Common name: a cladoceran
available through www.itis.gov
Identification: Elías-Gutiérrez et al. (2001) describe D. fluviatile as having an elongated body with a rectangular head. The head has two pairs of antennae, the first antennae (setae) are for olfactory and are small, unsegmented appendages, while the second antennae are for swimming and are large, segmented, and branched. The swimming antennae do not reach the posterior margin, where the single dorsal spine is located. The pattern of setae on the second antennae is useful for identification (4-8/0-1-4). Ventral margin of valves lacking inflexion, armed with several setae and a row of 4–6 spinules between every two setae.
Size: Length: females 0.78-0.92 mm, males 0.65-0.75 mm (Korovchinsky, 1992)
Native Range: South America, Central America, and the Caribbean
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps
Puerto Rico &
Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Diaphanosoma fluviatile are found here.
Table last updated 8/14/2018
† Populations may not be currently present.
Ecology: Diaphanosoma fluviatile is parthenogenetic (asexual reproduction) in which offspring develop from unfertilized eggs (López et al., 2008). The eggs take six days to hatch (Fernandes et al., 2012). This species feeds on predominantly tiny particles (bacteria and detritus) and green algae (Cisneros et al., 1991).
Means of Introduction: Unknown.
Ballast water is a major vector of other species of North American Diaphanosoma (birgei and brachyurum) (Gray et al., 2007) which are in the same size range as D. fluviatile (Balcer et al., 1984).
Status: Established in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. There is insufficient evidence of a reproducing population from the Great Lakes (Lake Erie).
Impact of Introduction: In Lake Erie, “currently there are very similar native species, so we don't expect much of a dramatic change to the ecosystem because of this, but they could compete with some of the native zooplankton,” James Watkins, Cornell University (Associated Press, 2018).
References: (click for full references)
Associated Press. 2018. Two new zooplankton species found in Lake Erie. The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Created on: August 10, 2018.
Balcer, M. D., N. L. Korda, and S. I. Dodson. 1984. Zooplankton of the Great Lakes: a guide to the identification and ecology of the common crustacean species. Univ of Wisconsin Press.
Cisneros, R., E. Hooker, and L. E. Velasquez. 1991b. Natural diet of herbivorous zooplankton in Lake Xolotlán (Managua). Hydrobiological Bulletin 25(2):163-167.
Elías-Gutiérrez, M., N. N. Smirnov, E. Suárez-Morales, and N. Dimas-Flores. 2001. New and little known cladocerans (Crustacea: Anomopoda) from southeastern Mexico. Hydrobiologia 442:41-54.
Fernandes, A. P. C., L. S. M. Braghin, J. Nedli, F. Palazzo, F. A. Lansac-Tôha, and C. C. Bonecker. 2012. Passive zooplankton community in different environments of a neotropical floodplain. Acta Scientarium 34(4):413-418.
Gray, D.K., T. H. Johengen, D. F. Reid and H.J. MacIsaac. 2007. Efficacy of open-ocean ballast water exchange as a means of preventing invertebrate invasions between freshwater ports. Limnology and Oceanography 52(6):2386-2397.
Korovchinsky, N. M. 1992. Sididae & Holopedidae. Guides to the identification of the microinvertebrates of the continental waters of the world 3. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands.
López, C., L. M. Soto, L. Dávalos-Lind, and O. Lind. 2008. Occurrence of Diaphanosoma fluviatile Hansen 1899 (Cladocera: Sisidae) in two reservoirs in central Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 53(3):412-414.
Revision Date: 8/14/2018
Daniel, W.M., 2018, Diaphanosoma fluviatile Hansen, 1899: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=2648, Revision Date: 8/14/2018, Access Date: 8/17/2018
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.