† Populations may not be currently present.
Status: Although it was thought that zander stocked into a North Dakota lake did not survive (e.g., Anderson 1992), the capture of a fish in August 1999, and another 2+ year old fish in 2000 shows that at least some survived and reproduced. Five young-of-the-year fish were collected in 2005. As of 2009, the state reports that they are established in Spiritwood Lake. The North Dakota Game and Fish Department (NDGFD) reports capture of yearlings and 2-year olds, although they same the population is very small. Genetic sampling of fish has found that all are pure zander, there has been no hybridization. Spiritwood Lake is normally a closed basin, however it was connected to the James River due to flooding in 1998–2001. Sampling by NDGFD did not find any evidence that zander escaped the lake during the flood (L. Schlueter, personal communication).
Reported from New York (Courtenay et al. 1986).
References: (click for full references)
Anderson, R.O. 1992. A case for zander: Fish for the future? Pages 22-32 in
In-Fisherman Wallye Guide for 1992. In-Fisherman Magazine, Brainerd, MN
Berg, L.S. 1948-1949. Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries, 4th edition. Three volumes. Translated from Russian, 1962-1965, for the Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation, by Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, Israel.
Courtenay, W.R., Jr., D.A. Hensley, J.N. Taylor, and J.A. McCann. 1986. Distribution of exotic fishes in North America. Pages 675-698 in Hocutt, C.H., and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons. New York, NY.
Dokken, B. 2004. Angler's catch likely a rare zander. Grand Forks Herald. Grand Forks, ND. http://www.grandforks.com/mld/grandforks/news/9140277.htm. Created on 07/13/2004. Accessed on 07/13/2004.
Dokken, B. 2016. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service list zander as injurious species. Grand Forks Herald. Grand Forks, ND. http://www.grandforksherald.com/outdoors/4127188-us-fish-and-wildlife-service-list-zander-injurious-species. Created on 10/02/2016. Accessed on 10/11/2017.
Hickley, P. 1986. Invasion by zander and the management of fish stocks. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: Biological Sciences 314:571-582. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2396405.
Howells, R. 1992. Guide to identification of harmful and potentially harmful fishes, shellfishes, and aquatic plants prohibited in Texas. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Austin, TX.
Lohman, J. 1989. Biologists introduce zander into North America. The Forum of Fargo-Moorhead. Fargo, ND. July 22:A1, 4.
Maitland, P.S. 1977. The Hamlyn guide to freshwater fishes of Britain and Europe. Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, New York, NY.
Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. World fishes important to North Americans exclusive of species from continental waters of the Unites States. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 21. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.
Wheeler, A. 1969. The Fishes of the British Isles and Northwest Europe. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, MI.
Wheeler, A. 1978. Key to the fishes of northern Europe. Frederick Warne Ltd, London, England.
Wingate, P.J. 1992. Zander–evaluate carefully before introducing. Page 32 in In-Fisherman Wallye Guide for 1992. In-Fisherman Magazine, Brainerd, MN
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.