The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Lutjanus kasmira
Lutjanus kasmira
(bluestripe snapper)
Marine Fishes

Copyright Info
Lutjanus kasmira (Forsskål, 1775)

Common name: bluestripe snapper

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Randall (2005) describes Lutjanus kasmira as having a moderately deep body with a slightly forked caudal fin; yellow body and fins; four dark-edged blue horizontal stripes running along the body with the first, second, and fourth stripe continuing onto the head; the lower part of the body white with pale yellow spots.

Size: max size 34 cm total length (Randall 2005)

Native Range: Marine; Tropical Pacific. Widespread from the Marquesas and Line Islands to East Africa, and from Australia to southern Japan. (Allen 1985)

Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Lutjanus kasmira are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
HI195520228Hawaii; Hawaii; Kahoolawe; Kauai; Lanai; Maui; Niihau; Oahu

Table last updated 5/18/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

Ecology: This species is found in a variety of habitats from shallow inshore lagoons to outer reef slopes as deep as 265 m and is most common at depths greater than 15 m (Myers 1999, Randall 2005). During the day L. kasmira form large schools around coral formations or wrecks (Myers 1999). At night this species migrates to surrounding soft bottom habitats to feed (Friedlander et al. 2022). It feeds on fish, shrimps, crabs, stomatopods, cephalopods, and planktonic crustaceans (Allen 1985). It reaches sexual maturity at 1-2 years of age at about 20-25 cm in length (Fukunaga et al. 2017). Spawning can occur throughout the year, with peak spawning reported in November and December (Allen 1985).

Means of Introduction: From 1955 to 1961 the Hawaii Division of Fish and Game intentionally stocked several species of snappers and groupers for recreational and commercial fishing purposes (Randall 1987). Within 15 yrs, three of the species became established throughout the main Hawaiian Islands: the blacktail snapper (Lutjanus fulvus), the peacock hind (Cephalopholis argus), and bluestripe snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) with L. kasmira being the most abundant and widespread (Gaither et al. 2012).

Status: Established.

Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.

Remarks: There is a possibility that with the introduction of this species to Hawaiian waters, an intestinal nematode parasite was also introduced that has since spread to native fish species (Gaither et al. 2013).

References: (click for full references)

Allen, G.R. 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol 6. Snappers of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

Friedlander, A.M., J.D. Parrish, and R.C. DeFelice. 2002. Ecology of the introduced snapper Lutjanus kasmira (Forsskal) in the reef fish assemblage of a Hawaiian bay. Journal of Fish Biology 60:28-48.

Fukunaga, A., R.K. Kosaki, and B.B. Hauk. 2017. Distribution and abundance of the introduced snapper Lutjanus kasmira (Forsskal, 1775) on shallow and mesophotic reefs of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. BioInvasions Records 6:259-268.

Gaither, M.R., R.J. Toonen, and B.W. Bowen. 2012. Coming out of the starting blocks: extended lag time rearranges genetic diversity in introduced marine fishes of Hawai’i. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 279:3948-3957.

Gaither, M.R, G. Aeby, M. Vignon, Y. Meguro, M. Rigby, C. Runyon, R.J. Toonen, C.L. Wood, and B.W. Bowen. 2013. An invasive fish and the time-lagged spread of its parasite across the Hawaiian archipelago. PLoS ONE 8(2):e56940.

Myers, R.F. 1999. Micronesian reef fishes: A guide for divers and aquarists. Coral Graphics, Guam.

Randall, J.E. 1987. Introductions of marine fishes to the Hawaiian Islands. Bulletin of Marine Science 41:490-502.

Randall, J.E. 2005. Reef and shore fishes of the South Pacific. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.

FishBase Summary

Author: Mary Brown, Pam Fuller, and Denise R. Gregoire-Lucente

Revision Date: 9/19/2023

Peer Review Date: 9/17/2015

Citation Information:
Mary Brown, Pam Fuller, and Denise R. Gregoire-Lucente, 2024, Lutjanus kasmira (Forsskål, 1775): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=774, Revision Date: 9/19/2023, Peer Review Date: 9/17/2015, Access Date: 5/18/2024

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [5/18/2024].

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