Danio rerio
Danio rerio
(zebra danio)
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Danio rerio (Hamilton, 1822)

Common name: zebra danio

Synonyms and Other Names: Brachydanio rerio (Hamilton, 1822), zebrafish, striped danio, rerio

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Keys and distinguishing characteristics were given in Sublette et al. (1990) and Talwar and Jhingran (1991). Color photographs of live fish appeared in Axelrod et al. (1985).

Size: 4.5 cm TL.

Native Range: Tropical Asia. Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Nepal (Talwar and Jhingran 1991). Also reported from Myanmar (Menon 1999) and Bhutan (Petr 1999).

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Nonindigenous Occurrences: This species was reported from the Westminster flood control channel near a fish farm in Westminster, Orange County, California, in 1968 (St. Amant and Hoover 1969; Courtenay et al. 1984, 1991). Specimens ranging from 2-4 cm were captured in the Thames River drainage in Connecticut in 1985 (Whitworth 1996). It was recorded from Lake Worth Drainage District canal L-15 adjacent to fish farm in Palm Beach County, Florida, in the early 1970s (Courtenay and Robins 1973; Courtenay et al. 1974). Specimens also were taken from two sites adjacent to fish farms in Hillsborough County, including a ditch in Gibsonton, and from a site in Adamsville (Courtenay and Hensley 1979; museum specimen). The species was locally established in McCauley Spring in Sandoval County, New Mexico (Sublette et al. 1990; M. Hatch, personal communication).

Means of Introduction: California (St. Amant and Hoover 1969) and Florida records probably resulted from release or escape from local fish farms. Source of New Mexico population is not known; possible aquarium release as was record from Connecticut (Whitworth 1996).

Status: Extirpated in New Mexico by 2003 (S. Platania, pers.comm); reported from California, Connecticut, and Florida.

Impact of Introduction: Unknown.

Remarks: This species is a popular aquarium fish and has been widely used in experimental and developmental research.

Voucher specimens: Florida (UF 108670).

References: (click for full references)

Axelrod, H.R., W.E. Burgess, N. Pronek, and J.G. Walls. 1985. Dr. Axelrod's atlas of freshwater aquarium fishes. Tropical Fish Hobbyists Publications, Inc, Neptune City, NJ. 780 p.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr. and C.R. Robins. 1973. Exotic aquatic organisms in Florida with emphasis on fishes: a review and recommendations. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 102(1):1-12.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., H.F. Sahlman, W.W. Miley II, and D.J. Herrema. 1974. Exotic fishes in fresh and brackish waters of Florida. Biological Conservation 6(4):292-302.

Courtenay, W.R. and D.A. Hensley. 1979. Survey of introduced non-native fishes. Phase I. Introduced exotic fishes in North America: Status 1979. Report submitted to National Fisheries Research Laboratory, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Gainesville.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., D.A. Hensley, J.N. Taylor, and J.A. McCann. 1984. Distribution of exotic fishes in the continental United States.  41-77 in W.R. Courtenay, Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr., eds. Distribution, Biology and Management of Exotic Fishes. John Hopkins University Press Baltimore, MD.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., D.P. Jennings, and J.D. Williams. 1991. Appendix 2: Exotic Fishes IN Common names and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication. 5th ed. 20.

Menon, A.G.K. 1999. Checl list - fresh water fishes of India. Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Misc. Publ., Occas. Pap. No. 175. 366 p.

Petr, T. 1999. Coldwater fish and fisheries in Bhutan. p. 6-12. In T. Petr (ed.) Fish and fisheries at higher altitudes: Asia. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. No. 385. FAO, Rome. 304 p.

St. Amant, J.A. and F.G. Hoover. 1969. Addition of Misgurnus aguillicaudatus (Cantor) to the California fauna. California Fish and Game 55:330-331.

Sublette, J.E., M.D. Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The Fishes of New Mexico. New Mexico Department of Game and Fish University of New Mexico Press Albuquerque, NM. 393 p.

Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran. 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. Vol 1. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. 541 p.

Whitworth, W.R. 1996. Freshwater Fishes of Connecticut. 114:243 p.


Other Resources:
FishBase Summary

Author: Leo Nico, Pam Fuller, and Bill Loftus

Revision Date: 2/12/2013

Peer Review Date: 2/9/2016

Citation Information:
Leo Nico, Pam Fuller, and Bill Loftus, 2018, Danio rerio (Hamilton, 1822): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=505, Revision Date: 2/12/2013, Peer Review Date: 2/9/2016, Access Date: 3/23/2018

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

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Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2018]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [3/23/2018].

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