Morone saxatilis
Morone saxatilis
(Striped Bass)
Native Transplant
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Morone saxatilis (Walbaum, 1792)

Common name: Striped Bass

Synonyms and Other Names: Roccus lineatus (Bloch 1792), R. saxatilis (Walbaum, 1792); striper, rock, rockfish.

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Smith (1985); Page and Burr (1991) Jenkins and Burkhead (1994); Mettee et al. (1996).

Size: 2 m.

Native Range: Atlantic drainages from St. Lawrence River, New Brunswick to St. Johns River in Florida; Gulf Slope drainages from Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana to Suwannee River drainage, Florida (Page and Burr 1991). Apparently, striped bass formerly occurred in coastal areas of eastern Texas (Anonymous 1987c). Higgins and Lord (1926) reported it as one of the chief commercial species in that area.

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Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences: Striped bass have been widely stocked in nonindigenous waters from New York to California. Introductions of striped bass have been reported from Alabama (Boschung 1992; Bailey 1975; Kelly 1969); Arizona (St. Amant 1959; Miller and Lowe 1967; Edwards 1974; Tyus et al. 1982; Tilmant 1999; USFWS 2005); Arkansas (Gray 1958; Buchanan 1973; Bailey 1975; Pflieger 1975; Grabowski et al. 1984; Cross et al. 1986); California (Smith 1896; Shebley 1917; Surber 1958; St. Amant 1959; Moyle 1976a; Wydoski and Whitney 1979; Dill and Cordone 1997; Tilmant 1999; Sommer et al. 2001; Matern et al. 2002; California Department of Fish and Game 1931; Neale 1931); Colorado (Everhart and Seaman 1971; Grabowski et al. 1984; Rasmussen 1998); Florida (Ware 1971; Swift et al. 1977; Grabowski et al. 1984; Bailey 1975); Georgia (Dahlberg and Scott 1971b; Yerger 1977; Martin and Hess 1984; Burkhead et al. 1997; Bailey 1975); Hawaii (Maciolek 1984); Illinois (Smith 1979; Burr and Page 1986; Laird and Page 1996); Indiana (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.); Iowa (Burr and Page 1986; Cross et al. 1986; Harlan et al. 1987); Kansas (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Cross et al. 1986); Kentucky (Bailey 1975; Clay 1975; Burr and Page 1986; Burr and Warren 1986; Hocutt et al. 1986); Louisiana (Douglas 1974; Grabowski et al. 1984; Conner and Suttkus 1986; Bailey 1975); Maryland (Surber 1958; Bailey 1975; Pritchard et al. 1978; Grabowski et al. 1984); Michigan (Cudmore-Vokey and Crossman 2000); Minnesota (Phillips et al. 1982); Mississippi (Pritchard et al. 1978; Bailey 1975); Missouri (Pflieger 1975, 1997; Cross et al. 1986; Young et al. 1997; Rasmussen 1998; Bailey 1975); Nebraska (Jones 1963; Morris et al. 1974; Pritchard et al. 1978; Cross et al. 1986; Bouc 1987); Nevada (Edwards 1974; Deacon and Williams 1984; Grabowski et al. 1984; Tilmant 1999; Insider Viewpoint 2001; Vinyard 2001); New Jersey (Surber 1958; Grabowski et al. 1984); New Mexico (Grabowski et al. 1984; Sublette et al. 1990); New York (Grabowski et al. 1984); North Carolina (Surber 1958; Bailey 1975; Grabowski et al. 1984; Menhinick 1991; Jenkins and Burkhead 1994); North Dakota (North Dakota Game and Fish Department 1994, 1997; Rasmussen 1998); Ohio (Trautman 1981; Burr and Page 1986); Oklahoma (Hall 1956; Surber 1958; Grabowski et al. 1984; Cross et al. 1986); Oregon (Moyle 1976a; Wydoski and Whitney 1979; Grabowski et al. 1984; Bond 1994; State of Oregon 2000; Chapman 1942); Pennsylvania (Denoncourt et al. 1975a; Hendricks et al. 1979; Cooper 1983); South Carolina (Surber 1958; Bailey 1975; Grabowski et al. 1984), stocked in Santee-Cooper Reservoir (Kelly 1969); Tennessee (Smith-Vaniz 1968; Grabowski et al. 1984; Etnier and Starnes 1993; Bailey 1975); Texas (Moczygemba and Morris 1977; Conner and Suttkus 1986; Anonymous 1992a; Howells 1992a; Rasmussen 1998; Bailey 1975; Texas Parks and Wildlife Department 1993); Utah (Tyus et al. 1982; Grabowski et al. 1984; Tilmant 1999); Virginia (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Hocutt et al. 1986; Jenkins and Burkhead 1994); Washington (Setzler et al. 1980); West Virginia (Trautman 1981; Hocutt et al. 1986; Stauffer et al. 1995); and Wisconsin (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources 1998).

Means of Introduction: Intentionally stocked for sportfishing. Some records involved fish dispersed to other areas far from point of original introduction, for instance, downstream of reservoirs after passage over or through dams (e.g., Pflieger 1997).

Status: Reported as locally established in many states. Annual stocking of lakes and reservoirs maintains the sport fishery. Attempts to establish this species in the Youghiogheny River, Pennsylvania, failed (Hendricks et al. 1979). Not established in Colorado (Walker 1993). Not established in the Great Lakes (Cudmore-Vokey and Crossman 2000).

Impact of Introduction: Preys on small fishes. Bailey (1975) summarized what was known about impacts of stocked striped bass on clupeids in lakes and reservoirs in the Southeast. Maumelle Reservoir, Arkansas, had a possible reduction in clupeids; Toledo Bend and D'Arbonne reservoirs, Louisiana, had slight reductions; J. Percy Priest Reservoir, Tennessee, had a significant reduction; and Hunter land Julianna reservoirs suffered drastic reductions. Morgan and Gerlach (1950) reported finding numerous trout and salmon fry and fingerlings in striped bass stomachs at Coos Bay, Oregon.

Remarks: The Striped Bass is a highly prized sportfish. Bailey (1975) provided a table of locations, numbers, and factors affecting success of Striped Bass stocked in the Southeast, and the outcome. Setzler et al. (1980) provided a biological synopsis of this species. Some introductions in native range are of fish from another area, i.e., Atlantic Slope fish stocked in Gulf tributaries. Boschung (1992) states that native stocks probably no longer exist in Alabama except in the Chattahoochee drainage, having been replaced eslswhere by Atlantic coast stocks.

Nobriga et al. (2013) examined the effects of juvenile Striped Bass on Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) population dynamics, finding no correlation between between juvenile bass abundance and smelt survival and low estimates of consumption of smelt by juvenile bass.

Matlock (2014) discusses the historical status (native vs. non-native) of Striped Bass in Texas, and the potential policy implications.

References: (click for full references)

Anonymous. 1992a. Texas Parks and Wildlife News, Austin, TX, October 2.

Anonymous. 1994b. Fishes of the Dakotas. Brochure. American Fisheries Society Dakota Chapter, and North Dakota Game and Fish Department.

Bailey, W.M. 1975. An evaluation of striped bass introductions in the Southeastern United States. Arkansas Game and Fish Comission, Lonoke, mimeo, report. 101 pp.

Boschung, H. T. 1992. Catalogue of freshwater and marine fishes of Alabama. Alabama Museum of Natural History Bulletin 14:1-266.

Bouc, K. 1987. The fish book. Nebraskaland Magazine 65(1):1-130.

Buchanan, T. M. 1973. Key to the fishes of Arkansas. Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, Little Rock, AR. 68 pp., 198 maps.

Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986. A distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission Scientific and Technical Series 4. 398 pp.

Carter, A. - Fisheries Division, Arkansas Game and Fish Comission, Little Rock, AR. Response to NBS-G nonindigenous questionaire. 1992.

Clay, W. M. 1975. The fishes of Kentucky. Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, Frankfort, KY. 416 pp.

Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA.

Cudmore-Vokey, B. and E.J. Crossman. 2000. Checklists of the fish fauna of the Laurentian Great Lakes and their connecting channels. Can. MS Rpt. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2500: v + 39p.

Dahlberg, M. D., and D. C. Scott. 1971b. Introductions of freshwater fishes in Georgia. Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science 29:245-252.

Denoncourt, R. F., T. B. Robbins, and R. Hesser. 1975a. Recent introductions and reintroductions to the Pennsylvania fish fauna of the Susquehanna River drainage above Conowingo Dam. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 49:57-58.

Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, LA.

Edwards, G. B. 1974. Biology of the striped bass Morone saxatilis (Walbaum) in the Lower Colorado River (Arizona-California-Nevada). Master's thesis. Arizona State University. Tempe, AZ. 45pp.

Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN.

Everhart, W. H., and W. R. Seaman. 1971. Fishes of Colorado. Colorado Game, Fish and Parks Division, Denver, CO. 75 pp.

Grabowski, S. J., S. D. Hiebert, and D. M. Lieberman. 1984. Potential for introduction of three species of nonnative fishes into central Arizona via the Central Arizona Project ? A literature review and analysis. REC-ERC-84-7. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO.

Hall, G. E. 1956. Additions to the fish fauna of Oklahoma with a summary of introduced species. Southwestern Naturalist 1(1):16-26.

Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA. 323 pp.

Hendricks, M. L., J. R. Stauffer, Jr., C. H. Hocutt, and C. R. Gilbert. 1979. A preliminary checklist of the fishes of the Youghiogheny River. Chicago Academy of Sciences, Natural History Miscellanea 203:1-15.

Hocutt, C.H., R.E. Jenkins, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1986 . Zoogeography of the Fishes of the Central Appalachians and Central Atlantic Coastal Plain. In C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. :161-212.

Howells, R. G. 1992a. Annotated list of introduced non-native fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and aquatic plants in Texas waters. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Management Data Series 78, Austin, TX. 19 pp.

Insider Viewpoint. 2001. Fishing Records – Nevada. Insider Viewpoint Magazine. 3 pp.

Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Jones, D. J. 1963. A history of Nebraska's fisheries resources. Dingell-Hohnson Federal Aid in Fish Restoration Project F-4-R Publication. Nebraska Game, Forestation and Parks Commission..

Kelly, H.D. 1969. The production and management of striped bass, Roccus saxatilis (Walbaum), in Alabama. Jour. Ala. Acad. Sci. 40(1): 1-4.

Laird, C. A. and L. M. Page. 1996. Non-native Fishes Inhabiting the Streams and Lakes of Illinios. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin. 35(1): 1-51.

Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980 et seq. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, NC.

Maciolek, J. A. 1984. Exotic fishes in Hawaii and other islands of Oceania. Pages 131-161 in W. R. Courtenay, Jr., and J. R. Stauffer, Jr., editors. Distribution, biology, and management of exotic fishes. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Martin, C.R., and T.B. Hess. 1984. Analysis of the fish population and fishery of Lake Oconee.

Matern, S.A., P.B. Moyle, and L.C. Pierce. 2002. Native and alien fishes in a California estuarine marsh: twenty-one years of changing assemblages. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society.  131: 797-816.

Matlock, G.C. 2014. The precautionary approach to non-native fisheries—the case of striped bass in Texas. Marine Policy 47:94-98.

Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

Miller, R.R. and C.H. Lowe. 1967. Part 2. Fishes of Arizona, p 133-151, In: C.H. Lowe, ed. The Vertebrates of Arizona. University of Arizona Press. Tucson.

Moczygemba, J. H., and D. J. Morris. 1977. Statewide striped bass study for Texas. Federal Aid Project F-13-R-3.

Morgan, M.D., and A.R. Gerlach. 1950. Striped bass studies on Coos Bay in 1949 and 1950. Report of the Oregon Fish Commission and Oregon Game Commission to the Forty-sixth Legislature.

Morris, J., L. Morris, and L. Witt. 1974. The fishes of Nebraska. Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Lincoln, NE.

Moyle, P. B. 1976a. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Nobriga, M.L., E. Loboschefsky, and F. Feyrer. 2013. Common predator, rare prey: exploring juvenile Striped Bass predation on Delta Smelt in California's San Francisco Estuary. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 142(6):1563-1575.

Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Field Guide Series, volume 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, MO. 343 pp.

Phillips, G. L., W. D. Schmid, J. C. Underhill. 1982. Fishes of the Minnesota region. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.

Rasmussen, J.L. 1998. Aquatic nuisance species of the Mississippi River basin. 60th Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference, Aquatic Nuisance Species Symposium, Dec. 7, 1998, Cincinnati, OH.

Smith, H. M. 1896. A review of the history and results of the attempts to acclimatize fish and other water animals in the Pacific states. Pages 379-472 in Bulletin of the U.S. Fish Commission, Vol. XV, for 1895.

Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.

Sommer, T, B. Harrell, M. Nobriga, R. Brown, P. Moyle, W. Kimmerer, and L. Schemel. 2001. California's Yolo Bypass: Evidence that flood control can be compatible with fisheries, wetlands, wildlife, and agriculture. Fisheries. American Fisheries Society. 26 (8): 6-16.

St. Amant, J. A. 1959. Striped bass introduced into the Colorado River. California Fish and Game 45(4):353.

State of Oregon. 2000. Warm Water Game Fish Records. 7 pp.

Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1993. The fishes of West Virginia. West Virginia Department of Natural Resources. Unpublished manuscript. 1114 pp.

Sublette, J. E., M. D. Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. New Mexico Department of Game and Fish, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM. 393 pp.

Swift, C., R. W. Yerger, and P. R. Parrish. 1977. Distribution and natural history of the fresh and brackish water fishes of the Ochlocknee River, Florida and Georgia. Bulletin of Tall Timbers Research Station 20.

Tilmant, J.T. 1999. Management of nonindigenous aquatic fish in the U.S. National Park System. National Park Service. 50 pp.

Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, OH.

Vinyard, G.L. 2001. Fish Species Recorded from Nevada. Biological Resources Research Center. University of Nevada, Reno. 5 pp.

Walker, P. - Colorado Division of Wildlife, Brush, CO.

Wydoski, R. S., and R. R. Whitney. 1979. Inland fishes of Washington. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.

Young, B. A., T. L. Welker, M. L. Wildhaber, C. R. Berry, and D. Scarnecchia, editors. 1997. Population structure and habitat use of benthic fishes along the Missouri and lower Yellowstone rivers. Annual Report of Missouri River Benthic Fish Study PD-95-5832. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. 207 pp.

Other Resources:
Distribution in Illinois - Illinois Natural History Survey

FishBase Summary

Author: Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson

Revision Date: 6/11/2014

Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016

Citation Information:
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson, 2018, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum, 1792): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL,, Revision Date: 6/11/2014, Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016, Access Date: 3/23/2018

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

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Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2018]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [3/23/2018].

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