The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Paracyclops bromeliacola
(a copepod)
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Paracyclops bromeliacola

Common name: a copepod

Size: Less than 1 mm in length.

Native Range: Brazil, South America (Karaytug and Boxshall, 1998).

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Nonindigenous Occurrences: Several dozen specimens were collected from the leaf cup of a bromeliad plant in 2005 at Key Colony Beach on Shelter Key in Florida (Reid and Hribar, 2006).

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Paracyclops bromeliacola are found here.

StateYear of earliest observationYear of last observationTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
Florida200520051Florida Bay-Florida Keys

Table last updated 5/25/2018

† Populations may not be currently present.

Ecology: This copepod is found in freshwater to oligohaline lakes, streams, and wetlands (Hribar and Reid, 2008).

Reproduction is sexual with 6 nauplius and 5 copepodid stages to adulthood, females can carry several egg sacs containing 8–36 eggs total, generation time is about 3–4 weeks, and continuous reproduction is year round (Karaytug and Boxshall, 1998).

Means of Introduction: The origins are unknown but it is highly likely it came to the United States through the ornamental plant trade (Hribar and Reid, 2008).

Status: Unknown.

Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.

Remarks: Paracyclops species have been experimentally injected with microsporidian parasites of mosquitos as a possible biocontrol (Micieli et al. 2000). The leaf cups of bromeliads can provide an unusual microhabitat (Karaytug and Boxshall, 1998).

References: (click for full references)

Hribar, L.J., and Reid, J.W., 2008, New records of copepods (Crustacea) from the Florida Keys: Southeastern Naturalist, v. 7, no. 2, p. 219—228.

Karaytug, S., and Boxshall, G.A. 1998. Partial revision of Paracyclops Claus, 1893 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Cyclopidae) with descriptions of four new species. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum of London (Zoology) 64:111—205.

Micieli, M.V., Garcia, J.J., and Becnel, J.J., 2000, Life cycle and description of Amblyospora camposi n. sp. (Microsproidia: Amblyosporidae) in the mosquito Culex renatoi (Diptera, Cluicidae) and copepod Paracyclops fimbriatus fimbriatus (Copepoda, Cyclopidae): Journal of Eukaryot Microbiology, v. 47, no. 6, p. 575-580.

Reid, J.W., and Hribar, L.J. 2006. Records of some Copepoda (Crustacea) from the Florida Keys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Philadelphia 155:1—7.

Author: Benson, A.J.

Revision Date: 4/30/2018

Citation Information:
Benson, A.J., 2018, Paracyclops bromeliacola: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=2791, Revision Date: 4/30/2018, Access Date: 8/15/2018

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

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Page Last Modified: Tuesday, August 07, 2018


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2018]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [8/15/2018].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted. For queries involving fish, please contact Pam Fuller. For queries involving invertebrates, contact Amy Benson.