Common name: Devils Hole Pupfish
available through www.itis.gov
Identification: La Rivers (1962); Sigler and Sigler (1987); Page and Burr (1991).
Size: 3.4 cm.
Native Range: Devil's Hole in central Ash Meadows, Death Valley National Monument, Nye County, Nevada (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1980b; Page and Burr 1991).
This species was introduced into five, supposedly suitable, artificial refuges widely scattered over the deserts of California and Nevada (Soltz and Naiman 1978). These artifical refuges are large concrete tanks designed to simulate natural conditions in Devil's Hole. Several refugia were constructed close to (but isolated from) natural springs, and were given the name of the spring (e.g., Point of Rocks Spring refuge; Echelle, personal communication).
Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Cyprinodon diabolis are found here.
Table last updated 2/25/2021
† Populations may not be currently present.
Means of Introduction: This species was intentionally stocked to create another population of a restricted endangered species. Point of Rocks Springs refuge was stocked with 16 fish in 1992. The population declined to 5 fish and was augmented with another 16.
Status: Early introductions into spring habitats failed to become established (Soltz and Naiman 1978). Recent introductions have been made into artificial refuge habitats, but current status is not certain and available information is somewhat conflicting.
Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.
References: (click for full references)
Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980 et seq. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, NC.
Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Field Guide Series, volume 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1980b. Devil's Hole pupfish recovery plan. Prepared in cooperation with the Devil's Hole pupfish recovery team. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 46 pp. (+ correspondence).
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1993a. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants. 50 CFR 17.11 & 17.12. Federal Register, August 23, 1993. U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. 40 pp.
Williams, J.E. - Science Advisor, Intermountain Research Station, Bureau of Land Management, Boise, ID.
Williams, J. E., D. W. Sada, C. D. Williams, and other members of the Western Division of Endangered Species Committee. 1988. American Fisheries Society guidelines for introductions of threatened and endangered fishes. Fisheries 13(5):5-11.
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson
Revision Date: 8/28/2019
Peer Review Date: 7/25/2011
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson, 2021, Cyprinodon diabolis Wales, 1930: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=653, Revision Date: 8/28/2019, Peer Review Date: 7/25/2011, Access Date: 2/25/2021
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.