Identification: A small, deep and thick-bodied fish with a large caudal fin. Mouth is terminal, and scales on lateral line are large (Page and Burr 1991).
Morphological identification can be difficult because Carassius langsdorfii can change its body shape and hybridizes with other Carassius species easily (Murakami et al. 2001). In addition, morphological differences between species of Carassius are small, especially between C. langsdorfii and C. auratus (Hosoya 2002).
Carassius auratus (goldfish) vs. C. langsdorfii (Ginbuna Crucian Carp) from Kalous et al. (2007).
| Morphological data || Goldfish || Ginbuna Crucian Carp |
| Anal fin rays || 5-6 || 5 |
| Scales in lateral line || 21-36 || 28-31 |
| Number of gill rakers || 37-47 || 41-57 |
Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Carassius langsdorfii are found here.
Table last updated 8/16/2022
† Populations may not be currently present.
References: (click for full references)
Brönmark, C., and L.B.Pettersson. 1994. Chemical Cues from Piscivores Induce a Change in Morphology in Crucian Carp. Oikos 70(3):396-402. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/3545777.pdf.
Crivelli, A. J. 1995. Are fish introductions a threat to endemic freshwater fishes in the
northern Mediterranean region? Biological Conservation 72:311-319. http://www.reabic.net/publ/Crivelli_1995.pdf.
Halas, D., N. Lovejoy and N. E. Mandrak. 2018. Undetected diversity of goldfish (Carassius spp.) in North America . Aquatic Invasions 13(2):211-219.
Hosoya, K. 2002. Cyprinidae. In Fishes of Japan with Pictorial Keys to the Species, English edition II (Nakabo, T., ed.), pp. 253–254. Tokyo: Tokai University Press.
IGFA, 2001. Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA.
Kalous, L., V. S. Lechtova Jr., J. Bohlen, M. Petrty, and M. S. Va´ Torak. 2007. First European record of Carassius langsdorfii from the Elbe basin. Journal of Fish Biology 70:132-138. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2006.01290.x.
Kirankaya, S.G., and F.G. Ekmekci. 2013. Life-history traits of the invasive population of Prussian Carp, Carassius gibelio (Actinopterigi: Cypriniformes), from Gelingullu Recervoir, Yozgat, Turkey. acta ichthyoLogica et piscatoria 43(1):31-49.
Murakami, M., C. Matsuba, and H. Fujitani. 2001. The maternal origins of the triploid ginbuna (Carassius auratus langsdorfi): phylogenetic relationships within the C. auratus taxa by partial mitochondrial D-loop sequencing. Genes & genetic systems 76(1):25-35.
Ohara, K., T. Ariyoshi, E. Sumida, and N. Taniguchi. 2003. lonal diversity in the Japanese silver crucian carp, Carassius langsdorfii inferred from genetic markers. Zoological science 206(6):797-804.
Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Volume 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.
Science of Ginbuna. 2018. http://icbp90pink1.heteml.jp/Science/Ginbuna.html Accessed on 06/19/2018.
Umino, T., K. Arai, and H. Nakagawa. 1997. Growth performance in clonal crucian carp, Carassius langsdorfii. Effects of genetic difference and feeding history. Aquaculture 155:271-283.
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.