Common name: Bonneville Cisco
Synonyms and Other Names: P. gemmiferum
available through www.itis.gov
Identification: Bonneville Cisco can be distinguished from all other species of Prosopium by the presence of a long, sharply pointed snout(Sigler and Sigler 1987; Page and Burr 1991)
Size: 22 cm TL (Page and Burr 1991).
Native Range: Endemic to Bear Lake in southeastern Idaho and northern Utah (Page and Burr 1991).
Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Prosopium gemmifer are found here.
Table last updated 1/24/2021
† Populations may not be currently present.
Ecology: Inhabits large lakes (endemic to Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho) and generally prefers cooler waters (below ~58° F). Bonneville Cisco is primarily zooplanktivorous, consuming mainly copepods and cladocerans, but will also consume benthic insect larvae on occasion. Spawn in shallow inshore waters during January when water temperature ranges 33-42° F (Sigler and Sigler 1987).
Means of Introduction: Intentionally stocked. A total of 15,888 cisco were released over a three-year period in Lake Tahoe (Frantz and Cordone 1967). The species was stocked to provide forage for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush and other trout species (Frantz and Cordone 1965). It was stocked by the state of Colorado in 1971.
Status: Extirpated in South Dakota and presumably extirpated in Lake Tahoe because no mention was made of a population by La Rivers (1962), Lee et al. (1980 et seq.), or Page and Burr (1991). Dill and Cordone (1997) and Moyle (2002) listed the introduction as a failure in California. The Colorado introduction also failed to produce an established population. Sigler and Sigler (1987) reported that no survival has been documented from any of the stockings.
Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.
References: (click for full references)
Dill, W.A., and A.J. Cordone. 1997. History and status of introduced fishes in California, 1871-1996. California Department of Fish and Game Fish Bulletin, volume 178.
Frantz, T.C., and A.J. Cordone. 1965. Introductions of the Bonneville cisco (Prosopium gemmiferum Snyder) into Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada. California Fish and Game 51(4):270-275.
Frantz, T.C., and A.J. Cordone. 1967. Final introductions of the Bonneville cisco (Prosopium gemmiferum Snyder) into Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada. California Fish and Game 53(3):209-210.
La Rivers, I. 1962. Fishes and fisheries of Nevada. Nevada State Print Office, Carson City, NV.
Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, NC.
Moyle, P.B. 2002. Inland fishes of California. 2nd edition. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
North Dakota Fish and Game. 1994. Fishes of the Dakotas. Brochure. North Dakota Game and Fish Department, Bismark, ND.
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Guide Series, vol. 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.
Shapovalov, L., A.J. Cordone, and W.A. Dill. 1981. A list of freshwater and anadromous fishes of California. California Fish and Game. 67(1): 4-38.
Sigler, W.F., and G.W. Workman. 1978. The Bonneville cisco of Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho. Research Report 33, Utah Agricultural Experiment Station, Utah State University, Logan, UT.
Sigler, W.F., and J.W. Sigler. 1987. Fishes of the Great Basin: a natural history. University of Nevada Press, Reno, NV.
Sigler, W.F., and J.W. Sigler. 1996. Fishes of Utah. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, UT.
Wiltzius, W. J. 1985. Fish culture and stocking in Colorado, 1872-1978. Division Report 12. Colorado Division of Wildlife.
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson
Revision Date: 4/6/2012
Peer Review Date: 4/6/2012
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson, 2021, Prosopium gemmifer (Snyder, 1919): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=922, Revision Date: 4/6/2012, Peer Review Date: 4/6/2012, Access Date: 1/24/2021
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.