Salvelinus namaycush
Salvelinus namaycush
(Lake Trout)
Fishes
Native Transplant
Translate this page with Google
Français Deutsch Español Português Russian Italiano Japanese

Copyright Info
Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum in Artedi, 1792)

Common name: Lake Trout

Synonyms and Other Names: mackinaw, siscowet.

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Scott and Crossman (1973); Becker (1983); Smith (1985); Page and Burr (1991).

Size: 126 cm.

Native Range: Widely distributed from northern Canada and Alaska (missing in southern prairie provinces) south to New England and Great Lakes basin (Page and Burr 1991). In northwestern Montana, Lake Trout are native in Waterton Lake, Glenns Lake, Cosley Lake, and St. Mary Lake. (Snyder and Oswald 2005). In southwestern Montana, glacial relict populations of Lake Trout exist in Elk Lake and Twin Lake (Vincent 1963, Brown 1971, Synder and Oswald 2005).

US auto-generated map Legend USGS Logo
Alaska auto-generated map
Alaska
Hawaii auto-generated map
Hawaii
Caribbean auto-generated map
Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
Guam auto-generated map
Guam Saipan
Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences: Lake Trout has been stocked in Bull Shoals Lake, Greer's Ferry Lake, and the Little Red River below Greer's Ferry Lake in Arkansas (Robison and Buchanan 1988); Lake Tahoe, and Fallen Leaf, Stony Ridge, Donner, Crystal, Eagle, and Clear lakes, Golden Gate Park, and several lakes in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California (Smith 1896; Shebley 1917; Cordone and Frantz 1966; Moyle 1976; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Sigler and Sigler 1987; Dill and Cordone 1997); lakes in the Flattop Mountains (Colorado headwaters), and in the Clear, Arkansas headwaters, Rio Grande headwaters, Blue, Frying Pan, North Platte, South Platte, and upper Gunnison drainages in Colorado (Everhart and Seaman 1971; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Tyus et al. 1982; Wiltzius 1985; Rasmussen 1998; Beckman 1952); the Connecticut and Thames drainage, and East Twin Lakes and Wononskopomuc Lake in the Housatonic drainage, Connecticut (Hubbs and Lagler 1947; Webster 1942; Behnke and Wetzel 1960; Whitworth et al. 1968; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Schmidt 1986); Delaware River and Delaware Bay, Delaware (Raasch and Altemus 1991); the Bear, Snake River above and below Shoshone falls, Pend Orielle, Palisades, and North Fork Payette drainages in Idaho (Linder 1963; Simpson and Wallace 1978; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Idaho Fish and Game 1996); Rock drainage, Illinois (Smith 1979; Burr and Page 1986); a lake in the St. Joseph drainage, Indiana (Sweeney 1902); West Lake Okoboji, Iowa (Harlan et al. 1987); unspecified areas in Kansas (Breukelman 1946; Cross 1967); Dale Hollow Reservoir and Lake Cumberland, Kentucky (Burr and Warren 1986); Acadia National Park, Maine (Tilmant 1999); Jennings Randolph Lake in the Potomac drainage (Cincotta, personal communication) and the Gunpowder system in Maryland (Ferguson 1876; Pritchard et al. 1976); Wachusett and Quabbin reservoirs in Massachusetts (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Hartel 1992; Cardoza et al. 1993; Hartel et al. 2002); numerous Great Lake tributaries in Michigan (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.); the Minnesota drainage, and lakes in central and southern Minnesota in the Mississippi drainage (Eddy and Underhill 1974; Burr and Page 1986); Fort Peck Reservoir, and the Pend Orielle, Missouri headwaters, upper Yellowstone, Marais, and upper Kootenai drainages in Montana (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Cross et al. 1986; Holton 1990), and in Glacier National Park (W. Fredenberg, pers. comm.); lakes in the North Platte, upper White, Niobrara, Red Willow Creek in Morrill County, McConaughy Lake and lakes in eastern and northern, Nebraska (Jones 1963; Morris et al. 1974; Cross et al. 1986); Lake Tahoe, Truckee River, Cascade Lake, and Walker, Fallen Leaf, and Tallac lakes, Nevada (Smith 1896; La Rivers 1962; Cordone and Frantz 1966; Deacon and Williams 1984; Sigler and Sigler 1987; Insider Viewpoint 2001; Vinyard 2001); many lakes in New Hampshire (Hoover 1936; Scarola 1973; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.); many lakes statewide including those in the Raritan and upper Delaware drainages in New Jersey (Fowler 1952; Stiles 1978; Soldwedel, personal communication); upper Canadian, Cimarron, Rio Grande, and Rio Chama drainages in New Mexico (Sublette et al. 1990); lakes in Putnam, Sullivan, Westchester, and possibly Jefferson and St. Lawrence counties, New York (Smith 1985); unspecified locations in North Dakota (North Dakota Game and Fish Department 1994; T. Steinwand, personal communication); Odell, Crescent, and Summit lakes in Klamath County, and Big Cultus Lake in Deschutes County, Oregon (Bond 1973, 1994; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; State of Oregon 2000; Li, personal communication); Harvey's Lake in the Susquehanna drainage in Pennsylvania (Denoncourt et al. 1975; Hendricks et al. 1979; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Cooper 1983; Hocutt et al. 1986); unspecified locations in South Dakota (North Dakota Game and Fish Department 1994; Hanten, personal communication); Dale Hollow Reservoir, Tennessee (Burr and Warren 1986; Etnier and Starnes 1993); Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Starvation Reservoir, and Utah, Bear, Provo, St. Mary's, and Fish lakes in Utah (Sigler and Miller 1963; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Tyus et al. 1982; Sigler and Sigler 1987, 1996); the New and upper Roanoke (Dan) drainages in Virginia (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994); Mount Rainier National Park, lakes in the upper Columbia, Puget Sound, and Yakima drainages in Washington (Chapman 1942; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife 1997; Tilmant 1999; Wydoski and Whitney 2003); Jennings Randolph Lake in the Potomac drainage in West Virginia (Cincotta, personal communication); the Fox, Chippewa, Wisconsin, and Rock drainages in Wisconsin (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Becker 1983); and Grand Teton National Park, Yellowstone National Park, Flaming Gorge Reservoir, the Green River, Fremont Lake in the New Fork system, and lakes in the Snake and Yellowstone headwaters in Wyoming (Sigler and Miller 1963; Baxter and Simon 1970; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Tyus et al. 1982; Hubert 1994; Kaeding et al. 1996; Tilmant 1999; Wiley 2003; Dunham et al. 2004).

Means of Introduction: Lake Trout have been intentionally stocked as a sport fish. In the Great Lakes, the species was stocked to restore populations within its native range that had been decimated by the sea lamprey. Kaeding et al. (1996) summarized what is known about the illegal introduction into Yellowstone Lake.

Status: Reported as established locally in California, Colorado, Idaho, Massachusetts, North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming. Extirpated in Connecticut (Whitworth 1996). Scientists have concluded Lake Trout are established in Yellowstone Lake and are present at such high numbers eradication is probably not possible (Kaeding et al. 1996).

Impact of Introduction: Lake Trout often lead to the demise of other trout species where it is introduced. For instance, introductions into Lake Tahoe led to the elimination of the native Lahontan cutthroat Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi (McAffee 1966; Moyle 1976; Behnke, personal communication). Cordone and Frantz (1966) reported a drastic decline and eventual extinction of native cutthroat in Lake Tahoe after the introduction of Lake Trout. Lahontan cutthroat were abundant in the lake in 1907, with only an occasional Lake Trout reported. By 1938, the cutthroat has virtually disappeared, and by 1966, Lake Trout comprised 70% of angler catch in the lake (Cordone and Frantz 1966). Stocked Lake Trout have replaced native cutthroats in deep Rocky Mountain lakes (Benson et al. 1961). This trout has also virtually eliminated cutthroat and bull trout in Flathead Lake, Montana, and Pend Orielle Lake, Idaho. The introduction into Yellowstone Lake poses a similar threat to the native Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. c. bouvieri. The introduction of Lake Trout led to the extirpation of three of the four populations of Sunapee trout (Behnke, personal communication). Lake Trout introduced into Flaming Gorge Reservoir were found to prey heavily on the Utah chub Gila atraria (Teuscher and Luecke 1996). Predation by Lake Trout was shown to be a major factor in the decline of kokanee O. nerka in Lake Chelan, Washington (Schoen et al. 2012). Competition with and predation by nonnative species (i.e., Catostomus sp., creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus, redside shiner Richardsonius balteatus, burbot Lota lota, brown trout Salmo trutta, and Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush) limit populations of the rare bluehead sucker Catostomus discobolus (Wyoming Game and Fish Department 2010).

Remarks: A recent illegal introduction in Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming, has been of great concern there. Biologists are worried about effects on native Yellowstone cutthroat trout (McCullen 1994; Anonymous 1994; Kaeding et al. 1996). A plan has been devised by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to remove the Lake Trout from Yellowstone Lake but scientists are skeptical that eradication efforts will succeed. Although it is found in some surrounding states, the Lake Trout has not been stocked in Oklahoma (Pigg, personal communication). Ng et al. (2016) used life history data and population models to evaluate different different management scenarios, finding that a slight (2x) increase in mortality applied over 20 years could cause population eradication.

References: (click for full references)

Anonymous. 1994. Nature: something's fishy in Yellowstone. Newsweek 29 August 1994.

Baxter, G.T., and J.R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Bulletin No. 4, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, WY.

Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Madison Press, Madison, WI.

Beckman, W.C. 1952. Guide to the fishes of Colorado. Colorado Department of Game and Fish.

Behnke, R.J. and R.M. Wetzel. 1960. A preliminary list of the fishes found in the fresh waters of Connecticut. Copeia 2:141-143.

Benson, N.G., J.R. Greeley, M.I. Huish, and J.H. Kuehn. 1961. Status of management of natural lakes. Transactions of American Fishery Society 90:218-224.

Bond, C.E. 1973. Keys to Oregon freshwater fishes. Oregon State University Agriculture Experimental Station Technical Bulletin 58:1-42, revised.

Bond, C.E. 1994. Keys to Oregon freshwater fishes. Oregon State University Bookstores, Corvallis, OR.

Breukelman, J. 1946. A review of Kansas ichthyology. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 49:51-70.

Brown, C.J.D. 1971. Fishes of Montana. Montana State University, Bozeman, MT.

Burr, B.M., and L.M. Page. 1986. Zoogeography of the fishes of the lower Ohio-upper Mississippi basin. 287-324 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Burr, B.M., and M.L. Warren, Jr. 1986. A distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission Scientific and Technical series Number 4.

Cardoza, J.E., G.S. Jones, T.W. French, and D.B. Halliwell. 1993. Exotic and translocated vertebrates of Massachusetts. Fauna of Massachusetts Series 6. Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Westborough, MA.

Chapman, W.M. 1942. Alien fishes in the waters of the Pacific Northwest. California Fish and Game 28(1):9-15.

Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA.

Cordone, A.J., and T.C. Frantz. 1966. The Lake Tahoe sport fishery. California Fish and Game 52(4):240-274.

Cox, B.S., A.M. Dux, M.C. Quist, and C.S. Guy. 2012. Use of a seismic air gun to reduce survival of nonnative lake trout embryos: a tool for conservation? North American Journal of Fisheries Management 32(2):292-298.

Cross, F.B. 1967. Handbook of fishes of Kansas. State Biological Survey and University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Miscellaneous Publication 45, Topeka, KS.

Cross, F.B., R.L. Mayden, and J.D. Stewart. 1986. Fishes in the western Mississippi basin (Missouri, Arkansas, and Red Rivers). 363-412 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Deacon, J.E. and J.E. Williams. 1984. Annotated list of the fishes of Nevada. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 97(1):103-118.

Denoncourt, R.F., T.B. Robbins, and R. Hesser. 1975. Recent introductions and reintroductions to the Pennsylvania fish fauna of the Susquehanna River drainage above Conowingo Dam. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 49:57-58.

Dill, W.A., and A.J. Cordone. 1997. History and status of introduced fishes in California, 1871-1996. California Department of Fish and Game Fish Bulletin, volume 178.

Dunham, J.B., D.S. Pilliod, and M.K. Young. 2004. Assessing the consequences of nonnative trout in headwater ecosystems in western North America. Fisheries 29(6):18-24.

Eddy, S., and J.C. Underhill. 1974. Northern fishes, with special reference to the upper Mississippi Valley. 3rd edition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.

Etnier, D.A., and W.C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tenneessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN.

Everhart, W.H. and W.R. Seaman. 1971. Fishes of Colorado. Colorado Game, Fish and Parks Division Denver, CO.

Ferguson, T.B. 1876. Report of the Commissioners of Fisheries of Maryland to the General Assembly. January 1, 1876. John F Wiley Annapolis, MD.

Fowler, H.W. 1952. A list of the fishes of New Jersey, with off-shore species. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 104:89-151.

Harlan, J.R., E.B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Department of Natural Resources.

Hartel, K. 1992. Non-native fishes known from Massachusetts freshwaters. Occasional Reports of the MCZ Fish Department 1992(2):1-9.

Hartel, K.E., D.B. Halliwell, and A.E. Launer. 2002. Inland fishes of Massachusetts. Massachusetts Audubon Society, Lincoln, MA. 328 pp.

Hendricks, M.L., J.R. Stauffer, Jr., C.H. Hocutt, and C.R. Gilbert. 1979. A preliminary checklist of the fishes of the Youghiogheny River. Chicago Academy of Sciences 203:1-15.

Holton, G.D. 1990. A field guide to Montana fishes. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks Helena, MT.

Hoover, E.E. 1936. Prelimary biological survey of some New Hampshire lakes. Survey Report 1. State of New Hampshire Fish and Game Department, Concord, NH.

Hubbs, C.L., and K.F. Lagler. 1947. Fishes of the Great Lakes region. Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 26. Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.

Hubert, W. 1994. Exotic fishes. 158-174 in T.L. Parish and S.H. Anderson, eds. Exotic species manual. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Laramie, WY.

Insider Viewpoint. 2001. Fishing Records – Nevada. Insider Viewpoint Magazine. 3 pp.

Jenkins, R.E., and N.M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Jones, D.J. 1963. A history of Nebraska's fishery resources. Nebraska Game, Forestation and Parks Commission.

Kaeding, L.R., G.D. Boltz, and D.G. Carty. 1996. Lake trout discovered in Yellowstone Lake threaten native cutthroat trout. Fisheries 21(3): 16-20.

La Rivers, I. 1962. Fishes and fisheries of Nevada. Nevada State Print Office, Carson City, NV.

Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, NC.

Linder, A.D. 1963. Idaho's alien fishes. Tebiwa 6(2):12-15.

McAffee, W.R. 1966. Lahontan cutthroat trout. Pages 225-231 in Calhoun, A, ed. Inland fisheries management. California Department of Fish and Game. Sacramento, CA.

McCullen, K. 1994. Alien trout puzzle Yellowstone biologists. Rocky Mountain News (Sept. 22, 1994) 8A.

Morris, J., L. Morris, and L. Witt. 1974. The fishes of Nebraska. Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Lincoln, NE.

Moyle, P.B. 1976. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Ng, E.L., J.P. Fredericks, and M.C. Quist. 2016. Population dynamics and evaluation of alternative management strategies for nonnative Lake Trout in Priest Lake, Idaho. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 36(1):40-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02755947.2015.1111279

Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Guide Series, vol. 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Pritchard, D.L., O.D. May, Jr., and L. Rider. 1976. Stocking of predators in the predator-stocking-evaluation reservoirs. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners 30(1976):108-113.

Raasch, M.S. and V.L. Altemus, Sr. 1991. Delaware's freshwater and brackish water fishes - a popular account. Delaware State College for the Study of Del-Mar-Va Habitats and the Society of Natural History of Delaware.

Rasmussen, J.L. 1998. Aquatic nuisance species of the Mississippi River basin. 60th Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference, Aquatic Nuisance Species Symposium, Dec. 7, 1998, Cincinnati, OH.

Robison, H.W., and T.M. Buchanan. 1998. Fishes of Arkansas. University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, AR.

Scarola, J.F. 1973. Freshwater fishes of New Hampshire. New Hampshire Fish and Game Department, Division of Inland and Marine Fisheries.

Schmidt, R.E. 1986. Zoogeography of the northern Appalachians. 137-160 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Schoen, E.R., D.A. Beauchamp, and N.C. Overman. 2012. Quantifying latent impacts of an introduced piscivore: pulsed predatory inertia of lake trout and decline of kokanee. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 141:1191-1206.

Scott, W.B., and E.J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. Ottawa.

Shebley, W.H. 1917. History of introduction of food and game fishes into the waters of California. California Fish and Game 3:3-12.

Sigler, W.F. and R.R. Miller. 1963. Fishes of Utah. Utah Department of Fish and Game, Salt Lake City, UT.

Sigler, W.F., and J.W. Sigler. 1987. Fishes of the Great Basin: a natural history. University of Nevada Press, Reno, NV.

Sigler, W.F., and J.W. Sigler. 1996. Fishes of Utah. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, UT.

Simpson, J., and R. Wallace. 1978. Fishes of Idaho. University of Idaho Press, Moscow, ID.

Smith, C.L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

Smith, H.M. 1896. A review of the history and results of the attempts to acclimatize fish and other water animals in the Pacific states. Bulletin of the U.S. Fish Commission 15:379-472.

Smith, P.W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press Urbana, IL.

Snyder, B. and D. Oswald. 2005. Montana's fish species of special concern: Lake trout. Status of native lake trout in Montana. Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks

State of Oregon. 2000. Warm Water Game Fish Records. 7 pp.

Stiles, E.W. 1978. Vertebrates of New Jersey. Edmund W Stiles Somerset, NJ.

Sublette, J.E., M.D. Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM.

Sweeney, Z.T. 1902. Biennial Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries and Game for Indiana. Indianapolis, IN.

Syslo, J.M., C.S. Guy, and B.S. Cox. 2013. Comparison of harvest scenarios for the cost-effective suppression of Lake Trout in Swan Lake, Montana. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 33(6):1079-1090. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02755947.2013.824935.

Teuscher, D., and C. Luecke. 1996. Competition between kokanees and Utah chub in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Utah-Wyoming. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 125(4):505-511.

Tilmant, J.T. 1999. Management of nonindigenous aquatic fish in the U.S. National Park System. National Park Service. 50 pp.

Tyus, H.M., B.D. Burdick, R.A. Valdez, C.M. Haynes, T.A. Lytle, and C.R. Berry. 1982. Fishes of the upper Colorado River basin: distribution, abundance, and status. 12-70 in W.H. Miller, H.M. Tyus, and C.A. Carlson, eds. Fishes of the upper Colorado River system: present and future. Western Division, American Fisheries Society.

Vincent, R.E. 1963. The native range of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Montana. Copeia. 1963(1): 188-189.

Webster, D.A. 1942. The life histories of some Connecticut fishes. 122-227 in A fishery survey of important Connecticut lakes. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Department of Environmental Protection, Hartford, CT.

Whitworth, W. R., P. L. Berrien, and W. T. Keller. 1968. Freshwater fishes of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Bulletin 101.

Whitworth, W.R. 1996. Freshwater fishes of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Bulletin 114.

Wiley, R.W. 2003. Planting trout in Wyoming high-elevation wilderness waters. Fisheries 28(1):22-27.

Wiltzius, W.J. 1985. Fish culture and stocking in Colorado, 1872-1978. Division Report 12, Colorado Division of Wildlife.

Wydoski, R.S., and R.R. Whitney. 2003. Inland fishes of Washington. Second edition. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.

FishBase Summary

Author: Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson

Revision Date: 2/2/2016

Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016

Citation Information:
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson, 2018, Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum in Artedi, 1792): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=942, Revision Date: 2/2/2016, Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016, Access Date: 1/24/2018

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logoU.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: https://nas.er.usgs.gov
Page Contact Information: Pam Fuller - NAS Program (pfuller@usgs.gov)
Page Last Modified: Thursday, January 11, 2018

Disclaimer:

The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2018]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [1/24/2018].

Additional information for authors