The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Percina roanoka
Percina roanoka
(Roanoke Darter)
Native Transplant

Copyright Info
Percina roanoka (Jordan and Jenkins in Jordan, 1889)

Common name: Roanoke Darter

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Page (1983); Page and Burr (1991); Jenkins and Burkhead (1994).

Size: 7.8 cm.

Native Range: Roanoke, Neuse, and Tar River drainages, Virginia and North Carolina (Page and Burr 1991).

Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences: The Roanoke Darter was introduced into the James and New River drainages in Virginia (Hocutt et al. 1986; Page and Burr 1991; Jenkins and Burkhead 1994; Stauffer et al. 1995). The population in the James River was originally considered to be native; however, due to its range expansion it is now considered to be introduced (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). Craig Creek is the probable site of introduction. Jenkins and Burkhead (1994) gave a detailed account of the expansion of this species in the James River. The Roanoke Darter was first taken in the New River in Virginia in 1963 or 1964 midway between Claytor Dam and Bluestone Reservoir (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). This species also is introduced in the New River drainage in West Virginia, where it spread downstream from Virginia (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994; Stauffer et al. 1995). It was first taken in West Virginia below Bluestone Reservoir in 1970 (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Percina roanoka are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
VA196020119James; Kanawha; Lower James; Middle James-Buffalo; Middle James-Willis; Middle New; Rivanna; Upper James; Upper New
WV197020036Gauley; Greenbrier; Kanawha; Lower New; Middle New; West Fork

Table last updated 5/20/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

Means of Introduction: Unknown.

Status: Established in Virginia and West Virginia. It is now the most abundant darter for a 20-mi stretch on the New River below Bluestone Reservoir (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).

Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.

Remarks: Voucher specimens: Virginia (USNM 194739, 194784, 230963).

References: (click for full references)

Hocutt, C.H., R.E. Jenkins, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1986. Zoogeography of the fishes of the central Appalachians and central Atlantic Coastal Plain. 161-212 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Jenkins, R.E. and N.M. Burkhead. 1994. The fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Page, L.M. 1983. Handbook of darters. T.F.H., Inc., Neptune City, NJ.

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Guide Series, vol. 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Stauffer, J.R., Jr., J.M. Boltz, and L.R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. West Virginia Department of Natural Resources.

Other Resources:
FishBase Summary

Author: Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson

Revision Date: 4/30/2018

Peer Review Date: 7/12/2011

Citation Information:
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson, 2024, Percina roanoka (Jordan and Jenkins in Jordan, 1889): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=825, Revision Date: 4/30/2018, Peer Review Date: 7/12/2011, Access Date: 5/20/2024

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [5/20/2024].

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For general information and questions about the database, contact Wesley Daniel. For problems and technical issues, contact Matthew Neilson.