References: (click for full references)
Ahmed, A., W.A. Shah, S. Akbar, M. Younis, and D. Kumar. 2011. A short chemical review on Salix caprea
commonly known as goat willow. International Journal of Research in Phytochemistry & Pharmacology 1(1):17-20.
Argus, G.W. 1986. The Genus Salix ( Salicaceae ) in the Southeastern United States. Volume 9. American Society of Plant Taxonomists.
Cremer, K.W. 2003. Introduced willows can become invasive pests in Australia. Biodiversity 4(4):17-24.
Fogelqvist, J., A.V. Verkhozina, A.I. Katyshev, P. Pucholt, C. Dixellus, A.C. Rönnberg-Wästljung, M. Lascoux, and S. Berlin. 2015. Genetic and morphological evidence for introgression between three species of willows. BMC Evolutionary Biology 15:193.
Dijkstra, J.J., J.C.L. Meeussen, and R.N.J. Comans. 2004. Leaching of Heavy Metals from Contaminated Soils: An Experimental and Modeling Study. Environmental Science & Technology 38(16):4390-4395.
Enescu, C.M., T.H. Durrant, D. Rigo, and G. Caudullo. 2016. Salix caprea in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats in San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., D. Rigo, G. Caudullo, H.T. Durrant, and A. Mauri, eds. European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. European Commission.
Eversham, B. 2006. A Key to Lowland Willows, Sallows and Osiers v. 1.6.
Frouz, J., B. Keplin, V. Pizl, K. Tajovsky, J. Stary, A. Lukesova, A. Novakova, V. Balik, L. Hanel, J. Materna, C. Duker, J. Chaluspky, J. Rusek, and T. Heinkele. 2001. Soil biota and upper soil layer development in two contrasting post-mining chronosequences. Ecological Engineering 17:275-284.
Giesy, J.P., S.A. Mabury, J.W. Martin, K. Kannan, P.D. jones, J.L. Newsted, and K. Coady. 2006. Perfluorinated Compounds in the Great Lakes. Hdb Env Chem 5:391-438.
Great Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission, (GLIFWC). Salix spp. Control. http://invasives.glifwc.org/Salix_spp/control.html. Accessed on 06/27/2017.
Hygnstrom, S.E., P.D. Skelton, S.J. Josiah, J.M. Gilsdorf, D.R. Virchow, J.A. Brandle, A.K. Jayaprakash, K.M. Eskridge, and K.C. VerCauteren. 2009. White-tailed deer browsing and rubbing preferences for trees and shrubs that produce nontimber forest products. HortTechnology 19(1):204-211.
Karrenberg, S., P.J. Edwards, and J. Kollmann. 2002. The life history of Saliacaceae living in the active zone of floodplains. Freshwater Biology 447(4):733-748.
Kay, Q.O.N. 1985. Nectar from willow catkins as a food source for Blue Tits. Bird Study 32(1):40-44.
Kuffner, M., S.D. Maria, M. Puschenreiter, K. Fallmann, G. Wieshammer, M. Gorfer, J. Strauss, A.R. Rivelli, and A. Sessitsch. 2010. Culturable bacteria from Zn- and Cd-accumulating Salix caprea with differential effects on plant growth and heavy metal availability. Journal of Applied Microbiology 108(4):1471-1484.
Kuusinen, M. 1995. Epiphytic lichen diversity on Salix caprea and Populus tremula in old-growth forests of Finland. Mitt. Eidgenoss. Forsch. anst. Wald. Schnee. Landsch 70(1):125-132.
Lowe, S., N. Repper, L. Miles, and S.G. Wallace. 2012. Notes on tree planting and the use of native species in North East England. The Wildlife Trusts, Northumberland.
Lygis, V., R. Bakys, D. Burokiene, and I. Vasilliaukaite. 2012. Chondrostereum purpureum-bosed control of stump sprouting of seven Hardwood species in Lithuania. Baltic Forestry 18(1):41-55.
Mudrák, O., M. Hermová, C. Tesnerová, J. Rydlová, and J. Frouz. 2016. Above-ground and below-ground competition between the willow Salix caprea and its understorey. Journal of Vegetation Science 27:156-164.
Palme, A.E., V. Sermerikov, and M. Lascoux. 2003. Absence of geographical structure of chloroplast DNA variation in sallow, Salix caprea L. Heredity 2003(91):5. 465-474.
Peeters, L., and Ø. Totland. 1999. Wind to insect pollination ratios and floral traits in five alpine Salix species. Canadian Journal of Botany 77(4):556-563.
Regvar, M., M. Likar, A. Piltaver, N. Kugonic, and J.E. Smith. 2010. Fungal community structure under goat willows (Salix caprea L.) growing at metal polluted site: the potential of screening in a model phytostabilisation study. Plant and Soil 330(2):345-356.
Relyea, R. 2005. The lethal impacts of Roundup on aquatic and terrestrial amphibians. Ecological Applications 15(4):118-1124.
Schutt, V.P., and H. Blaschke. 1980. Seasonal Changes in the Allelopathic Effect of Salix caprea Foliage. Flora(169):316-328.
Talbot, R.J., J.R. Etherington and J.A. Bryant. 1986. Comparative Studies of Plant Growth and Distribution in Relation to Waterlogging . New Phytologist 105:563-574.
Unterbrunner, R., M. Puschenreiter, P. Sommer, G. Wieshammer, P. Tlustos, M. Zupan, and W.W. Wenzel. 2007. Heavy metal accumulation in trees growing on contaminated sites in Central Europe. Environmental Pollution 148(1):107-114.
USDA. 2017. Plant profile for Salix Caprea (goat willow). https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=SACA22. Accessed on 06/27/2017.
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.