The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Micropterus dolomieu
Micropterus dolomieu
(Smallmouth Bass)
Native Transplant

Copyright Info
Micropterus dolomieu Lacep├Ęde, 1802

Common name: Smallmouth Bass

Synonyms and Other Names: Micropterus dolomieui is a common misspelling.

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Becker (1983); Page and Burr (1991); Etnier and Starnes (1993); Jenkins and Burkhead (1994); Moyle (2002).

Size: 69 cm.

Native Range: St. Lawrence and Great Lakes, Hudson Bay (Red River), and Mississippi River basins from southern Quebec to North Dakota and south to northern Alabama and eastern Oklahoma; Atlantic and Gulf slope drainages from Virginia to central Texas (Page and Burr 1991).

Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Micropterus dolomieu are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
AL197120088Black Warrior-Tombigbee; Cahaba; Coosa-Tallapoosa; Middle Coosa; Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw; Mobile-Tombigbee; Sipsey Fork; Upper Tallapoosa
AZ1942202318Agua Fria; Bill Williams; Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Imperial Reservoir; Lower Colorado Region; Lower Colorado-Marble Canyon; Lower Lake Powell; Lower Salt; Lower Verde; Middle Gila; Salt; Santa Maria; Silver; Tonto; Upper Gila-San Carlos Reservoir; Upper Salt; Upper Verde; Verde
AR198019882Lower White; Lower White
CA1874202252Big Chico Creek-Sacramento River; Butte Creek; California Region; Central California Coastal; Central Coastal; Clear Creek-Sacramento River; Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Honcut Headwaters-Lower Feather; Lake Tahoe; Los Angeles; Lower Colorado; Lower Sacramento; Mad-Redwood; Middle San Joaquin-Lower Chowchilla; Monterey Bay; North Fork American; Owens Lake; Pajaro; Russian; Sacramento Headwaters; Sacramento-Stone Corral; Salinas; Salton Sea; San Diego; San Francisco Bay; San Francisco Bay; San Francisco Coastal South; San Joaquin; San Joaquin Delta; San Pablo Bay; San Pedro Channel Islands; Santa Ana; Santa Clara; Santa Margarita; Santa Maria; Santa Ynez; South Fork American; Suisun Bay; Truckee; Tulare-Buena Vista Lakes; Upper Cache; Upper Coon-Upper Auburn; Upper Kaweah; Upper King; Upper Merced; Upper Mokelumne; Upper Putah; Upper Sacramento; Upper San Joaquin; Upper Stanislaus; Upper Tule; Upper Yuba
CO1951200924Big Thompson; Cache La Poudre; Clear; Colorado Headwaters; Colorado Headwaters-Plateau; Huerfano; Lower Gunnison; Lower Yampa; Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek; Middle South Platte-Sterling; North Fork Republican; Piedra; Republican; Rush; San Luis; South Platte; St. Vrain; Upper Arkansas; Upper Arkansas-John Martin Reservoir; Upper Dolores; Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir; Upper San Juan; Upper South Platte; Upper Yampa
CT184420207Housatonic; New England Region; Outlet Connecticut River; Pawcatuck River; Saugatuck; Shetucket River; Thames
DE188820203Brandywine-Christina; Delaware Bay; Upper Chesapeake
DC199920231Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan
GA1967201910Apalachicola Basin; Broad; Coosawattee; Little; Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding; Middle Savannah; Savannah; Tugaloo; Upper Chattahoochee; Upper Coosa
HI189720213Hawaii; Kauai; Oahu
ID1905202338American Falls; Bear Lake; Big Wood; Blackfoot; Boise-Mores; Brownlee Reservoir; C.J. Strike Reservoir; Clearwater; Coeur d'Alene Lake; Hells Canyon; Idaho Falls; Lake Walcott; Little Wood; Lower Bear; Lower Boise; Lower Henrys; Lower North Fork Clearwater; Lower Salmon; Lower Snake-Asotin; Middle Fork Clearwater; Middle Salmon-Chamberlain; Middle Snake-Payette; Middle Snake-Succor; North Fork Payette; Pacific Northwest Region; Payette; Pend Oreille Lake; Portneuf; Priest; Salmon Falls; South Fork Boise; South Fork Clearwater; Spokane; St. Joe; Upper Owyhee; Upper Snake-Rock; Upper Spokane; Weiser
IL202320231Lake Michigan
IA198719871Little Sioux
KS1885199512Caney; Chikaskia; Elk; Lower Cottonwood; Lower Kansas, Kansas; Lower Marais Des Cygnes; Medicine Lodge; Middle Neosho; Prairie Dog; Upper Marais Des Cygnes; Upper Neosho; Upper Smoky Hill
KY198619861Upper Cumberland
ME1868202221Aroostook River; Dead River; East Branch Penobscot River; Kennebec; Little River-Saint John River; Lower Androscoggin River; Lower Kennebec River; Maine Coastal; Mattawamkeag River; New England Region; Passamaquoddy Bay-Bay of Fundy; Penobscot River; Piscataqua-Salmon Falls; Piscataquis River; Presumpscot; Saco River; Saint Croix River; St. George-Sheepscot; Upper Androscoggin River; Upper Kennebec River; West Branch Penobscot River
MD1854202110Cacapon-Town; Chester-Sassafras; Conococheague-Opequon; Gunpowder-Patapsco; Lower Susquehanna; Mid Atlantic Region; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; Monocacy; North Branch Potomac; Upper Chesapeake
MA1860202017Ashuelot River-Connecticut River; Blackstone River; Cape Cod; Charles; Chicopee River; Concord River; Deerfield River; Farmington River; Housatonic; Merrimack River; Millers River; Narragansett; Nashua River; New England Region; Quinebaug River; Westfield River; Winnipesaukee River
MI201920191Lake Superior
MN1900201416Buffalo; Clearwater; Eastern Wild Rice; Lake of the Woods; Little Fork; Lower Rainy; Mustinka; Otter Tail; Rainy; Rainy Headwaters; Red; Red Lake; Red Lakes; Sandhill-Wilson; Upper Red; Vermilion
MS199119911Upper Tombigbee
MO198019986Lamine; Lower Grand; Lower Missouri-Crooked; St. Francis; Tarkio-Wolf; Upper Grand
MT1914202243Battle; Beaver; Big Horn Lake; Bitterroot; Blackfoot; Boxelder; Bullwhacker-Dog; Charlie-Little Muddy; Fisher; Flathead Lake; Flint-Rock; Fort Peck Reservoir; Frenchman; Judith; Little Bighorn; Lower Bighorn; Lower Clark Fork; Lower Flathead; Lower Milk; Lower Musselshell; Lower Tongue; Lower Yellowstone; Lower Yellowstone-Sunday; Marias; Middle Clark Fork; Middle Kootenai; Middle Milk; Middle Musselshell; O'Fallon; Peoples; Poplar; Prairie Elk-Wolf; Rosebud; Swan; Upper Milk; Upper Missouri; Upper Missouri-Dearborn; Upper Musselshell; Upper Tongue; Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin; Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar; West Fork Poplar; Yellowstone Headwaters
NE1970199927Blackbird-Soldier; Cedar; Elkhorn; Frenchman; Harlan County Reservoir; Lewis and Clark Lake; Loup; Lower Elkhorn; Lower Middle Loup; Lower North Platte; Lower Platte-Shell; Lower South Platte; Medicine; Middle Niobrara; Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff; Middle Platte; Middle Platte-Buffalo; Middle Platte-Prairie; Ponca; Red Willow; Snake; Stinking Water; Turkey; Upper Niobrara; Upper Republican; Upper White; Wood
NV1888202211Central Lahontan; Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Lower Humboldt; Middle Carson; Middle Humboldt; Muddy; Ralston-Stone Cabin Valleys; Truckee; Upper Amargosa; Upper Carson; Upper Humboldt
NH1860202216Ammonoosuc River-Connecticut River; Ashuelot River-Connecticut River; Black River-Connecticut River; Contoocook River; Headwaters Connecticut River; Merrimack River; Millers River; Nashua River; New England; Pemigewasset River; Piscataqua-Salmon Falls; Saco River; Upper Androscoggin River; Waits River-Connecticut River; West River-Connecticut River; Winnipesaukee River
NJ1866202210Cohansey-Maurice; Crosswicks-Neshaminy; Hackensack-Passaic; Lower Delaware; Mid-Atlantic Region; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Middle Delaware-Musconetcong; Mullica-Toms; Raritan; Rondout
NM1957200711Rio Grande-Albuquerque; Rio Grande-Santa Fe; San Francisco; Upper Canadian; Upper Canadian-Ute Reservoir; Upper Gila-Mangas; Upper Pecos; Upper Rio Grande; Upper Rio Grande; Upper San Juan; Upper San Juan
NY1872202319Ausable River; Chemung; Chenango; Hudson-Hoosic; Hudson-Wappinger; Lower Hudson; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Mohawk; Owego-Wappasening; Raquette; Rondout; Sacandaga; Saranac River; Schoharie; St. Regis; Upper Delaware; Upper Hudson; Upper Susquehanna; Upper Susquehanna
NC1941201614Lower Dan; Lower Yadkin; Neuse; Seneca; South Fork Catawba; South Yadkin; Upper Broad; Upper Catawba; Upper Dan; Upper Neuse; Upper New; Upper Pee Dee; Upper Pee Dee; Upper Yadkin
ND1980199919Cedar; James Headwaters; Knife; Lake Sakakawea; Lower Cannonball; Lower Heart; Lower Sheyenne; Middle Sheyenne; Moose Mountain Creek-Souris River; North Fork Grand; Painted Woods-Square Butte; Pipestem; Red; Souris; Turtle; Upper Cannonball; Upper Heart; Upper James; Western Wild Rice
OK197319802Kiamichi; Red-Lake Texoma
OR1905202344Applegate; Beaver-South Fork; Brownlee Reservoir; Bully; Burnt; Coast Fork Willamette; Goose Lake; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Deschutes; Lower John Day; Lower Malheur; Lower Owyhee; Lower Rogue; Lower Snake; Lower Willamette; Middle Columbia-Hood; Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula; Middle Fork Willamette; Middle Owyhee; Middle Rogue; Middle Snake; Middle Willamette; Molalla-Pudding; North Fork John Day; North Santiam; Pacific Northwest; Powder; Siletz-Yaquina; Siltcoos; Silvies; South Santiam; South Umpqua; Tualatin; Umatilla; Umpqua; Upper Crooked; Upper Deschutes; Upper Grande Ronde; Upper John Day; Upper Malheur; Upper Rogue; Upper Willamette; Willamette; Willow
PA1983202427Bald Eagle; Cacapon-Town; Chemung; Conococheague-Opequon; Lehigh; Lower Juniata; Lower Susquehanna; Lower Susquehanna-Penns; Lower Susquehanna-Swatara; Lower West Branch Susquehanna; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Middle Delaware-Musconetcong; Middle West Branch Susquehanna; Monocacy; North Branch Potomac; Owego-Wappasening; Pine; Raystown; Schuylkill; Sinnemahoning; Susquehanna; Tioga; Upper Juniata; Upper Susquehanna; Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna; Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock; Upper West Branch Susquehanna
RI199219942Narragansett; New England Region
SC1975201812Congaree; Cooper; Lower Broad; Middle Savannah; Saluda; Santee; Santee; Seneca; Stevens; Tugaloo; Upper Broad; Upper Savannah
SD1980200118Angostura Reservoir; Cheyenne; Fort Randall Reservoir; Grand; James; Lewis and Clark Lake; Lower Belle Fourche; Lower Big Sioux; Lower Cheyenne; Lower James; Lower Lake Oahe; Lower Moreau; Middle Cheyenne-Spring; Mud; South Fork Grand; Turtle; Upper James; Vermillion
TX1966202344Amistad Reservoir; Austin-Travis Lakes; Blackwater Draw; Brady; Buchanan-Lyndon B. Johnson Lakes; Denton; Double Mountain Fork Brazos; Elm Fork Trinity; Elm-Sycamore; Farmers-Mud; Jim Ned; Lake Meredith; Lake O'the Pines; Lake Texoma; Lampasas; Leon; Llano; Lower Brazos; Lower Devils; Lower Sulpher; Lower West Fork Trinity; Medina; Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney; Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto; Middle Canadian; Middle Colorado; Middle Colorado-Elm; Middle Guadalupe; Middle Sabine; Navasota; Palo Duro; Palo Duro; Pecan Bayou; Reagan-Sanderson; San Ambrosia-Santa Isabel; San Gabriel; San Marcos; South Concho; Tule; Upper Colorado; Upper Guadalupe; Upper Salt Fork Red; Upper West Fork Trinity; White
UT1912202217Beaver Bottoms-Upper Beaver; Duchesne; Escalante Desert; Escalante Desert-Sevier Lake; Lower Green; Lower Green; Lower Green-Desolation Canyon; Lower Green-Diamond; Lower Lake Powell; Lower Weber; Provo; Strawberry; Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir; Upper Lake Powell; Upper Sevier; Upper Weber; Utah Lake
VT1908202016Ammonoosuc River-Connecticut River; Ashuelot River-Connecticut River; Black River-Connecticut River; Deerfield River; Headwaters Connecticut River; Hudson-Hoosic; Lamoille River; Mettawee River; Missiquoi River; Otter Creek; Passumpsic River; St. Francois River; Waits River-Connecticut River; West River-Connecticut River; White River; Winooski River
VA1945202334Appomattox; Chowan; Conococheague-Opequon; James; Kanawha; Lower Dan; Lower James; Lower Potomac; Lower Rappahannock; Mattaponi; Maury; Meherrin; Middle James-Buffalo; Middle James-Willis; Middle New; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; Middle Roanoke; North Fork Shenandoah; Nottoway; Pamunkey; Potomac; Rapidan-Upper Rappahannock; Rivanna; Roanoke; Shenandoah; South Branch Potomac; South Fork Shenandoah; Upper Dan; Upper James; Upper New; Upper Roanoke; Upper Yadkin; York
WA1900202239Banks Lake; Colville; Duwamish; Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake; Hangman; Kettle; Lake Chelan; Lake Washington; Little Spokane; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Cowlitz; Lower Crab; Lower Grande Ronde; Lower Snake; Lower Snake; Lower Snake-Tucannon; Lower Spokane; Lower Yakima; Middle Columbia-Hood; Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula; Nooksack; Okanogan; Pacific Northwest Region; Palouse; Puget Sound; Puyallup; Rock; San Juan Islands; Similkameen; Snohomish; Strait of Georgia; Upper Chehalis; Upper Columbia-Entiat; Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids; Upper Crab; Upper Spokane; Upper Yakima; Walla Walla; Wenatchee
WV197320196Cacapon-Town; Conococheague-Opequon; Middle New; Potomac; South Branch Potomac; Upper James
WY188920139Big Horn; Great Divide Closed Basin; North Platte; Powder; Upper Green; Upper Green; Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir; Upper Laramie; Upper Tongue

Table last updated 6/19/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

Means of Introduction: Intentional stocking for sportfishing.

Status: Established in most of the above states. Reported in Mississippi.

Impact of Introduction: In Arizona, Smallmouth Bass reportedly are responsible for eliminating or reducing some populations of native fishes (Minckley 1973). Smallmouth Bass have been shown to eat smolts of Pacific salmonids, therefore posing a threat to these already declining species in the Columbia River (Dentler 1993). Similar trends have been observed in other major rivers of the Pacific Northwest, with Smallmouth Bass consuming up to 35 percent of outmigrating wild salmon. Kuehne and Olden (2012) found that juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha showed fewer anti-predator flight and panic responses when exposed to Smallmouth Bass odors compared to odors from native Northern Pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis, indicating that salmonids may not recognize Smallmouth Bass as potential predators and prey naivety enhances success of novel predators. Smallmouth Bass experience a niche shift, switching food preference from insects and zooplankton to crayfish and fish, that causes competitive interactions with many other fish species (Carey et al. 2011). Jenkins and Burkhead (1994) speculated that introduced Smallmouth Bass may have contributed to the demise of an isolated population of Trout-perch Percopsis omiscomaycus in the Potomac River in Virginia and Maryland. Smallmouth Bass were introduced into Flaming Gorge Reservoir to reduce the Utah Chub Gila atraria (Teuscher and Luecke 1996). Introduced predatory centrarchids are likely responsible for the decline of native ranid frogs in California and for the decline of California tiger salamander Ambystoma californiense populations (Hayes and Jennings 1986; Dill and Cordone 1997). Nonnative predators, including Smallmouth Bass, have been shown to reduce the abundance and diversity of native prey species in several Pacific Northwest rivers (Hughes and Herlihy 2012). The presence of Smallmouth Bass, along with other introduced piscivores, reduced the richness of native minnow communities in Adirondack lakes (Findlay et al. 2000). Introduction of Smallmouth Bass may be driving isolation and population fragmentation in Umpqua Chub (Oregonichthys kalawatseti) in lower order streams in the Smith River drainage, Oregon (O'Malley et al. 2013).

Introduction of the Smallmouth Bass into the native range of Guadalupe Bass M. treculii in southcentral Texas has resulted in hybridization between the two species (Edwards 1979; Whitmore 1983). This hybrid bass is found in Canyon Lake and the San Marcos system, Guadalupe River drainage, on the Edwards Plateau in Texas (Whitmore 1983; International Game Fish Association 1994). It was first recognized by Edwards (1979) and later verified by Whitmore (1983). The hybrid is fertile and is capable of backcrossing to the parent species, with more backcrossing to Smallmouth Bass than to Guadalupe Bass (Whitmore 1983). Introgressive hybridization represents another threat to the already depleted Guadalupe Bass by compromising its genetic integrity (Whitmore 1983). Although Lake Travis, on the Colorado River, also has been stocked with Smallmouth Bass, Whitmore (1983) found no evidence of hybridization there. Bean et al. (2013) used microsatellites to estimate introgression rates of Smallmouth Bass within Guadalupe Bass in the Brazos, Colorado, Guadalupe-San Antonio, and Nueces drainages; introgression was found within 4 subbasins, with rates highest in the Guadalupe subbasin. The Smallmouth Bass also hybridizes with the Spotted Bass M. punctulatus when stocked in the Spotted Bass's native range or when both species are stocked in the same area. The Smallmouth/Spotted Bass hybrid has been found in the Verde River, Arizona (Minckley 1973); California (Moyle 2002); the Marmaton River, Barbour County, Kansas (Cross 1967; museum specimen KU 4682); and southeastern Oklahoma (formerly described as M. punctulatus wichitae) (Cofer 1995). A third hybrid resulting from stocking Smallmouth Bass is the Smallmouth/Largemouth hybrid. Introduced Smallmouth Bass hybridize with native Largemouth Bass in Squaw Reservoir in northcentral Texas (Whitmore and Hellier 1988).

There are a few benefits despite the negative impacts of Smallmouth Bass. Bass anglers account for a high influx of revenue in the Pacific Northwest, which helps supports the existing fisheries as well as conservation and management efforts in the region. In addition, anglers enjoy increased bag and size limits for Smallmouth Bass. These regulations allow anglers to play a role in managing the native fish populations by decreasing non-native population size (Carey et al. 2011).

Remarks: Introduced bass likely affect small fish populations through predation. Tyus et al. (1982) gave a distribution map of the this species in the upper Colorado basin. MacCrimmon and Robbins (1975) showed a map depicting this species' native and introduced range.

References: (click for full references)

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FishBase Summary

Author: Pam Fuller, Matt Cannister, and Matt Neilson

Revision Date: 6/27/2019

Peer Review Date: 1/25/2016

Citation Information:
Pam Fuller, Matt Cannister, and Matt Neilson, 2024, Micropterus dolomieu Lacep├Ęde, 1802: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=396, Revision Date: 6/27/2019, Peer Review Date: 1/25/2016, Access Date: 6/19/2024

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [6/19/2024].

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For general information and questions about the database, contact Wesley Daniel. For problems and technical issues, contact Matthew Neilson.