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The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.




Salvelinus namaycush
Salvelinus namaycush
(Lake Trout)
Fishes
Native Transplant
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Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum in Artedi, 1792)

Common name: Lake Trout

Synonyms and Other Names: mackinaw, siscowet.

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Scott and Crossman (1973); Becker (1983); Smith (1985); Page and Burr (1991).

Size: 126 cm.

Native Range: Widely distributed from northern Canada and Alaska (missing in southern prairie provinces) south to New England and Great Lakes basin (Page and Burr 1991). In northwestern Montana, Lake Trout are native in Waterton Lake, Glenns Lake, Cosley Lake, and St. Mary Lake. (Snyder and Oswald 2005). In southwestern Montana, glacial relict populations of Lake Trout exist in Elk Lake and Twin Lake (Vincent 1963, Brown 1971, Synder and Oswald 2005).

US auto-generated map Legend USGS Logo
Alaska auto-generated map
Alaska
Hawaii auto-generated map
Hawaii
Caribbean auto-generated map
Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
Guam auto-generated map
Guam Saipan
Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Salvelinus namaycush are found here.

StateYear of earliest observationYear of last observationTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
Arkansas198619974Beaver Reservoir; Bull Shoals Lake; Lake Conway-Point Remove; Little Red
California1865200010Honey-Eagle Lakes; Lake Tahoe; Lower Sacramento; Middle Fork Feather; Newport Bay; North Fork Feather; Sacramento Headwaters; San Francisco Coastal South; Truckee; Upper Cache
Colorado1895200921Arkansas Headwaters; Big Thompson; Blue; Cache La Poudre; Clear; Colorado Headwaters; East-Taylor; Fountain; Lower Yampa; North Platte Headwaters; Roaring Fork; San Luis; South Platte; South Platte Headwaters; St. Vrain; Upper Arkansas; Upper Arkansas-Lake Meredith; Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir; Upper Gunnison; Upper North Platte; Upper White
Connecticut188019925Housatonic; Lower Connecticut; New England Region; Quinebaug; Thames
Delaware187219861Delaware Bay
Idaho1910201316Bear Lake; Boise-Mores; Clearwater; Lower Bear; Lower Bear-Malad; Lower Boise; North Fork Payette; Palisades; Pend Oreille Lake; Priest; South Fork Salmon; Teton; Upper Salmon; Upper Snake-Rock; Upper Spokane; Willow
Illinois198619861Lower Rock
Indiana190119022Ohio Region; St. Joseph
Iowa189819872Little Sioux; Winnebago
Kansas18771885*
Kentucky197719862Obey; Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland
Maine199819991Maine Coastal
Maryland187519864Gunpowder-Patapsco; Mid Atlantic Region; North Branch Potomac; Youghiogheny
Massachusetts187019933Chicopee; Nashua; New England Region
Michigan198019806Au Sable; Betsie-Platte; Cheboygan; Detroit; Kalamazoo; Lake Michigan
Minnesota188519975Kettle; Minnesota; Mississippi Headwaters; Souris-Red-Rainy; St. Croix
Montana1890201420Big Horn Lake; Blackfoot; Clarks Fork Yellowstone; Flathead Lake; Flint-Rock; Fort Peck Reservoir; Jefferson; Lower Clark Fork; Madison; Marias; Middle Clark Fork; Middle Fork Flathead; Middle Kootenai; Missouri-Poplar; North Fork Flathead; Prairie Elk-Wolf; Stillwater; Swan; Upper Yellowstone; Willow
Nebraska188619525Lower Elkhorn; Lower North Platte; Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff; Niobrara Headwaters; Upper White
Nevada188920013Lake Tahoe; Truckee; Walker Lake
New Hampshire193719732New England; Upper Connecticut
New Jersey192019943Mid-Atlantic Region; Raritan; Upper Delaware
New Mexico188819904Cimarron; Rio Chama; Rio Grande-Albuquerque; Upper Canadian
New York198519863Lower Hudson; Upper Delaware; Upper Susquehanna
North Dakota19921994*
Oregon195819943Little Deschutes; Pacific Northwest Region; Upper Deschutes
Pennsylvania198319831Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna
South Dakota199220013Fort Randall Reservoir; Lower Lake Oahe; Missouri Region
Tennessee197719942Obey; Watauga
Utah189420069Bear Lake; Fremont; Lower Green-Diamond; Provo; San Rafael; Spanish Fork; Strawberry; Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir; Utah Lake
Vermont199419941St. Francois River
Virginia188519663Middle New; Upper Dan; Upper New
Washington1900199914Colville; Kootenai-Pend Oreille-Spokane; Lake Chelan; Lower Cowlitz; Okanogan; Pacific Northwest; Pacific Northwest Region; Pend Oreille; Puyallup; Skykomish; Upper Columbia; Upper Columbia-Entiat; Upper Yakima; Wenatchee
West Virginia198619861North Branch Potomac
Wisconsin198019955Coon-Yellow; Middle Rock; Upper Chippewa; Upper Fox; Upper Wisconsin
Wyoming1890201811Big Horn; Clarks Fork Yellowstone; New Fork; North Fork Shoshone; Snake Headwaters; Snake Headwaters; Upper Bighorn; Upper Green; Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir; Upper Green-Slate; Yellowstone Headwaters

Table last updated 7/25/2018

† Populations may not be currently present.

* HUCs are not listed for states where the observation(s) cannot be approximated to a HUC (e.g. state centroids or Canadian provinces).


Means of Introduction: Lake Trout have been intentionally stocked as a sport fish. In the Great Lakes, the species was stocked to restore populations within its native range that had been decimated by the sea lamprey. Kaeding et al. (1996) summarized what is known about the illegal introduction into Yellowstone Lake.

Status: Reported as established locally in California, Colorado, Idaho, Massachusetts, North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming. Extirpated in Connecticut (Whitworth 1996). Scientists have concluded Lake Trout are established in Yellowstone Lake and are present at such high numbers eradication is probably not possible (Kaeding et al. 1996).

Impact of Introduction: Lake Trout often lead to the demise of other trout species where it is introduced. For instance, introductions into Lake Tahoe led to the elimination of the native Lahontan cutthroat Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi (McAffee 1966; Moyle 1976; Behnke, personal communication). Cordone and Frantz (1966) reported a drastic decline and eventual extinction of native cutthroat in Lake Tahoe after the introduction of Lake Trout. Lahontan cutthroat were abundant in the lake in 1907, with only an occasional Lake Trout reported. By 1938, the cutthroat has virtually disappeared, and by 1966, Lake Trout comprised 70% of angler catch in the lake (Cordone and Frantz 1966). Stocked Lake Trout have replaced native cutthroats in deep Rocky Mountain lakes (Benson et al. 1961). This trout has also virtually eliminated cutthroat and bull trout in Flathead Lake, Montana, and Pend Orielle Lake, Idaho. The introduction into Yellowstone Lake poses a similar threat to the native Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. c. bouvieri. The introduction of Lake Trout led to the extirpation of three of the four populations of Sunapee trout (Behnke, personal communication). Lake Trout introduced into Flaming Gorge Reservoir were found to prey heavily on the Utah chub Gila atraria (Teuscher and Luecke 1996). Predation by Lake Trout was shown to be a major factor in the decline of kokanee O. nerka in Lake Chelan, Washington (Schoen et al. 2012). Competition with and predation by nonnative species (i.e., Catostomus sp., creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus, redside shiner Richardsonius balteatus, burbot Lota lota, brown trout Salmo trutta, and Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush) limit populations of the rare bluehead sucker Catostomus discobolus (Wyoming Game and Fish Department 2010).

Remarks: A recent illegal introduction in Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming, has been of great concern there. Biologists are worried about effects on native Yellowstone cutthroat trout (McCullen 1994; Anonymous 1994; Kaeding et al. 1996). A plan has been devised by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to remove the Lake Trout from Yellowstone Lake but scientists are skeptical that eradication efforts will succeed. Although it is found in some surrounding states, the Lake Trout has not been stocked in Oklahoma (Pigg, personal communication). Ng et al. (2016) used life history data and population models to evaluate different different management scenarios, finding that a slight (2x) increase in mortality applied over 20 years could cause population eradication.

References: (click for full references)

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Beckman, W.C. 1952. Guide to the fishes of Colorado. Colorado Department of Game and Fish.

Behnke, R.J. and R.M. Wetzel. 1960. A preliminary list of the fishes found in the fresh waters of Connecticut. Copeia 2:141-143.

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Bond, C.E. 1973. Keys to Oregon freshwater fishes. Oregon State University Agriculture Experimental Station Technical Bulletin 58:1-42, revised.

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FishBase Summary

Author: Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson

Revision Date: 3/28/2018

Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016

Citation Information:
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson, 2018, Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum in Artedi, 1792): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=942, Revision Date: 3/28/2018, Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016, Access Date: 10/17/2018

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

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Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2018]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [10/17/2018].

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