Pomoxis annularis
Pomoxis annularis
(White Crappie)
Native Transplant
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Pomoxis annularis Rafinesque, 1818

Common name: White Crappie

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Moyle (1976a); Becker (1983); Page and Burr (1991); Etnier and Starnes (1993); Jenkins and Burkhead (1994).

Size: 53 cm.

Native Range: Great Lakes, Hudson Bay (Red River), and Mississippi River basins from New York and southern Ontario west to Minnesota and South Dakota, and south to the Gulf; Gulf Slope drainages from Mobile Bay, Georgia and Alabama, to the Neuces River, Texas (Page and Burr 1991).

US auto-generated map Legend USGS Logo
Alaska auto-generated map
Hawaii auto-generated map
Caribbean auto-generated map
Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
Guam auto-generated map
Guam Saipan
Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences: Introduced into Alabama (Smith-Vaniz 1968; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Mettee et al. 1996); Arizona (Miller and Lowe 1967; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.); California (Shebley 1917; Neale 1931; Moyle 1976a; Moyle and Randall 1999; Sommer et al. 2001; Matern et al. 2002); Colorado (Everhart and Seaman 1971; Tyus et al. 1982: Rasmussen 1998; Tilmant 1999); Connecticut (Behnke and Wetzel 1960; Whitworth et al. 1968; Schmidt 1986; Whitworth 1996); Delaware (Raasch and Altemus 1991); Florida (Kilby et al. 1959; Yerger 1977; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.); Georgia (Dahlberg and Scott 1971a, 1971b; Yerger 1977); Idaho (Linder 1963; Idaho Fish and Game 1990; Anonymous 2004); Kansas (Cross 1967; Cross and Collins 1995); Kentucky (Burr and Warren 1986); Maryland (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Tilmant 1999; Starnes et al. 2011); Massachusetts (Fowler 1907; Schmidt 1986; Hartel 1992; Hartel et al. 1996; USFWS 2005); Minnesota (Eddy and Underhill 1974; Phillips et al. 1982); Montana (Cross et al. 1986; Holton 1990); Nebraska (Baxter and Simon 1970; Lee et al. 1980 et seq. ), Nevada (La Rivers 1962; Deacon and Williams 1984; Insider Viewpoint 2001; Vinyard 2001); New Jersey (Morse 1905; Fowler 1906, 1952; Stiles 1978; Soldwedel, personal communication; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.); New Mexico (Tyus et al. 1982; Sublette et al. 1990); New York (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Schmidt 1986); North Carolina (Hocutt et al. 1986; Menhinick 1991); North Dakota (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Cross et al. 1986); Ohio (Trautman 1981); Oklahoma (Miller and Robison 1973); Oregon (Lampman 1946; Bond 1994; Anonymous 2001; Logan 1995); Pennsylvania (Cooper 1983; Hocutt et al. 1986; Schmidt 1986); Savannah River drainage, Saluda River, North Fork Edisto River, Lake Murray, Broad River drainage, Wateree River, Santee, Pee Dee, and Catawba River in South Carolina (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Hocutt et al. 1986; Rohde et al. 2009); South Dakota (Bailey and Allum 1962; Cross et al. 1986); Texas (Kraai et al. 1983; Moyle and Randall 1999; Red River Authority 2001; Texas Parks and Wildlife Department 1993; Waldrip 1993); Utah (Sigler and Miller 1963); Vermont (Cox, personal communication); Virginia (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Hocutt et al. 1986; Jenkins and Burkhead 1994); Washington (Gray and Dauble 1977; Fletcher, personal communication); West Virginia (Stauffer et al. 1995); Wisconsin (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Becker 1983); and Wyoming (Baxter and Simon 1970; Hubert 1994; Stone 1995; Tilmant 1999).

Means of Introduction: Intentional stocking for sportfishing.

Status: Established in most locations.

Impact of Introduction: White Crappie prey on threatened and endangered juvenile salmon that spawn in rivers of the Northwest United States and may further contribute to salmon decline through habitat alteration, though the extent of those impacts are unknown (Sanderson et al. 2009). Nonnative predators, including crappie, have been shown to reduce the abundance and diversity of native prey species in several Pacific Northwest rivers (Hughes and Herlihy 2012).

Remarks: It is probable that all the White Crappie in California are descendents of the original 16 fish planted in the state in 1917 (Goodson 1966a).

References: (click for full references)

Anonymous 2001. Oregon's Warm Water Fishing with Public Access. [online]. URL at http://www.dfw.state.or.us/warm_water_fishing/index.asp.

Hocutt, C.H., R.E. Jenkins, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1986. Zoogeography of the fishes of the central Appalachians and central Atlantic Coastal Plain. 161-212 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Hughes, R.M. and A.T. Herlihy. 2012. Patterns in catch per unit effort of native prey fish and alien piscivorous fish in 7 Pacific Northwest USA rivers. Fisheries 37(5):201-211.

Insider Viewpoint. 2001. Fishing Records – Nevada. Insider Viewpoint Magazine. 3 pp.

Linder, A. D. 1963. Idaho's Alien Fishes. TEBIWA, 6(2), 12-15.

Matern, S.A., P.B. Moyle, and L.C. Pierce. 2002. Native and alien fishes in a California estuarine marsh: twenty-one years of changing assemblages. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 131: 797-816.

Miller, R.R. and C.H. Lowe. 1967. Part 2. Fishes of Arizona, p 133-151, In: C.H. Lowe, ed. The Vertebrates of Arizona. University of Arizona Press. Tucson.

Moyle, P.B. and J. Randall. 1999. Distribution maps of fishes in California. [on-line] Available URL at http://ice.ucdavis.edu/aquadiv/fishcovs/fishmaps.html.

Rasmussen, J.L. 1998. Aquatic nuisance species of the Mississippi River basin. 60th Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference, Aquatic Nuisance Species Symposium, Dec. 7, 1998, Cincinnati, OH.

Red River Authority of Texas. 2001. Red and Canadian Basins Fish Inventory: Grayson County. Red River Authority of Texas.

Red River Authority of Texas. 2001. Red and Canadian Basins Fish Inventory: Red River County. Red River Authority of Texas.

Rohde, F. C., R. G. Arndt, J. W. Foltz, and J. M. Quattro. 2009. Freshwater Fishes of South Carolina. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, SC. 430 pp.

Sanderson, B.L., K.A. Barnes, and A.M.W. Rub. 2009. Nonindigenous Species of the Pacific Northwest: An Overlooked Risk to Endangered Salmon? BioScience 59(3): 245-256.

Sommer, T, B. Harrell, M. Nobriga, R. Brown, P. Moyle, W. Kimmerer, and L. Schemel. 2001. California's Yolo Bypass: Evidence that flood control can be compatible with fisheries, wetlands, wildlife, and agriculture. Fisheries. American Fisheries Society. 26 (8): 6-16.

Starnes, W.C., J. Odenkirk, and M.J. Ashton. 2011. Update and analysis of fish occurrences in the lower Potomac River drainage in the vicinity of Plummers Island, Maryland—Contribution XXXI to the natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 124(4):280-309.

Tilmant, J.T. 1999. Management of nonindigenous aquatic fish in the U.S. National Park System. National Park Service. 50 pp.

Trautman, M.B. 1981. The Fishes of Ohio. Ohio State University Press. Columbus, OH. 782 pp.

FishBase Summary

Author: Pam Fuller, Matt Cannister, and Matt Neilson

Revision Date: 5/29/2012

Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016

Citation Information:
Pam Fuller, Matt Cannister, and Matt Neilson, 2018, Pomoxis annularis Rafinesque, 1818: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=408, Revision Date: 5/29/2012, Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016, Access Date: 1/24/2018

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

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Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2018]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [1/24/2018].

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