Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Chanos chanos are found here.
Table last updated 9/23/2021
† Populations may not be currently present.
References: (click for full references)
Bagarinao, T. 1994. Systematics, distribution, genetics and life history of milkfish, Chanos chanos
. Environmental Biology of Fishes 39:23-41.
Berra, T. M. 1981. An atlas of distribution of the freshwater fish families of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE.
Burgess, W. E., and H. R. Axelrod. 1974. Pacific marine fishes book 4: fishes of Taiwan and adjacent waters. Tropical Fish Hobbyist Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ.
Duffy, J. M., and H. J. Bernard. 1985. Milkfish, Chanos chanos (Forsskål, 1775), taken in southern California adds new family (Chanidae) to the California marine fauna. California Fish and Game 71:122-125.
Eschmeyer, W. N., E. S. Herald, and H. Hamann. 1983. A field guide to Pacific Coast fishes of North America. Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA.
Hubbs, C. L., W. I. Follett, and L. J. Dempster. 1979. List of the fishes of California. California Academy Science Occasional Papers 133. 51 pp.
Moyle, P. B. 1976. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
Shapovalov, L., A. J. Cordone, and W. A. Dill. 1981. A list of freshwater and anadromous fishes of California. California Fish and Game 67(1):4-38.
Smith, H. M. 1896. A review of the history and results of the attempts to acclimatize fish and other water animals in the Pacific states. Pages 379-472 in Bulletin of the U.S. Fish Commission, Vol. XV, for 1895.
Swift, C. C., T. R. Haglund, M. Ruiz, and R. N. Fisher. 1993. The status and distribution of the freshwater fishes of southern California. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Science 92(3):101-167.
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.