Pomoxis nigromaculatus
Pomoxis nigromaculatus
(Black Crappie)
Native Transplant
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Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Lesueur in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829)

Common name: Black Crappie

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Moyle (1976a); Becker (1983); Page and Burr (1991); Etnier and Starnes (1993); Jenkins and Burkhead (1994).

Size: 49 cm.

Native Range: So widely introduced that native range is difficult to determine; presumably Atlantic Slope from Virginia to Florida, Gulf Slope west to Texas, St. Lawrence, Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins from Quebec to Manitoba south to the Gulf (Page and Burr 1991).

US auto-generated map Legend USGS Logo
Alaska auto-generated map
Hawaii auto-generated map
Caribbean auto-generated map
Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
Guam auto-generated map
Guam Saipan
Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences: Introduced into Arizona (Miller and Lowe 1967; Hendrickson et al. 1980; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Tyus et al. 1982; Tilmant 1999; USFWS 2005); Arkansas (Robison and Buchanan 1988); California (Smith 1896; Shebley 1917; Neale 1931; Moyle 1976a; Wydoski and Whitney 1979; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Smith 1982; Moyle and Randall 1999; Tilmant 1999; Sommer et al. 2001; Matern et al. 2002); Colorado (Everhart and Seaman 1971; Ellis 1974; Tyus et al. 1982; Propst and Carlson 1986; Rasmussen 1998; Tilmant 1999); Connecticut (Behnke and Wetzel 1960; Whitworth et al. 1968; Schmidt 1986; Whitworth 1996); Delaware (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Raasch and Altemus 1991); Idaho (Smith 1896; Linder 1963; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Idaho Fish and Game 1990; Anonymous 2004); Kansas (Cross 1967; Cross et al. 1986; Cross and Collins 1995); Kentucky (Burr and Warren 1986); Maine (Everhart 1976; Bailey 2005; Boucher 2005; Halliwell 2003); Maryland (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Tilmant 1999; Starnes et al. 2011); Massachusetts (Schmidt 1986; Hartel 1992; Hartel et al. 1996; USFWS 2005); Montana (Brown 1971; Cross et al. 1986; Holton 1990; Madison 2003; Mann 2004); Nebraska (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Cross et al. 1986); Nevada (La Rivers 1962; Bradley and Deacon 1967; Deacon and Williams 1984; Insider Viewpoint 2001; Tilmant 1999, Vinyard 2001); New Hampshire (Scarola 1973; Schmidt 1986); New Jersey (Morse 1905; Fowler 1906; Stiles 1978; Soldwedel, personal communication); New Mexico (Tyus et al. 1982; Sublette et al. 1990); New York (Smith 1985; Schmidt 1986; USFWS 2005); North Dakota (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Cross et al. 1986); Oklahoma (Miller and Robison 1973; Cross et al. 1986); Oregon (Lampman 1946; Bond 1994; State of Oregon 2000; Anonymous 2001; USFWS 2005; Logan 1995; Ridler 2004); Pennsylvania (Cooper 1983; Hocutt et al. 1986; Schmidt 1986; Tilmant 1999); Rhode Island (Cooper 1983); South Dakota (Bailey and Allum 1962; Cross et al. 1986); Tennessee (Sigler and Miller 1963); Texas (Conner and Suttkus 1986; Cross et al. 1986; Howells 1991a; Red River Authority 2001; Waldrip 1993; Texas Parks and Widlife Department 1993); Utah (Sigler and Miller 1963; Tyus et al. 1982; Sigler and Sigler 1987; Tilmant 1999); Vermont (Cox, personal communication); Virginia (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Hocutt et al. 1986; Jenkins and Burkhead 1994; Starnes et al. 2011); Washington (Lampman 1946; Gray and Dauble 1977; Wydoski and Whitney 1979; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Urbain, B. pers. comm.; USFWS 2005); West Virginia (Stauffer et al. 1995); Wisconsin (Becker 1983); and Wyoming (Simon 1946; Baxter and Simon 1970; Hubert 1994; Stone 1995; Tilmant 1999).

Means of Introduction: Its popularity as a sport fish has led to stockings throughout the west and northeast. Intentional stocking for sportfishing.

Status: Established in most or all states where it has been introduced.

Impact of Introduction: Black Crappie prey on threatened and endangered juvenile salmon that spawn in rivers of the Northwest United States and may further contribute to salmon decline through habitat alteration, though the extent of those impacts are unknown (Sanderson et al. 2009). Nonnative predators, including crappie, have been shown to reduce the abundance and diversity of native prey species in several Pacific Northwest rivers (Hughes and Herlihy 2012).

Remarks: Tyus et al. (1982) gave a distribution map of the this species in the upper Colorado basin.

References: (click for full references)

Anonymous 2001. Oregon's Warm Water Fishing with Public Access. [online]. URL at http://www.dfw.state.or.us/warm_water_fishing/index.asp.

Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Madison Press, Madison, WI.

Bradley W. G. and J. E. Deacon. 1967. The biotic communities of southern Nevada. Nevada State Museum Anthropological Papers No. 13, Part 4. 201-273.

Cross, F.B., and J.T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. University of Kansas Natural History Museum, Lawrence, KS. 316 pp.

Etnier, D.A., and W.C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tenneessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN.

Hocutt, C.H., R.E. Jenkins, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1986. Zoogeography of the fishes of the central Appalachians and central Atlantic Coastal Plain. 161-212 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Hughes, R.M. and A.T. Herlihy. 2012. Patterns in catch per unit effort of native prey fish and alien piscivorous fish in 7 Pacific Northwest USA rivers. Fisheries 37(5):201-211.

Insider Viewpoint. 2001. Fishing Records – Nevada. Insider Viewpoint Magazine. 3 pp.

Jenkins, R.E., and N.M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater Fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, NC.

Linder, A. D. 1963. Idaho's Alien Fishes. TEBIWA, 6(2), 12-15.

Madison, D. 2003. Outlaw Introductions. Montana Outdoors. July/August: 26-35.

Matern, S.A., P.B. Moyle, and L.C. Pierce. 2002. Native and alien fishes in a California estuarine marsh: twenty-one years of changing assemblages. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 131: 797-816.

Miller, R.R. and C.H. Lowe. 1967. Part 2. Fishes of Arizona, p 133-151, In: C.H. Lowe, ed. The Vertebrates of Arizona. University of Arizona Press. Tucson.

Moyle, P.B. and J. Randall. 1999. Distribution maps of fishes in California. [on-line] Available URL at http://ice.ucdavis.edu/aquadiv/fishcovs/fishmaps.html.

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Guide Series, vol. 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Red River Authority of Texas. 2001. Red and Canadian Basins Fish Inventory: Grayson County. Red River Authority of Texas.

Red River Authority of Texas. 2001. Red and Canadian Basins Fish Inventory: Red River County. Red River Authority of Texas.

Sanderson, B.L., K.A. Barnas, and A.M.W. Rub. 2009. Nonindigenous species of the Pacific Northwest: an overlooked risk to endangered salmon? BioScience 59(3): 245-256.

Sigler, F.F. and R.R. Miller. 1963. Fishes of Utah. Utah Department of Fish and Game. Salt Lake City, Utah. 203 pp.

Simon, J.R.  1946. Wyoming Fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Dept., Bull. No. 4. 1-129+ pp.

Sommer, T, B. Harrell, M. Nobriga, R. Brown, P. Moyle, W. Kimmerer, and L. Schemel. 2001. California's Yolo Bypass: Evidence that flood control can be compatible with fisheries, wetlands, wildlife, and agriculture. Fisheries. American Fisheries Society. 26 (8): 6-16.

Starnes, W.C., J. Odenkirk, and M.J. Ashton. 2011. Update and analysis of fish occurrences in the lower Potomac River drainage in the vicinity of Plummers Island, Maryland—Contribution XXXI to the natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 124(4):280-309.

State of Oregon. 2000. Warm Water Game Fish Records. 7 pp.

Tilmant, J.T. 1999. Management of nonindigenous aquatic fish in the U.S. National Park System. National Park Service. 50 pp.

Urbain, B. 2001. Personal communication.

Other Resources:
FishBase Summary

Author: Pam Fuller, Matt Cannister, and Matt Neilson

Revision Date: 5/29/2012

Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016

Citation Information:
Pam Fuller, Matt Cannister, and Matt Neilson, 2018, Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Lesueur in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=409, Revision Date: 5/29/2012, Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016, Access Date: 1/24/2018

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

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Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2018]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [1/24/2018].

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