Common name: Hornyhead Chub
available through www.itis.gov
Identification: Becker (1983); Robison and Buchanan (1988); Page and Burr (1991).
Size: 26 cm.
Native Range: Mohawk River system, New York, west through Great Lakes and Mississippi River basin to Red River drainage (Hudson Bay basin), Manitoba and North Dakota, south to Ohio River and lower Kentucky River system, Kentucky, but rare in unglaciated areas; south into Ozarks. Isolated populations in Platte and Cheyenne River systems, New Brunswick, Wyoming, and Colorado (Page and Burr 1991).
Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Nocomis biguttatus are found here.
Table last updated 9/23/2021
† Populations may not be currently present.
Means of Introduction: Lachner and Jenkins (1971) stated that collections from Elkhorn Creek of the lower Kentucky River system may represent introduction via bait fishermen or transport through stocking programs and farm pond culture. Smith (1985) suggested that its presence in the Susquehanna and Mohawk rivers of New York may be the result of dispersal through artificial canal systems (Chenango Canal). There are no historical records of Nocomis biguttatus from the Susquehanna drainage (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.). Consequently, Gilbert (personal communication) agrees that the species has been introduced there. However, since it has only appeared in that drainage very recently, Gilbert concluded that its presence is more likely the result of a bait bucket transfer rather than migration through the canal system.
Status: Established in Kentucky and New York in areas outside its native range.
Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.
References: (click for full references)
Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Madison Press, Madison, WI.
Burr, B.M., and L.M. Page. 1986. Zoogeography of fishes of the lower Ohio-upper Mississippi basin. Pages 287-324 in C.H. Hocutt, and E.O. Wiley, editors. The zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.
Burr, B.M., and M.L. Warren, Jr. 1986. A distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Scientific and Technical Series No. 4. Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission, Frankfort, KY.
Lachner, E.A., and R.E. Jenkins. 1971. Systematics, distribution, and evolution of the Nocomis biguttatus group (family Cyprinidae: Pisces) with a description of a new species from the Ozark Upland. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 91:1-28.
Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Field Guide Series, volume 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.
Robison, H.W., and T.M. Buchanan. 1998. Fishes of Arkansas. University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, AR.
Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York state. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.
Welsh, S.A., D.A. Cincotta, and W.C. Starnes. 2013. First records of Nocomis biguttatus (Hornyhead Chub) from West Virginia discovered in museum voucher specimens. Northeastern Naturalist 20(4):N19-N22. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1656/045.020.0412.
Leo Nico, and Matt Neilson
Revision Date: 4/24/2015
Peer Review Date: 4/24/2015
Leo Nico, and Matt Neilson, 2021, Nocomis biguttatus (Kirtland, 1840): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=574, Revision Date: 4/24/2015, Peer Review Date: 4/24/2015, Access Date: 9/23/2021
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.