Disclaimer:

The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.




Pterophyllum sp.
Pterophyllum sp.
(freshwater angelfish)
Fishes
Exotic
Translate this page with Google
Français Deutsch Español Português Russian Italiano Japanese

Copyright Info
Pterophyllum sp. Heckel, 1840

Common name: freshwater angelfish

Synonyms and Other Names: leaf fish

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Schultz (1967) reviewed the genus and recognized three species: Pterophyllum altum, P. scalare, and P. leopoldi. There are many color variants in the aquarium trade. Photographs of live fish appeared in Axelrod et al. (1985), Axelrod (1993), and Bleher (1993). Kullander provides a synopsis of the spcies with color photos online (see 'Web Resources' section below)

Size: 18 cm (Petrovicky 1988).

Native Range: Tropical America. Orinoco and Amazon basins in Brazil, Peru, Columbia, and Venezuela, and in some coastal drainages of  the Guianas, South America (Schultz 1967).

Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Pterophyllum sp. are found here.

StateYear of earliest observationYear of last observationTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
Colorado198319862Alamosa-Trinchera; San Luis
Hawaii199120051Oahu

Table last updated 9/30/2019

† Populations may not be currently present.


Means of Introduction: Probable aquarium release or escape from local fish farms (Courtenay and Hensley 1979; Zuckerman and Behnke 1986).

Status: Reported from Colorado and Hawaii.

Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.

Remarks: Florida reports of Pterophyllum sp. (Courtenay and Hensley 1979) and Pterophyllum scalare (Courtenay et al. 1984, 1991) represent the same record (Courtenay, personal communication).

References: (click for full references)

Axelrod, H.R. 1993. The most complete colored lexicon of cichlids. Tropical Fish Hobbyist Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ.

Axelrod, H.R., W.E. Burgess, N. Pronek, and J.G. Walls. 1985. Dr. Axelrod's atlas of freshwater aquarium fishes. Tropical Fish Hobbyist Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ.

Bleher, H. (editorial board). 1993. Leaf fish. Aqua Geõgraphia, volume 3 (March):76-79.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr. - Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and D.A. Hensley. 1979. Survey of introduced non-native fishes. Phase I Report. Introduced exotic fishes in North America: status 1979. Report Submitted to National Fishery Research Laboratory, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Gainesville, FL.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., D.A. Hensley, J.N. Taylor, and J.A. McCann. 1984. Distribution of exotic fishes in the continental United States. 41-77 in W. R. Courtenay, Jr., and J. R. Stauffer, Jr., eds. Distribution, biology and management of exotic fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., D.P. Jennings, and J.D. Williams. 1991. Appendix 2: exotic fishes. 97-107 in Robins, C. R., R. M. Bailey, C. E. Bond, J. R. Brooker, E. A. Lachner, R. N. Lea, and W. B. Scott. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada, 5th edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 20. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Devick, W.S. 1991. Patterns of introductions of aquatic organisms to Hawaiian freshwater habitats. 189-213 in: New directions in research, management and conservation of Hawaiian freshwater stream ecosystems. Proceedings of the 1990 symposium on freshwater stream biology and fisheries management, Division of Aquatic Resources, Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources.

Mundy, B.C.  2005.  Fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago.  Bishop Museum Bulletins in Zoology, Number 6.

Petrovicky, I. 1988. Aquarium fish of the world. Hamlyn, London, England.

Platania, S. - University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.

Schultz, L.P. 1967. Review of South American freshwater angelfishes genus Pterophyllum. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum 120:1-10.

Shapovalov, L., A.J. Cordone, and W.A. Dill. 1981. A list of freshwater and anadromous fishes of California. California Fish and Game 67(1):4-38.

Zuckerman, L.D., and R.J. Behnke. 1986. Introduced fishes in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Pages 435-452 in R. H. Stroud, editor. Fish culture in fisheries management. Proceedings of a symposium on the role of fish culture in fisheries management at Lake Ozark, MO, March 31-April 3, 1985. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Other Resources:
Synopsis of Pterophyllum - Swedish Museum of Natural History

FishBase Summary

Author: Leo Nico, and Matt Neilson

Revision Date: 5/9/2019

Peer Review Date: 2/10/2016

Citation Information:
Leo Nico, and Matt Neilson, 2019, Pterophyllum sp. Heckel, 1840: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=476, Revision Date: 5/9/2019, Peer Review Date: 2/10/2016, Access Date: 11/13/2019

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

Disclaimer:

The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2019]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [11/13/2019].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted. For queries involving fish, please contact Matthew Neilson. For queries involving invertebrates, contact Amy Benson.