Common name: starspotted grouper
available through www.itis.gov
Identification: Heemstra and Randall (1993).
Size: 26.0 cm NG.
Native Range: Indo-West Pacific: none have been taken on the African coast, except for the specimen recorded by Randall and Heemstra (1991) from Kenyan coast north of Kilifi Creek. Found in most tropical Indo-Pacific islands. Absent in the Red Sea and Persian Gulf (Heemstra and Randall 1993).
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Puerto Rico &
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps
Introduced into marine waters off Oahu and Mauai, Hawaii, in 1956 (Maciolek 1984).
Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Epinephelus hexagonatus are found here.
Table last updated 5/25/2018
† Populations may not be currently present.
Means of Introduction: At least 978 fish were intentionally stocked (Maciolek 1984).
Status: The species failed to become established.
Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.
References: (click for full references)
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall. 1993. FAO Species Catalogue Vol. 16. Groupers of the World (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis, No. 125, Vol. 16. Rome, FAO 382 pp.
Randall, J.E. and P.C. Heemstra, 1991 Revision of Indo-Pacific groupers (Perciformes: Serranidae: Epinephelinae), with descriptions of five new species. Indo-Pacific Fishes (20):332 p.
Revision Date: 4/20/2018
Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016
Fuller, P., 2019, Epinephelus hexagonatus (Forster in Bloch and Schneider, 1801): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=969, Revision Date: 4/20/2018, Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016, Access Date: 7/16/2019
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.