The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Crenichthys nevadae
Crenichthys nevadae
(Railroad Valley Springfish)
Native Transplant

Copyright Info
Crenichthys nevadae Hubbs, 1932

Common name: Railroad Valley Springfish

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: La Rivers (1962); Sigler and Sigler (1987); Page and Burr (1991).

Size: 6 cm.

Native Range: Springs in Railroad Valley, Nye County, Nevada (Page and Burr 1991).

Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences: In 1947, six individuals were stocked into artificial ponds created near a natural seep of warm water, at Sodaville, in the southeastern part of Mineral County, Nevada (La Rivers 1962; Hubbs et al. 1974). The species was introduced into several pools along the outflow of Chimney Hot Springs (also called Chimney Springs), Nye County, in 1978 and again in 1982 (Deacon and Williams 1984; Williams and Williams 1989).

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Crenichthys nevadae are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
NV194719812Fish Lake-Soda Spring Valleys; Hot Creek-Railroad Valleys

Table last updated 7/15/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

Means of Introduction: The Sodaville introduction was performed by Thomas Trelease of the Nevada Fish and Game Commission in response to the possible stocking of bass into the species' native habitat (La Rivers 1962). The U.S. Bureau of Land Management and Nevada Department of Wildlife introduced the species into Chimney Hot Springs in response to deterioration of its native habitats (Williams and Williams 1989). According to Williams and Williams (1989), the purpose of these introductions was to establish a refuge population for conservation of the species.

Status: Transplants have helped secure the long-term viability of this species. The population at Chimney Hot Springs, Nevada, was estimated at 1,881 adults in 1985; however, various habitat perturbations, including low water levels, unstable water temperatures, and trespass by cattle contributed to a population decline. The Sodaville population appeared stable during the late 1980s, although no firm population data was available (Williams and Williams 1989).

Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.

Remarks: Williams and Williams (1989) made reference to an introduced population at Old Dugan Ranch, but they did not report details. The Railroad Valley Springfish is protected as a threatened species (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1993a). Introductions outside its native range occurred well before the species' 1986 formal listing as threatened (Williams and Williams 1989). In part of the native habitat of C. nevadae, introduced channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and guppies Poecilia reticulata have large populations (Williams and Williams 1989). According to Clemmer (personal communication), commercial catfish farming in Duckwater Valley has depressed springfish populations and limited them to the fringes of the warm springs and outflows. A photograph of the Chimney Hot Springs Refuge appeared in Williams (1991).

References: (click for full references)

Deacon, J.E., and J.E. Williams. 1984. Annotated list of the fishes of Nevada. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 97(1):103-118.

Hubbs, C.L., R.R. Miller, and L.C. Hubbs. 1974. Hydrographic history and relict fishes of the north-central Great Basin. Copeia 1974(3):809-811. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1442714.

La Rivers, I. 1962. Fishes and fisheries of Nevada. Nevada State Print Office, Carson City, NV.

Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Field Guide Series, volume 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Sigler, W.F., and J.W. Sigler. 1987. Fishes of the Great Basin: a natural history.

Williams, C.D., and J.E. Williams. 1989. Refuge management for the threatened railroad valley springfish in Nevada. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 9(4):465-470. https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8675(1989)009<0465:RMFTTR>2.3.CO;2.

Williams, J.E. 1991. Preserves and refuges for native western fishes: history and management. Pages 172-189 in Minckley, W.L., and J.E. Deacon, eds. Battle against extinction: native fish management in the American West. University of Arizona Press. Tuscon, AZ.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1993a. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants. 50 CFR 17.11 & 17.12. Federal Register, August 23, 1993. U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. 40 pp.

Other Resources:
FishBase Summary

Author: Fuller, P.

Revision Date: 5/16/2019

Peer Review Date: 12/5/2003

Citation Information:
Fuller, P., 2024, Crenichthys nevadae Hubbs, 1932: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=720, Revision Date: 5/16/2019, Peer Review Date: 12/5/2003, Access Date: 7/15/2024

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


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Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [7/15/2024].

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