The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Lepomis macrochirus
Lepomis macrochirus
Native Transplant

Copyright Info
Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819

Common name: Bluegill

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Moyle (1976); Becker (1983); Page and Burr (1991); Jenkins and Burkhead (1994). Two subspecies: L. macrochirus mystacalis in Peninsular Florida, and L. m. macrochirus throughout the rest of the range (C. Gilbert, personal communication).

Size: 41 cm.

Native Range: St. Lawrence-Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins from Quebec and New York to Minnesota and south to the Gulf; Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages from the Cape Fear River, Virginia, to the Rio Grande, Texas and New Mexico. Also in northern Mexico (Page and Burr 1991).

Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Lepomis macrochirus are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
AL198819881Middle Tallapoosa
AZ1934202328Agua Fria; Bill Williams; Bouse Wash; Brawley Wash; Burro; Canyon Diablo; Imperial Reservoir; Lake Mead; Little Colorado Headwaters; Lower Colorado; Lower Colorado Region; Lower Gila; Lower Gila-Painted Rock Reservoir; Lower Lake Powell; Lower Salt; Lower San Pedro; Lower Santa Cruz; Lower Verde; Middle Gila; Rillito; San Bernardino Valley; Tonto; Upper Gila; Upper Gila-San Carlos Reservoir; Upper Salt; Upper Santa Cruz; Upper Verde; Yuma Desert
CA1891202376Aliso-San Onofre; California Region; Central Coastal; Clear Creek-Sacramento River; Cottonwood-Tijuana; Coyote; Crowley Lake; East Branch North Fork Feather; East Walker; Fresno River; Honcut Headwaters-Lower Feather; Honey-Eagle Lakes; Imperial Reservoir; Lake Tahoe; Los Angeles; Lower American; Lower Colorado; Lower Colorado; Lower Eel; Lower Klamath; Lower Pit; Lower Sacramento; Lower Sacramento; Middle Kern-Upper Tehachapi-Grapevine; Middle San Joaquin-Lower Chowchilla; Mojave; Monterey Bay; Newport Bay; North Fork American; Owens Lake; Pajaro; Paynes Creek-Sacramento River; Sacramento Headwaters; Sacramento-Stone Corral; Salinas; Salton Sea; San Antonio; San Diego; San Francisco Bay; San Gabriel; San Jacinto; San Joaquin; San Joaquin Delta; San Luis Rey-Escondido; San Pablo Bay; San Pedro Channel Islands; Santa Ana; Santa Barbara Coastal; Santa Clara; Santa Margarita; Santa Maria; Santa Monica Bay; Santa Ynez; Seal Beach; South Fork Kern; Suisun Bay; Surprise Valley; Tomales-Drake Bays; Tulare Lake Bed; Upper Cache; Upper Calaveras California; Upper Cosumnes; Upper Deer-Upper White; Upper Eel; Upper Kaweah; Upper Kern; Upper Klamath; Upper Pit; Upper Putah; Upper Sacramento; Upper San Joaquin; Upper Stony; Upper Tule; Upper Yuba; Ventura; Whitewater River
CO1925202332Animas; Big Thompson; Cache La Poudre; Colorado Headwaters; Colorado Headwaters-Plateau; Fountain; Horse; Huerfano; Lower Gunnison; Lower White; Lower Yampa; McElmo; Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek; Middle South Platte-Sterling; North Fork Republican; Piedra; Purgatoire; Republican; Rio Grande Headwaters; Rush; San Luis; South Fork Republican; South Platte; St. Vrain; Upper Arkansas; Upper Arkansas-John Martin Reservoir; Upper Arkansas-Lake Meredith; Upper Cimarron; Upper Dolores; Upper San Juan; Upper South Platte; Upper Yampa
CT1940202210Farmington River; Housatonic; New England Region; Outlet Connecticut River; Pawcatuck River; Quinebaug River; Quinnipiac; Saugatuck; Shetucket River; Thames
DE197020217Brandywine-Christina; Broadkill-Smyrna; Choptank; Delaware Bay; Mid Atlantic Region; Nanticoke; Upper Chesapeake
DC199920232Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin
FL198820174Florida Bay-Florida Keys; Oklawaha; Santa Fe; Vero Beach
HI194620054Hawaii; Kauai; Maui; Oahu
ID1940202334American Falls; Beaver-Camas; Blackfoot; Boise-Mores; Brownlee Reservoir; C.J. Strike Reservoir; Clearwater; Coeur d'Alene Lake; Idaho Falls; Kootenai; Lake Walcott; Lemhi; Little Wood; Lower Bear; Lower Bear-Malad; Lower Boise; Lower Kootenai; Lower Snake-Asotin; Middle Bear; Middle Kootenai; Middle Snake-Boise; Middle Snake-Succor; Moyie; North Fork Payette; Palouse; Payette; Pend Oreille Lake; Portneuf; Spokane; Teton; Upper Snake; Upper Snake-Rock; Upper Spokane; Weiser
KS1969201424Big; Buckner; Chikaskia; Coon-Pickerel; Gar-Peace; Lower Saline; Lower South Fork Solomon; Lower Walnut Creek; Medicine Lodge; Middle Arkansas-Lake McKinney; Middle Smoky Hill; Ninnescah; North Fork Ninnescah; North Fork Smoky Hill; Pawnee; Rattlesnake; Smoky Hill Headwaters; South Fork Ninnescah; Upper Cimarron-Bluff; Upper North Fork Solomon; Upper Saline; Upper Salt Fork Arkansas; Upper Smoky Hill; Upper Walnut Creek
ME200020184Lower Kennebec River; Piscataqua-Salmon Falls; Saco River; St. George-Sheepscot
MD1934202419Cacapon-Town; Chester-Sassafras; Chincoteague; Choptank; Conococheague-Opequon; Gunpowder-Patapsco; Lower Potomac; Lower Susquehanna; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; Monocacy; Nanticoke; North Branch Potomac; Patuxent; Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva; Potomac; Severn; Tangier; Upper Chesapeake
MA1700202316Ashuelot River-Connecticut River; Blackstone River; Cape Cod; Charles; Chicopee River; Concord River; Farmington River; Housatonic; Merrimack River; Millers River; Narragansett; Nashua River; New England Region; Quinebaug River; Westfield River; Winnipesaukee River
MI194919522Carp-Pine; Lake Superior
MN1955202211Clearwater; Lake Superior; Little Fork; Otter Tail; Rainy Headwaters; Rapid; Red Lake; Red Lakes; Roseau; Snake; St. Louis
MT1933201247Battle; Beaver; Beaver; Big Horn Lake; Blackfoot; Box Elder; Boxelder; Cottonwood; Fort Peck Reservoir; Gallatin; Judith; Little Bighorn; Lodge; Lower Bighorn; Lower Milk; Lower Musselshell; Lower Powder; Lower Tongue; Lower Yellowstone; Lower Yellowstone; Lower Yellowstone-Sunday; Madison; Middle Kootenai; Middle Milk; Middle Musselshell; Middle Powder; Milk; Missouri Headwaters; Missouri-Poplar; Mizpah; Musselshell; O'Fallon; Prairie Elk-Wolf; Redwater; Rock; Rosebud; Tongue; Two Medicine; Upper Little Missouri; Upper Missouri; Upper Tongue; Upper Yellowstone; Upper Yellowstone; Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin; Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar; Willow; Yellowstone Headwaters
NE1967202326Calamus; Cedar; Harlan County Reservoir; Loup; Lower Elkhorn; Lower Lodgepole; Lower North Loup; Lower North Platte; Lower South Platte; Medicine; Middle Platte-Buffalo; Middle Platte-Prairie; Middle Republican; Missouri Region; Niobrara Headwaters; Red Willow; Snake; South Loup; Turkey; Upper Big Blue; Upper Elkhorn; Upper Middle Loup; Upper Niobrara; Upper North Loup; Upper White; West Fork Big Blue
NV1909202017Carson Desert; Central Lahontan; Fish Lake-Soda Spring Valleys; Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Hot Creek-Railroad Valleys; Imperial Reservoir; Lake Mead; Las Vegas Wash; Lower Humboldt; Muddy; Northern Big Smoky Valley; Pyramid-Winnemucca Lakes; Ralston-Stone Cabin Valleys; Spring-Steptoe Valleys; Truckee; Upper Carson; White
NH1973202010Ammonoosuc River-Connecticut River; Ashuelot River-Connecticut River; Black River-Connecticut River; Contoocook River; Merrimack River; Millers River; Nashua River; Piscataqua-Salmon Falls; West River-Connecticut River; Winnipesaukee River
NJ1920202413Cohansey-Maurice; Crosswicks-Neshaminy; Great Egg Harbor; Hackensack-Passaic; Lower Delaware; Lower Hudson; Mid-Atlantic Region; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Middle Delaware-Musconetcong; Mullica-Toms; Raritan; Rondout; Sandy Hook-Staten Island
NM195720008Conchas; Middle San Juan; Mimbres; Upper Canadian; Upper Canadian-Ute Reservoir; Upper Gila-Mangas; Upper San Juan; Upper San Juan
NY1970202319Black; Chemung; Chenango; Hackensack-Passaic; Hudson-Hoosic; Hudson-Wappinger; Lake Champlain; Lower Hudson; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Middle Hudson; Mohawk; Oneida; Owego-Wappasening; Rondout; Sandy Hook-Staten Island; Schoharie; Upper Hudson; Upper Susquehanna; Upper Susquehanna
NC1947202124Albemarle; Chowan; Contentnea; Fishing; Lower Dan; Lower Neuse; Lower Roanoke; Lower Tar; Meherrin; Middle Neuse; Middle Roanoke; Neuse; New River; Nottoway; Pamlico; Pamlico Sound; Roanoke; Roanoke Rapids; Upper Cape Fear; Upper Dan; Upper Neuse; Upper New; Upper Tar; White Oak River
ND1965200518Apple Creek; Cedar; Devils Lake-Sheyenne; Goose; James Headwaters; Lake Sakakawea; Lower Cannonball; Lower Heart; Lower Sheyenne; Middle Sheyenne; North Fork Grand; Painted Woods-Square Butte; Pipestem; Upper Heart; Upper James; Upper Pembina River; Western Wild Rice; Willow
OK192620209Chikaskia; Cimarron Headwaters; Lower Cimarron-Skeleton; Lower Salt Fork Arkansas; Lower Wolf; Middle North Canadian; Upper Cimarron-Liberal; Upper Salt Fork Arkansas; Upper Washita
OR1905202051Alsea; Applegate; Brownlee Reservoir; Bully; Clackamas; Coast Fork Willamette; Coos; Coquille; Goose Lake; Illinois; Klamath; Lost; Lower Columbia; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Columbia-Sandy; Lower Crooked; Lower Deschutes; Lower John Day; Lower Malheur; Lower Owyhee; Lower Rogue; Lower Willamette; Middle Columbia-Hood; Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula; Middle Rogue; Middle Snake-Payette; Middle Snake-Succor; Middle Willamette; Molalla-Pudding; Necanicum; Nehalem; North Umpqua; Pacific Northwest; Siletz-Yaquina; Siltcoos; Siuslaw; South Santiam; South Umpqua; Tualatin; Umatilla; Umpqua; Upper Deschutes; Upper Grande Ronde; Upper John Day; Upper Klamath Lake; Upper Malheur; Upper Rogue; Upper Willamette; Willow; Wilson-Trusk-Nestuccu; Yamhill
PA1966202226Bald Eagle; Conococheague-Opequon; Crosswicks-Neshaminy; Lackawaxen; Lehigh; Lower Delaware; Lower Juniata; Lower Susquehanna; Lower Susquehanna; Lower Susquehanna-Penns; Lower Susquehanna-Swatara; Lower West Branch Susquehanna; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Middle West Branch Susquehanna; Owego-Wappasening; Raystown; Schuylkill; Sinnemahoning; Susquehanna; Upper Delaware; Upper Juniata; Upper Susquehanna; Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna; Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock; Upper West Branch Susquehanna; West Branch Susquehanna
PR191520075Cibuco-Guajataca; Culebrinas-Guanajibo; Eastern Puerto Rico; Puerto Rico; Southern Puerto Rico
RI199120224Narragansett; New England Region; Pawcatuck River; Quinebaug River
SD1949202028Angostura Reservoir; Bad; Bois De Sioux; Cheyenne; Elm; Fort Randall Reservoir; Grand; Lac Qui Parle; Lake Thompson; Little White; Lower Belle Fourche; Lower James; Lower Lake Oahe; Lower Moreau; Medicine; Medicine Knoll; Middle Cheyenne-Elk; Middle Cheyenne-Spring; Middle James; Mud; North Fork Snake; Ponca; Snake; Turtle; Upper James; Upper Moreau; Vermillion; West Missouri Coteau
TX195120219Beals; East Galveston Bay; Lake Meredith; Middle Canadian-Spring; North Corpus Christi Bay; North Fork Double Mountain Fork Brazos; Upper Prairie Dog Town Fork Red; Upper Salt Fork Red; West San Antonio Bay
UT1890202123Dirty Devil; Duchesne; Escalante; Jordan; Little Bear-Logan; Lower Bear-Malad; Lower Green-Diamond; Lower Lake Powell; Lower San Juan; Lower San Juan-Four Corners; Lower Sevier; Lower Weber; Lower White; Middle Bear; Provo; San Pitch; San Rafael; Southern Great Salt Lake Desert; Spanish Fork; Upper Colorado-Kane Springs; Upper Lake Powell; Upper Virgin; Utah Lake
VT198620208Black River-Connecticut River; Hudson-Hoosic; Mettawee River; Missiquoi River; Waits River-Connecticut River; West River-Connecticut River; White River; Winooski River
VA1916202344Albemarle; Appomattox; Banister; Blackwater; Chincoteague; Chowan; Conococheague-Opequon; Great Wicomico-Piankatank; Hampton Roads; James; Lower Chesapeake; Lower Dan; Lower James; Lower Potomac; Lower Rappahannock; Lynnhaven-Poquoson; Mattaponi; Maury; Meherrin; Middle James-Buffalo; Middle James-Willis; Middle New; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; Middle Roanoke; North Fork Shenandoah; Nottoway; Pamunkey; Potomac; Rapidan-Upper Rappahannock; Rivanna; Roanoke; Roanoke Rapids; Shenandoah; South Branch Potomac; South Fork Holston; South Fork Shenandoah; Tangier; Upper Dan; Upper James; Upper New; Upper Roanoke; Upper Yadkin; York
WA1891202147Banks Lake; Chief Joseph; Colville; Deschutes; Duwamish; Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake; Grays Harbor; Hood Canal; Lake Chelan; Lake Washington; Lewis; Little Spokane; Lower Chehalis; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Columbia-Sandy; Lower Cowlitz; Lower Crab; Lower Skagit; Lower Snake; Lower Snake; Lower Snake-Tucannon; Lower Spokane; Lower Yakima; Middle Columbia-Hood; Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula; Nisqually; Nooksack; Okanogan; Pacific Northwest Region; Palouse; Puget Sound; Puyallup; San Juan Islands; Similkameen; Snohomish; Snoqualmie; Strait of Georgia; Upper Chehalis; Upper Columbia-Entiat; Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids; Upper Crab; Upper Spokane; Upper Yakima; Walla Walla; Wenatchee; Willapa Bay; Yakima
WV197320207Cacapon-Town; Conococheague-Opequon; Greenbrier; James; Lower New; Middle New; Potomac
WI198319833Beartrap-Nemadji; Southwestern Lake Superior; St. Louis
WY197019946Big Horn; Lower Wind; Powder; Upper Belle Fourche; Upper Cheyenne; Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir

Table last updated 6/15/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

Means of Introduction: Intentional stocking for sportfishing.

Status: Established in most locations.

Impact of Introduction: In California, aggressive Bluegill outcompete native Sacramento perch Archoplites interruptus (Moyle et al. 1974; Moyle 1976). Bluegill may chase Sacramento perch away from spawning areas and out of favored places, such as shallow weedy areas, and into open water (Moyle 1976). Once in open water, the perch are more vulnerable to predation and have less available food. Introduced predatory centrarchids are likely responsible for the decline of native ranid frogs in California, California tiger salamander Ambystoma californiense populations (Hayes and Jennings 1986; Dill and Cordone 1997), and the Chiricahua leopard frog Rana chiricahuensis in southeastern Arizona (Rosen et al. 1995).

Hybridizes with green sunfish, redear sunfish, redbreast sunfish, and warmouth (Scribner et al. 2001).

Remarks: Bluegill are commonly stocked as forage for largemouth bass in farm ponds. Because introduced California Bluegill are typically small, possibly due to a limited genetic background, the California Department of Fish and Game began introducing Bluegill from Florida in an effort to obtain a larger, faster-growing fish (Moyle 1976). Tyus et al. (1982) gave a distribution map of the this species in the upper Colorado basin.

References: (click for full references)

Anonymous 2001. Oregon's Warm Water Fishing with Public Access. [online]. URL at http://www.dfw.state.or.us/warm_water_fishing/index.asphttp://www.dfw.state.or.us/warm_water_fishing/index.asp.

Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Madison Press, Madison, WI.

Bradley, W. G. and J. E. Deacon. 1967. The biotic communities of southern Nevada. Nevada State Museum Anthropological Papers No. 13, Part 4. 201--273.

Dill, W.A., and A.J. Cordone. 1997. History and status of introduced fishes in California, 1871-1996. California Department of Fish and Game Fish Bulletin, volume 178.

Erdsman, D.S.  1984.  Exotic fishes in Puerto Rico, p 162-176, In:  W.R.Jr. Courtenay and J.R.Jr. Stauffer, eds. Distribution, Biology, and Management of Exotic Fishes. John Hopkins. Baltimore and London.

Halliwell, D.B. 2003. Introduced Fish in Maine. MABP series: Focus on Freshwater Biodiversity.

Hayes, M.P., and M.R. Jennings. 1986. Decline of ranid frog species in western North America: are bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) responsible? Journal of Herpetology 20(4):490-509.

Insider Viewpoint. 2001. Fishing Records - Nevada. Insider Viewpoint Magazine. 3 pp.

Jenkins, R.E., and N.M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater Fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Linder, A. D. 1963. Idaho's Alien Fishes. TEBIWA, 6(2), 12-15.

Madison, D. 2003. Outlaw Introductions. Montana Outdoors. July/August: 26-35.

Matern, S.A., P.B. Moyle, and L.C. Pierce. 2002. Native and alien fishes in a California estuarine marsh: twenty-one years of changing assemblages. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 131: 797-816.

Moyle, P.B. 1976. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Moyle, P.B., S.B. Matthews, and N. Bonderson. 1974. Feeding habits of the Sacramento perch, Archoplites interruptus. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 103(2):399-402.

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Guide Series, vol. 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Rasmussen, J.L. 1998. Aquatic nuisance species of the Mississippi River basin. 60th Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference, Aquatic Nuisance Species Symposium, Dec. 7, 1998, Cincinnati, OH.

Robison, H.W., and T.M. Buchanan. 1998. Fishes of Arkansas. University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, AR.

Rosen, P.C., C.R. Schwalbe, D.A. Parizek, Jr., P.A. Holm, and C.H. Lowe. 1995. Introduced aquatic vertebrates in the Chiricahua region: effects on declining native ranid frogs. Pages 251-261 in DeBano, L.H., P.H. Folliott, A. Ortega-Rubio, G.J. Gottfried, R.H. Hamre, and C.B. Edminster, eds. Biodiversity and management of the Madrean Archipelago: the sky islands of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. US Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Fort Collins, CO.

Scribner, K.T., K.S. Page, and M.L. Bartron. 2001. Hybridization in freshwater fishes: a review of case studies and cytonuclear methods of biological inference. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 10:293-323.

Smith, C.L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

Sommer, T, B. Harrell, M. Nobriga, R. Brown, P. Moyle, W. Kimmerer, and L. Schemel. 2001. California's Yolo Bypass: Evidence that flood control can be compatible with fisheries, wetlands, wildlife, and agriculture. Fisheries. American Fisheries Society. 26 (8): 6-16.

Stauffer, J.R., Jr., J.M. Boltz, and L.R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. West Virginia Department of Natural Resources.

Sublette, J.E., M.D. Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM.

Tilmant, J.T. 1999. Management of nonindigenous aquatic fish in the U.S. National Park System. National Park Service. 50 pp.

Tyus, H. M., B. D. Burdick, R. A. Valdez, C. M. Haynes, T. A. Lytle, and C. R. Berry. 1982. Fishes of the upper Colorado River basin: distribution, abundance, and status. Pages 12--70 in W. H. Miller, H. M. Tyus, and C. A. Carlson, editors. Fishes of the upper Colorado River system: present and future, Western Division, American Fisheries Society.

Waldrip, L. 1993. 1992 fish stocking report. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. January 8, 1993. 1993: 9-12.

Other Resources:
Distribution in Illinois - ILNHS

FishBase Summary

Author: Pam Fuller, and Matt Cannister

Revision Date: 6/27/2019

Peer Review Date: 4/12/2013

Citation Information:
Pam Fuller, and Matt Cannister, 2024, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?SpeciesID=385, Revision Date: 6/27/2019, Peer Review Date: 4/12/2013, Access Date: 6/16/2024

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [6/16/2024].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted.

For general information and questions about the database, contact Wesley Daniel. For problems and technical issues, contact Matthew Neilson.