The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Philydrum lanuginosum
Philydrum lanuginosum
(woolly frog's mouth)
Native Transplant
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Philydrum lanuginosum Banks ex Gaertn.

Common name: woolly frog's mouth

Synonyms and Other Names: Garciana cochinchinensis Lour., Philydrum cavaleriei H. Léveillé, Woolly Frogsmouth, Frogmouth, Woolly Waterlily

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: According to Ohwi (1965) and Wu and Larsen (2000):

Habit: emergent aquatic, perennial forb

Stems/Roots: tufted, with fibrous roots

Leaves: linear, alternate, two-ranked, basally attached, 0.3-0.7 m long, 1-2 cm wide at base

Flowers: yellow, bilaterally symmetrical, bisexual, surrounded by spined bracts, along a simple spike inflorescence; villous (woolly) along the inflorescence

Fruits/Seeds: three-valved, dehiscent capsules with hundreds to thousands of 0.7 mm long seeds

Look-a-likes: Scheuchzeria palustris, and Juncus spp.

Size: 0.5-1.0 m tall (Ohwi 1965)

Native Range: Southeastern China, Taiwan, India (Andaman Islands), Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Thailand, Vietnam, Northern Australia (Wu and Larsen 2000), and Guam (Stone 1970).

US auto-generated map Legend USGS Logo
Alaska auto-generated map
Hawaii auto-generated map
Caribbean auto-generated map
Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
Guam auto-generated map
Guam Saipan
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Philydrum lanuginosum are found here.

StateYear of earliest observationYear of last observationTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
North Carolina201620161New River
South Carolina201720171Calibogue Sound-Wright River

Table last updated 10/4/2018

† Populations may not be currently present.


Life History: growing season is June-October. flowering (June-July) occurs for one day and the flowers are self-pollinating (Wu and Larsen 2000); seeds float and can germinate underwater with high viability (Prentis et al. 2006).

Habitat: found mostly along margins in up to 0.6 m of water; common weed in rice patties in its native Southeast Asia (USDA 2016).

Tolerances: unknown

Community interactions: seed dispersal may be conducted via zoochory (USDA 2016).

Means of Introduction: Likely escaped from cultivation. It is widely available in the international nursery trade. Once established, floating seeds can disperse by water, wind, birds, and mammals (USDA 2016).

Status: Established in FL, NC, and SC.

Impact of Introduction: Impact in the U.S. is unknown, but P. lanuginosum commonly grows in agriculture fields within its native range (USDA 2016).

References: (click for full references)

Ohwi, J. 1965. Flora of Japan. National Science Museum, Tokyo, Japan.

Prentis, P.J., N.M. Meyers, and P.B. Mather. 2006. Significance of post-germination buoyancy in Helmholtzia glaberrima and Philydrum lanuginosum (Philydraceae). Australian Journal of Botany 54:11-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/BT04208.

Stone, B.C. 1970. The flora of Guam: A manual for the indentification of the vascular plants of the island. Micronesica 6:1-657.

USDA. 2016. Weed Risk Assessment for Philydrum lanuginosum Banks ex Gaertn. (Philydraceae) – Woolly frogs mouth. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Raleigh, NC.

Wu, G., and K. Larsen. 2000. Philydraceae. Page 43 in Flora of China. Volume 24. eFloras.

Author: Pfingsten, I.A.

Revision Date: 9/29/2017

Citation Information:
Pfingsten, I.A., 2019, Philydrum lanuginosum Banks ex Gaertn.: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?SpeciesID=262, Revision Date: 9/29/2017, Access Date: 4/23/2019

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2019]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [4/23/2019].

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