Common name: three-spot gourami
Synonyms and Other Names: Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas, 1790); blue gourami.
available through www.itis.gov
Identification: Distinguishing characteristics, identification key, and illustration were given in Smith (1945); distinguishing characteristics also given by Sterba (1973) and Kottelat et al. (1993). Color photographs appear in Axelrod et al. (1985) and in Kottelat et al. (1993). Several color variants in the aquarium trade.
Size: 15 cm SL.
Native Range: Tropical Asia. Natural distribution is Southeast Asia, but exact range is uncertain because of past introductions. Range possibly includes Thailand, Laos, Kampuchea, Vietnam, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, and Madura (Roberts 1989).
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Puerto Rico &
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps
Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Trichogaster trichopterus are found here.
Table last updated 1/26/2023
† Populations may not be currently present.
Means of Introduction: Probable release or escape from fish farms (Courtenay et al. 1974). Aquarium release in Puerto Rico.
Status: Failed in two counties in Florida. Established in Puerto Rico.
Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.
References: (click for full references)
Axelrod, H.R., W.E. Burgess, N. Pronek, and J.G. Walls. 1985. Dr. Axelrod's atlas of freshwater aquarium fishes. Tropical Fish Hobbyist Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ.
Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and D.A. Hensley. 1979. Survey of introduced non-native fishes. Phase I Report. Introduced exotic fishes in North America: status 1979. Report Submitted to National Fishery Research Laboratory, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Gainesville, FL.
Courtenay, W.R., Jr., H.F. Sahlman, W.W. Miley, II, and D.J. Herrema. 1974. Exotic fishes in fresh and brackish waters of Florida. Biological Conservation 6(4):292-302.
Kottelat, M., A.J. Whitten, S.N. Kartikasari, and S. Wirjoatmodjo. 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Ltd., Republic of Indonesia.
Roberts, T.R. 1989. The freshwater fishes of Western Borneo (Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia). Memoirs of the California Academy of Science 14. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA.
Sterba, G. 1973. Freshwater fishes of the world. English translation and revision from German. Two volumes. Tropical Fish Hobbyist Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ.
Leo Nico, and Pam Fuller
Revision Date: 6/12/2012
Peer Review Date: 6/12/2012
Leo Nico, and Pam Fuller, 2023, Trichogaster trichopterus (Pallas, 1770): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=332, Revision Date: 6/12/2012, Peer Review Date: 6/12/2012, Access Date: 1/29/2023
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.