Common name: giant gourami
Synonyms and Other Names: giant gouramy.
available through www.itis.gov
Identification: See Roberts (1992) for recent revision of genus, redescription of Osphronemus goramy, and color photographs. Additional color photographs appeared in Axelrod et al. (1985) and Kottelat et al. (1993). Similar species include the recently described O. septemfasciatus and O. laticlavius (Roberts 1992).
Size: 80 cm SL maximum, but averages 40 cm SL.
Native Range: Tropical Asia. Natural range probably limited to Thailand, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Indochina (Mekong Basin) (Roberts 1992; also see Berra 1981).
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Puerto Rico &
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps
Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Osphronemus goramy are found here.
Table last updated 2/27/2023
† Populations may not be currently present.
Means of Introduction: According to Brock (1960), the giant gourami introduced to Hawaii came from the Philippines. The reason for the introduction was not given, although it was presumably stocked as a food fish. The other introductions were possible aquarium releases as this species soon outgrows containers.
Status: Reported from California, Florida, Hawaii, and Washington. Although a few of the fish introduced to Hawaii survived for an extended period, they did not reproduce (Brock 1960).
References: (click for full references)
Axelrod, H.R., W.E. Burgess, N. Pronek, and J.G. Walls. 1985. Dr. Axelrod's atlas of freshwater aquarium fishes. Tropical Fish Hobbyist Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ.
Berra, T.M. 1981. An atlas of distribution of the freshwater fish families of the world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE.
Brock, V.E. 1960. The introduction of aquatic animals into Hawaiian waters. International Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie 45(4):463-480.
Dill, W.A., and A.J. Cordone. 1997. History and status of introduced fishes in California, 1871-1996. California Department of Fish and Game Fish Bulletin, volume 178.
Devick, W.S. 1991a. Disturbances and fluctuations in the Wahiawa Reservoir ecosystem. Project F-14-R-15, Job 4, Study I. Division of Aquatic Resources, Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources. 21 pp.
Devick, W.S. 1991b. Patterns of introductions of aquatic organisms to Hawaiian freshwater habitats. Pages 189-213 in new directions in research, management and conservation of Hawaiian freshwater stream ecosystems. Proceedings of the 1990 symposium on freshwater stream biology and fisheries management, Division of Aquatic Resources, Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources.
Fletcher, D. - Warmwater Fisheries Resource Manager, Washington Department of Wildlife, Olympia, WA. Response to NBS-G nonindigenous questionaire and other reports. 1992.
Kottelat, M., A.J. Whitten, S.N. Kartikasari, and S. Wirjoatmodjo. 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Ltd., Republic of Indonesia.
Maciolek, J.A. 1984. Exotic fishes in Hawaii and other islands of Oceania. 131-161 in W. R. Courtenay, Jr., and J. R. Stauffer, Jr., eds. Distribution, biology, and management of exotic fishes. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
Roberts, T.R. 1989. The freshwater fishes of Western Borneo (Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia). Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 14:1-210.
Roberts, T.R. 1992. Systematic revision of the southeast Asian anabantoid fish genus Osphronemus, with descriptions of two new species. Ichthyological Explorations of Freshwaters 2(4):351-360.
Leo Nico, and Matt Neilson
Revision Date: 5/1/2013
Peer Review Date: 5/1/2013
Leo Nico, and Matt Neilson, 2023, Osphronemus goramy Lacepède, 1801: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=798, Revision Date: 5/1/2013, Peer Review Date: 5/1/2013, Access Date: 3/30/2023
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.