004. Predation by the mysid shrimps Mysis mixta and M. relicta on benthic eggs of Bosmina longispina maritima (Cladocera) in the northern Baltic Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 281: 155-163.

Witt, J.D.S., P.D.N. Hebert, and W.B. Morton. 1996. Echinogammarus ischnus: another crustacean invader in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54: 264-268.

Wonham, M.J., S.A. Bailey, H.J. MacIsaac, and M.A. Lewis. 2005. Modelling the invasion risk of diapausing organisms transported in ballast sediments. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62: 2386-2398.

Other Resources:
Great Lakes Water Life

Author: Kipp, R.M., J. Larson, T.H. Makled, and A. Fusaro

Revision Date: 6/11/2013

Citation Information:
Kipp, R.M., J. Larson, T.H. Makled, and A. Fusaro, 2017, Eubosmina maritima P. E. Müller, 1867: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=2370, Revision Date: 6/11/2013, Access Date: 9/21/2017

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

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Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2017]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [9/21/2017].

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