The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Osteopilus septentrionalis
Osteopilus septentrionalis
(Cuban Treefrog)
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Osteopilus septentrionalis (Duméril and Bibron, 1841)

Common name: Cuban Treefrog

Synonyms and Other Names: Giant Tree-frog, Marbled Tree-toad, rainette de Cuba (French), rana cubana, rana platernera (Spanish)

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Osteopilus septentrionalis is a very large, warty, treefrog (hylid) with an adult SVL (snout-vent length) of 28-165 mm (1.1-6.5 in); making it the largest treefrog in the U.S. (Bartlett and Bartlett, 1999; Meshaka, 2001; Elliott et al., 2009). The toepads (disks) are noticeably large, similar in size to its tympanum (eardrum) (Dorcas and Gibbons, 2008; Elliott et al., 2009). The dorsal color of Cuban treefrogs, a species which has the ability to change colors, may vary from unpatterned to heavily-patterned gray, tan, brown, bronze, olive-green to blue-green (Elliott et al., 2009; also illustrated in Dorcas and Gibbons, 2008; Knapp, 2008; Krysko et al., 2011a). Unlike indigenous U.S. treefrogss, the dorsal skin on adult O. septentrionalis is fused to the skull (Powell et al., 1998; Meshaka, 2011). Younger individuals are difficult to distinguish from indigenous U.S. treefrogs because they lack “warts” and exhibit very little pattern (Conant and Collins, 1998); however, they sometimes lack the light or dark lateral stripe found on many treefrog species (Conant and Collins, 1998). Tadpoles are black or darkly pigmented dorsally, with a visible intestinal coil ventrally, and a moderately pigmented tail with light areas on the anterior musculature (Gregoire, 2005 [illustrated]; Dorcas and Gibbons, 2008).

Unlike other U.S. treefrogs, the single vocal sac of calling males inflates bilaterally, giving the appearance of two sacs (Conant and Collins, 1998; Bartlett and Bartlett, 1999). The call is a rasping snarl or rubbery snore which may superficially resemble the call of Lithobates [=Rana] sphenocephalus, the southern leopard frog (Bartlett, 2000; Knapp, 2008; also CD recordings available from Library of Natural Sounds, 1996); however, a higher-pitched, scream-like escape call is used to deter predators (Dorcas and Gibbons, 2008).

Size: 28-165 mm SVL (snout-vent length)

Native Range: Osteopilus septentrionalis is indigenous to Cuba, Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth or Isle of Pines), the Bahamas, including San Salvador and Acklins Island, and the Cayman Islands (Echternacht et al., 2011; Heinicke et al., 2011; Krysko et al., 2011a).

US auto-generated map Legend USGS Logo
Alaska auto-generated map
Hawaii auto-generated map
Caribbean auto-generated map
Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
Guam auto-generated map
Guam Saipan
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Osteopilus septentrionalis are found here.

StateYear of earliest observationYear of last observationTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
Alabama200720122Lower Tallapoosa; Mobile Bay
Colorado198919891Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek
Florida1931201947Alafia; Apalachee Bay-St. Marks; Big Cypress Swamp; Blackwater; Caloosahatchee; Cape Canaveral; Charlotte Harbor; Choctawhatchee-Escambia; Crystal-Pithlachascotee; Daytona-St. Augustine; Everglades; Florida Bay-Florida Keys; Florida Southeast Coast; Floridian; Hillsborough; Kissimmee; Kissimmee; Little Manatee; Lower Ochlockonee; Lower St. Johns; Lower Suwannee; Manatee; Myakka; Nassau; New; Northern Okeechobee Inflow; Ochlockonee; Oklawaha; Peace; Peace; Peace-Tampa Bay; Pensacola Bay; Perdido Bay; Santa Fe; Sarasota Bay; South Atlantic-Gulf Region; Southern Florida; Southern Florida; St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays; St. Johns; St. Marys; Tampa Bay; Tampa Bay; Upper St. Johns; Vero Beach; Withlacoochee; Yellow
Georgia200420194Cumberland-St. Simons; Lower Oconee; Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F; Ogeechee Coastal
Louisiana201320176Amite; East Central Louisiana Coastal; Eastern Louisiana Coastal; Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta; Lower Mississippi-New Orleans; Vermilion
Massachusetts201820181Middle Connecticut
Mississippi201920191Upper Leaf
North Carolina201420141Haw
Puerto Rico195520073Cibuco-Guajataca; Eastern Puerto Rico; Puerto Rico
South Carolina201920191Calibogue Sound-Wright River
Texas201720182South Laguna Madre; Spring
Virgin Islands197419741St. John-St. Thomas
Virginia199219921Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan

Table last updated 6/13/2019

† Populations may not be currently present.

* HUCs are not listed for states where the observation(s) cannot be approximated to a HUC (e.g. state centroids or Canadian provinces).

Ecology: Osteopilus septentrionalis is a tropical, mostly arboreal treefrog (hylid), which has an insectivorous/carnivorous diet (Meshaka, 1996c, 2001, 2011; Granatosky et al., 2011). Smaller vertebrates are eaten, including indigenous frogs, indigenous and nonindigenous lizards, and other O. septentrionalis ( Meshaka, 1996c, 2000, 2001, 2011; Granatosky and Krysko, 2011). They are in turn preyed upon by native snakes and owls (Meshaka and Ferster, 1995; Meshaka, 2001, 2011; Dorcas and Gibbons, 2008), and parasitized by the nematode, Skrjabinoptera scelopori (Meshaka, 1996d). Adult activity is both arboreal and terrestrial habitats (Meshaka, 2001, 2011; Elliott et al., 2009).

Cuban treefrogs have an extended breeding season that may last throughout most of the year in southern Florida (Meshaka, 2001, 2011). Female O. septentrionalis in Puerto Rico exhibit no selectively in mate choice; a reproductive adaptation that may ultimately increase this frog’s fecundity (Vargas-Salinas, 2006c). Females are continuously fertile, laying very large clutches of 1,200 to over 16,000 eggs (Meshaka, 2001, 2011). Eggs can be laid in any warm, shallow body of water, usually lacking predatory fish; including man-made structures and holes formed by storm-toppled trees (Meshaka, 1993, 2001, 2011; Elliott et al., 2009). Tadpoles are omnivorous, even cannibalistic, and could potentially eat the eggs of indigenous frogs (Babbitt and Meshaka, 2000; Meshaka, 2001, 2011). However, eggs of the nonindigenous toad, Rhinella marina, are toxic to O. septentrionalis tadpoles (Punzo and Lindstrom, 2001).

Cuban Treefrogs are a storm-adapted species that can immediately increase its fecundity and rapidly disperse during and after hurricanes (Meshaka, 1993, 1996b, 2001, 2011). 

Cuban Treefrogs are well known for exploiting man-made structures and water supplies, which results in the successful colonization of urban and suburban areas (Townsend et al, 2002). This species can be many times more numerous in urban habitats than any of its natural habitats (Meshaka, 1996a). 

Means of Introduction: Osteopilus septentrionalis is usually introduced through horticultural shipments and plantings (especially palm trees) (Enge et al. 2008; Krysko et al., 2011b; Powell et al., 2011), building materials (Owen et al., 2005, 2006; Krysko et al., 2011b), and motorized vehicles (Meshaka, 1996a; Enge et al. 2008). In addition to anthropogenic dispersal, it also is possible that they can disperse throughout much of the Caribbean by rafting on floating vegetation (Meshaka, 2001). Several authors have suggested that indigenous Cuban Treefrogs may have existed on Key West and the lower Florida Keys since pre-Colombian times (Lazell, 1989; Meshaka, 2001; Heinicke et al., 2011).

James R. Wiley (personal communication 2005, 2006) has repeatedly observed Cuban Treefrogs hidden between the doors and door jams of his car when leaving Melbourne (Brevard County, Florida) on his way home to Gainesville (Alachua County, Florida) where they escape into his residential neighborhood.

The unverified population on Oahu, Hawaii, is the only example of O. septentrionalis being allegedly introduced (illegally) through pet releases during the 1980s (McKeown, 1996; Meshaka, 2001).

Status: In the United States, the Cuban Treefrog is established throughout Florida in the peninsula and panhandle, as well as along the Atlantic coast through to Savanah, Georgia, along the Florida panhandle, and in New Orleans, LA. It has also been introduced and become established in Oahu, HI, St. John, and Puerto Rico.

Impact of Introduction: The Cuban treefrog has been noted in its ability to prey on indigenous frogs outside of its native range in Puerto Rico (Meshaka, 2001), Costa Rica, and Florida (Lever, 2003; Rice et al., 2011). Butterfield et al. (1997) believe that the notion of competition with indigenous species in Florida is not as extensive as thought. A laboratory study utilizing Cuban Treefrogs from Florida indicates that they readily feed on adult native treefrogs although insects are preferred (Wyatt and Forys, 2004). Populations of native treefrogs recover and subsequently increase when O. septentrionalis were removed from selected localities in Florida (Rice et al., 2011). Cuban Treefrog tadpoles compete with indigenous amphibian larvae in Florida and have a negative impact on their growth and development (Smith, 2005). Smith (2004) found a male O. septentrionalis showing mating behavior (amplexing) with an indigenous female Southern leopard frog (Lithobates. sphenocephalus) in Hillsborough County, Florida, in May 2002. While these two species cannot hybridize, the result of these pairings may cause reproductive interference with indigenous frogs (Smith, 2004). In Hawaii, the species is established, and there are no indigenous frogs (McKeown, 1996), which could have ecological consequences.

Cuban treefrogs can be a nuisance to humans because of populations can become quite dense, and their propensity for showing up in and around residences in Florida (including drain pipes and vents) (Crabbe, 2007). The mating calls of male Cuban treefrogs can be an annoyance as well (Johnson, 2007).

The toxic skin secretions in this species can cause irritation to mucous membranes of humans. The secretions can cause a burning and itching sensation that can sometimes last for more than an hour. (Carmichael and Williams, 1991; Dalrymple, 1994; Dorcas and Gibbons, 2008; Meshaka, 2011).

Cuban treefrogs have been documented to cause power outages in areas where they come in contact with electrical equipment while looking for prey (Dahm, 2018).

Remarks: The most thorough, overall literature reviews on Cuban Treefrogs are by Duellman and Crombie (1970), and Meshaka (2001, 2011). More taxonomic reviews have been done by Duellman and Crombie (1970), Frost (1985, 2000), Maxson (1992), Anderson (1996), Collins and Taggart (2002, 2009), Faivovich et al. (2005), and Frost et al. (2006). Schwartz and Henderson (1991), Rivalta González and Díaz Beltrán (2003), Vargas-Salinas (2006a, b, c), Elliott et al. (2009), and Granatosky and Krysko (2011) have reviewed the natural history of O. septentrionalis, but by far the most thorough review of its natural history, distribution, and dispersal is by Meshaka (2001, 2011, and his other studies listed therein).

Meshaka (2001, 2011) predicts that O. septentrionalis may eventually disperse to Jamaica, and much of the Caribbean. Additionally, Florida populations have the potantial to spread along the Gulf Coast, throughout the coastal United States, then southward into Mexico (Meshaka, 2001, 2011; Rödder and Weinsheimer, 2009). Their northward dispersal in the United States may be limited by climate (Meshaka, 2001; Granatosky and Krysko, 2011) and a decrease in female body size with northward latitude (McGarrity and Johnson, 2009). However, Cuban treefrogs are quite tolerant to short-term exposure to freezing temperatures, and evidence suggests that previous exposure to cold may increase the ability of this species to withstand future cold weather events (Simpson 2013; Wilson 2010). 

References: (click for full references)

Babbitt, K. J., and W. E. Meshaka, Jr. 2000. Benefits of eating conspecifics: Effects of background diet on survival and metamorphosis in the Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis). Copeia 2000(2):469-474.

Bartlett, D. [=R. D.] 2000. Keys to the city. Reptiles 8(6):24-28, 30-31.

Bartlett, R. D., and P. P. Bartlett. 1999. A Field Guide to Florida Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston. 280 pp.

Butterfield, B. P., W. E. Meshaka, Jr., and C. Guyer. 1997. Nonindigenous amphibians and reptiles.  Pp. 123-138. In: D. Simberloff, D. C. Schmitz, and T. C. Brown (editors). Strangers in Paradise. Impact and Management of Nonindigenous Species in Florida. Island Press, Washington, D. C. 467 pp.

Carmichael, P., and W. Williams. 1991. Florida’s Fabulous Reptiles and Amphibians. World Publications, Tampa. 120 pp.

Chatfield, M.W.H., and M. Vance. 2014. Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog). Herpetological Review 45(2):278.

Conant, R., and J. T. Collins. 1998. A Field Guide to Reptiles & Amphibians. Eastern and Central North America. Third Edition, Expanded. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 616 pp.

Crabbe, N. 2007. Tree frog proving nuisance in area. The Gainesville Sun, Final Edition 131(337, 13 June):1A, 4a.

Dahm, D. 2018. Tree frog causes Kissimmee power outage; 800 customers lose power for more than hour. ClickOrlando.com. Orlando, FL. Created on 05/11/2018. Accessed on 03/04/2019.

Dalrymple, G. H. 1994. Non-indigenous amphibians and reptiles in Florida. Pp. 67-78. In: D. C. Schmitz and T. C. Brown (editors). An Assessment of Invasive Non-indigenous Species in Florida’s Public Lands. Division of Environmental Resource Permitting, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Technical Report No. TSS-94-100, Tallahassee. 303 pp.

Dorcas, M. [E.], and [J.] W. Gibbons. 2008. Frogs & Toads of the Southeast. The University of Georgia Press, Athens. 238 pp.

Duellman, W. E., and R. I. Crombie. 1970. Hyla septentrionalis. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (92):1-4.

Echternacht, A. C., F. J. Burton, and J. M. Blumenthal. 2011. The amphibians and reptiles of the Cayman Islands: Conservation issues in the face of invasions. Pp. 129-147. In: A. Hailey, B. S. Wilson, and J. A. Horrocks (editors). Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas. Vol. 2. Regional Accounts of the West Indies. Brill, Leiden.

Elliott, L., C. Gerhardt, and C. Davidson. 2009. The Frogs and Toads of North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, New York. 344 pp. + CD-ROM.

Enge, K. M., S. A. Johnson, and K. L. Krysko. 2008. Geographic distribution: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog). USA: Florida. Herpetological Review 39(4):480.

Faivovich, J., C. B. F. Haddad, P. C. A. Garcia, D. R. Frost, J. A. Campbell, and W. C. Wheeler. 2005. Systematic review of the frog family Hylidae, with special reference to Hylinae: Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 294:1-240.

Fitcher, G. 1970. The new nature of Florida. Florida Wildlife 24(7):10-15

Frost, D. R. (editor). 1985. Amphibian Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographical Reference. Allen Press, Inc. and The Association of Systematics Collections. Lawrence, Kansas. 732 pp.

Frost, D. [R.] (compiler). 2000. Anura¬—frogs. Pp. 6-17. In: B. I. Crother (chair), and Committee on Standard English and Scientific Names (editors). Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular (29):i-iii, 1-82.

Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. De Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green, and W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297:1-370 + Fig. 50 foldout.

Granatosky, M.C., L.M. Wagner, and K.L. Krysko. 2011. Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog): Prey. Herpetological Review 42(1): 8B.

Granatosky, M.C. and K.L. Krysko. 2011. Ontogenetic behavioral shifts in habitat utilization of treefrogs (Hylidae) in North-Central Florida. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 18(4): 194-201.

Gregoire, D. R. 2005. Tadpoles of the Southeastern United States Coastal Plain. United States Geological Survey Report, Florida Integrated Science Center, Gainesville. 60 pp.

Heinicke, M. P., L. M. Diaz, and S. B. Hedges. 2011. Origin of invasive frogs traced to Cuba. Biology Letters 7(3):407-410.

Johnson, S. A. 2007. Geographic distribution: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog). USA: Georgia: Chatham Co. Herpetological Review 38(3):349.

Knapp, W. W. 2008. Cuban treefrog – Osteopilus septentrionalis. In: The Frogs & Toads of Georgia [online]. Available on URL: http://wwknapp.home.mindspring.com/docs/cuban.tfrog.html.

Krysko, K.L., K.M. Enge, and P.E. Moler. 2011a. Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Florida. Project Agreement No. 08013. Final Report. Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission, Tallahassee. 524 pp. Also: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herpetology/atlas/ and http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herpetology/atlas/FinalReportKryskoEngeMolerAtlasofAmphibiansandReptilesinFlorida08013.pdf.

Krysko, K. L., J. P. Burgess, M. R. Rochford, C. R. Gillette, D. Cueva, K. M. Enge, L. A. Somma, J. L. Stabile, D. C. Smith, J. A. Wasilewski, G. N. Kieckhefer III, M. C. Granatosky,  and S. V. Nielsen. 2011b. Verified non-indigenous amphibians and reptiles in Florida from 1863 through 2010: Outlining the invasion process and identifying invasion  pathways and status. Zootaxa 3028:1-64 + MorphoBank Project No. p536: URL: http://www.morphobank.org.

Lazell, J. D., Jr. 1989. Wildlife of the Florida Keys: A Natural History. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 250 pp.

Lever, C. 2003. Naturalized Reptiles and Amphibians of the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 318 pp.

Library of Natural Sounds. 1996. Voices of the Night. The Calls of the Frogs and Toads of Eastern North America. Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Ithaca. Audio CD Recording.

Maxson, L. R. 1992. Tempo and pattern in anuran speciation and phylogeny: An albumen perspective. Pp. 41-57. In: K. Adler (editor). Herpetology. Current Research on the Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Contributions to Herpetology 9. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, Ohio. 245 pp.

McGarrity, M. E., and S. A. Johnson. 2009. Geographic trend in sexual size dimorphism and body size of Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban treefrog): Implications for invasion in the southeastern United States. Biological Invasions 11(6):1411-1420.

McKeown, S. 1996. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians in the Hawaiian Islands. Diamond Head Publishing, Inc., Los Osos, California. 172 pp.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 1993. Hurricane Andrew and the colonization of five invading species in South Florida. Florida Scientist 56(4):193-201.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 1996a. Vagility and the Florida distribution of the Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis). Herpetological Review 27(1):37-40.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 1996b. Retreat use by the Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis): Implications for successful colonization in Florida. Journal of Herpetology 39(3):443-445.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 1996c. Diet and the colonization of buildings by the Cuban Treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis (Anura: Hylidae). Caribbean Journal of Science 32(1):59-63.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 1996d. Occurrence of the nematode Skrjabinoptera scelopori in the Cuban Treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis: Mainland and island comparisons. Pp. 271-276. In: R. Powell and R. W. Henderson (editors). Contributions to West Indian Herpetology. A Tribute to Albert Schwartz. Contributions to Herpetology 12. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca. 475 pp.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 2000. Colonization dynamics of two exotic geckos (Hemidactylus garnotii and H. mabouia) in Everglades National Park. Journal of Herpetology 34(1):163-168.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 2001. The Cuban Tree Frog in Florida. Life History of a Successful Colonizing Species. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. 191 pp.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr. 2011. A runaway train in the making: The exotic amphibians, reptiles, turtles, and crocodilians of Florida. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 6(Monograph 1):1-101.

Meshaka, W. E., Jr., and B. Ferster. 1995. Two species of snakes prey on Cuban Treefrogs in southern Florida. Florida Field Naturalist 23(4):97-98.

Owen, J., G. Perry, J. Lazell, C. Petrovic, and J. Egelhoff. 2005. Geographic distribution: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Tree Frog). British Virgin Islands. Herpetological Review 36(1):76.

Owen, J., G. Perry, J. Lazell, C. Petrovic, and J. Egelhoff. 2006. Geographic distribution: Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Tree Frog). Colonization of the British Virgin Islands. Herpetological Review 37(1):74-75.

Powell, R., J. T. Collins, and E. D. Hooper, Jr. 1998. A Key to Amphibians & Reptiles of the Continental United States and Canada. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. 131 pp.

Powell, R., R. W. Henderson, M. C. Farmer, M. Breuil, A. C. Echternacht, G. van Buurt, C. M. Romagosa, and G. Perry. 2011. Introduced amphibians and reptiles in the greater Caribbean: Patterns and conservation implications. Pp. 63-143. In: Hailey, B. S. Wilson, and J. A. Horrocks (editors). Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas. Vol. 1. Conservation Biology and the Wider Caribbean. Brill, Leiden.

Punzo, F., and L. Lindstrom. 2001. The toxicity of eggs of the giant toad, Bufo marinus to aquatic predators in a Florida retention pond. Journal of Herpetology 35(4):693-697.

Rice, K. G., J. H. Waddle,  M. W. Miller, M. E. Crockett,  F. J. Mazzotti, and H. F. Percival. 2011. Recovery of native treefrogs after removal of nonindigenous Cuban Treefrogs, Osteopilus septentrionalis. Herpetologica 67(2):105-117.

Rivalta González, V. and L. M. Díaz Beltrán. 2003. Ranas de las ciudades. Pp. 44-49. In: L. Rodríguez Schettino (editor). Anfibios y Reptiles de Cuba. Instituto de Ecología y Systemática, Ciudad de La Habana. 169 pp.

Rödder, D., and F. Weinsheimer. 2009. Will future anthropogenic climate change increase the distribution of the alien invasive Cuban treefrog (Anura: Hylidae)? Journal of Natural History 43(19-20):1207-1217.

Schwartz, A., and R. W. Henderson. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies: Descriptions, Distributions, and Natural History. University of Florida Press, Gainesville. 720 pp.

Simpson, S.E. 2013. Assessing critical thermal minima to determine the thermal limits of the invasive Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis). Thesis, University of Florida.

Smith, K. G. 2004. Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Treefrog). Reproductive behavior. Herpetological Review 35(4):374-375.

Smith, K. G. 2005. Effects of nonindigenous tadpoles on native tadpoles in Florida: Evidence of competition. Biological Conservation 123(4):433-441.

Townsend, J. H., K. L. Krysko, A. T. Reppas, and C. M. Sheehy III. 2002. Noteworthy new records for introduced reptiles and amphibians from Florida, USA. Herpetological Review 33(1):75.

Vargas-Salinas, F. 2006a. Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban Tree frog). Reproduction. Herpetological Review 37(2):205.

Vargas-Salinas, F. 2006b. Sexual size dimorphism in the Cuban Treefrog Osteopilus septentrionalis. Amphibia-Reptilia 27(4):419-426 + erratum.

Vargas[-]Salinas, F. 2006c. Breeding behavior and colonization success of the Cuban Treefrog Osteopilus septentrionalis. Herpetologica 62(4):398-408.

Wiley, J. R. 2005, 2006. Personal communication—Assistant Curator, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry, Entomology Section, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 1911 SW 34th Street, Gainesville, FL  32614.

Wilson, L. 2010. Diet, critical thermal minimum, and occurrence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Cuban treefrogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis). Thesis, Valdosta State University.

Wyatt, J. L. and E. A. Forys. 2004. Conservation implications of predation by Cuban Treefrogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) on native hylids in Florida. Southeastern Naturalist 3(4):695-700.

Author: Somma, L.A., W.M. Daniel, and C. Morningstar

Revision Date: 3/5/2019

Citation Information:
Somma, L.A., W.M. Daniel, and C. Morningstar, 2019, Osteopilus septentrionalis (Duméril and Bibron, 1841): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=57, Revision Date: 3/5/2019, Access Date: 8/22/2019

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


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Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2019]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [8/22/2019].

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