The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Micropterus salmoides
Micropterus salmoides
(Largemouth Bass)
Native Transplant

Copyright Info
Micropterus salmoides (Lacep├Ęde, 1802)

Common name: Largemouth Bass

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: The Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) has an elongate body that ranges in color from a silvery-white to brassy-green and occasionally to a light brown in darker water. It is camouflaged with a dark olive mottling on its dorsal surface, a broad black stripe (typically broken into a series of blotches), and greenish-black speckles along its side. The caudal fin has a dusky black edge which is most prominent in juveniles. The species has a large mouth with an upper jaw that extends back past the eye in adults, and a tongue that lacks teeth. Micropterus salmoides have 3 anal spines, 9-11 dorsal spines, typically 58-73 lateral scales, and 8 rakers on its first gill arch (Page and Burr 2011; Robins et al. 2018). Morphological descriptions are also given in Becker (1983), Etnier and Starnes (1993), Jenkins and Burkhead (1994), and Moyle (2002).

Two subspecies of Largemouth Bass are recognized (Bailey and Hubbs 1949). The Florida Bass (Micropterus s. floridanus) attains a larger size than the Northern Largemouth Bass (Micropterus s. salmoides). Micropterus s. floridanus typically has 31 or more branches on the pyloric caeca (second stomach), 65-77 (typically 69-73) lateral scales, and 27-34 (typically 29-31) scales around the caudal peduncle. The Northern Largemouth Bass (Micropterus s. salmoides) typically has fewer than 28 branches on the pyloric caeca, 58-69 (typically 59-67) lateral scales, and 24-32 (typically 27-28) scales around the caudal peduncle (Robins et al. 2018).

Size: 97 cm (Robins et al. 2018).

Native Range: Largemouth Bass are native to the St. Lawrence and Great Lakes, Hudson Bay (Red River), and Mississippi River basins from southern Quebec to Minnesota and south to the Gulf. Its native range also includes the Atlantic Slope drainages from North Carolina to Florida, and the Gulf Slope drainages from southern Florida into northern Mexico (Page and Burr 2011).

Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Micropterus salmoides are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
AZ1880202338Agua Fria; Big Chino-Williamson Valley; Bill Williams; Bouse Wash; Brawley Wash; Canyon Diablo; Centennial Wash; Chevelon Canyon; Detrital Wash; Grand Canyon; Grand Wash; Havasu Canyon; Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Imperial Reservoir; Lake Mead; Little Colorado Headwaters; Lower Colorado; Lower Colorado Region; Lower Gila; Lower Lake Powell; Lower Salt; Lower San Pedro; Lower Santa Cruz; Lower Verde; Middle Gila; Middle Gila; Middle Little Colorado; San Bernardino Valley; Santa Maria; Silver; Tonto; Upper Gila-San Carlos Reservoir; Upper Little Colorado; Upper Salt; Upper San Pedro; Upper Santa Cruz; Upper Verde; Yuma Desert
CA1874202463Aliso-San Onofre; California Region; Calleguas; Central Coastal; Clear Creek-Sacramento River; Cottonwood-Tijuana; Coyote; Crowley Lake; Honcut Headwaters-Lower Feather; Imperial Reservoir; Lake Tahoe; Los Angeles; Lower Colorado; Lower Colorado; Lower Klamath; Lower Pit; Lower Sacramento; Lower San Joaquin River; Middle Kern-Upper Tehachapi-Grapevine; Middle San Joaquin-Lower Chowchilla; Mojave; Monterey Bay; Newport Bay; North Fork Feather; Owens Lake; Pajaro; Russian; Sacramento Headwaters; Salinas; Salton Sea; San Antonio; San Diego; San Francisco Coastal South; San Jacinto; San Joaquin; San Joaquin Delta; San Luis Rey-Escondido; San Pablo Bay; Santa Ana; Santa Clara; Santa Margarita; Santa Maria; Santa Monica Bay; Santa Ynez; South Fork American; South Fork Kern; Suisun Bay; Surprise Valley; Thomes Creek-Sacramento River; Trinity; Tulare Lake Bed; Upper Cache; Upper Deer-Upper White; Upper Kaweah; Upper Klamath; Upper Pit; Upper Putah; Upper Sacramento; Upper San Joaquin; Upper Stony; Upper Tule; Upper Yuba; Ventura
CO1878202337Animas; Beaver; Big Thompson; Cache La Poudre; Colorado Headwaters; Colorado Headwaters-Plateau; Fountain; Horse; Huerfano; Lone Tree-Owl; Lower Gunnison; Lower South Platte; Lower White; Lower Yampa; McElmo; Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek; Middle South Platte-Sterling; North Fork Republican; Piedra; Purgatoire; Republican; Rio Grande Headwaters; Rush; San Luis; South Fork Republican; South Platte; St. Vrain; Two Butte; Uncompahgre; Upper Arkansas; Upper Arkansas-John Martin Reservoir; Upper Arkansas-Lake Meredith; Upper Dolores; Upper San Juan; Upper South Platte; Upper White; Upper Yampa
CT1850202411Farmington River; Housatonic; Lower Hudson; New England Region; Outlet Connecticut River; Pawcatuck River; Quinebaug River; Quinnipiac; Saugatuck; Shetucket River; Thames
DE192620217Brandywine-Christina; Broadkill-Smyrna; Chincoteague; Choptank; Delaware Bay; Nanticoke; Upper Chesapeake
DC199920102Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin
GA196220085Broad; Little; Tugaloo; Upper Oconee; Upper Ogeechee
HI185620164Hawaii; Kauai; Maui; Oahu
ID1887202237American Falls; Bear Lake; Beaver-Camas; Blackfoot; Boise-Mores; Brownlee Reservoir; C.J. Strike Reservoir; Clearwater; Coeur d'Alene Lake; Curlew Valley; Idaho Falls; Kootenai; Lake Walcott; Lemhi; Little Wood; Lower Bear; Lower Bear-Malad; Lower Boise; Lower Kootenai; Lower North Fork Clearwater; Lower Salmon; Lower Snake-Asotin; Middle Bear; Middle Snake-Boise; Middle Snake-Succor; North Fork Payette; Pacific Northwest Region; Palouse; Payette; Pend Oreille Lake; Portneuf; Spokane; St. Joe; Teton; Upper Snake-Rock; Upper Spokane; Weiser
IA188519871North Raccoon
KS1958201930Beaver; Buckner; Coon-Pickerel; Cow; Crooked; Gar-Peace; Little Arkansas; Lower North Fork Solomon; Lower Republican; Lower Smoky Hill; Lower South Fork Solomon; Lower Walnut Creek; Medicine Lodge; Middle Arkansas-Slate; Middle Republican; Middle Smoky Hill; Ninnescah; North Fork Ninnescah; North Fork Smoky Hill; Pawnee; Rattlesnake; Smoky Hill Headwaters; Solomon; South Fork Ninnescah; South Fork Republican; Upper Cimarron; Upper Cimarron-Bluff; Upper North Fork Solomon; Upper South Fork Solomon; Upper Walnut Creek
KY196120041Upper Cumberland
ME1910202015Aroostook River; Dead River; Kennebec; Lower Androscoggin River; Lower Kennebec River; Maine Coastal; New England Region; Penobscot River; Piscataqua-Salmon Falls; Presumpscot; Saco River; Saint Croix River; St. George-Sheepscot; Upper Androscoggin River; Upper Kennebec River
MD1854202316Cacapon-Town; Chester-Sassafras; Chincoteague; Choptank; Conococheague-Opequon; Gunpowder-Patapsco; Lower Potomac; Lower Susquehanna; Mid Atlantic Region; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; Monocacy; North Branch Potomac; Patuxent; Severn; Tangier
MA1860202318Ashuelot River-Connecticut River; Blackstone River; Cape Cod; Charles; Chicopee River; Concord River; Deerfield River; Farmington River; Housatonic; Hudson-Hoosic; Merrimack River; Millers River; Narragansett; Nashua River; New England Region; Quinebaug River; Westfield River; Winnipesaukee River
MT1914201473Arrow; Battle; Beaver; Belle Fourche; Big Dry; Big Horn Lake; Big Muddy; Big Sandy; Bitterroot; Blackfoot; Box Elder; Boxelder; Brush Lake Closed Basin; Bullwhacker-Dog; Charlie-Little Muddy; Clarks Fork Yellowstone; Cottonwood; Fisher; Flathead Lake; Flint-Rock; Fort Peck Reservoir; Judith; Little Bighorn; Little Dry; Little Powder; Lodge; Lower Bighorn; Lower Clark Fork; Lower Flathead; Lower Milk; Lower Musselshell; Lower Powder; Lower Tongue; Lower Yellowstone; Lower Yellowstone-Sunday; Madison; Middle Clark Fork; Middle Kootenai; Middle Milk; Middle Musselshell; Middle Powder; Milk; Missouri Headwaters; Missouri-Poplar; Mizpah; Musselshell; O'Fallon; Peoples; Poplar; Prairie Elk-Wolf; Pryor; Redwater; Rosebud; Sage; Smith; South Fork Flathead; Stillwater; Sun; Swan; Teton; Tongue; Upper Clark Fork; Upper Little Missouri; Upper Missouri; Upper Missouri; Upper Missouri-Dearborn; Upper Musselshell; Upper Tongue; Upper Yellowstone; Upper Yellowstone; Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin; Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar; Whitewater
NE1967202033Dismal; Frenchman; Harlan County Reservoir; Lewis and Clark Lake; Little Nemaha; Loup; Lower Elkhorn; Lower Middle Loup; Lower Niobrara; Lower North Loup; Lower North Platte; Lower Platte; Lower Platte-Shell; Middle Big Blue; Middle Niobrara; Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff; Middle Platte-Buffalo; Middle Platte-Prairie; Middle Republican; Missouri Region; North Fork Elkhorn; North Fork Republican; Prairie Dog; Red Willow; Salt; Snake; Upper Elkhorn; Upper Little Blue; Upper Middle Loup; Upper Niobrara; Upper North Loup; Upper Republican; West Fork Big Blue
NV1909202325Carson Desert; Central Lahontan; Fish Lake-Soda Spring Valleys; Hamlin-Snake Valleys; Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Hot Creek-Railroad Valleys; Imperial Reservoir; Lake Mead; Las Vegas Wash; Little Smoky-Newark Valleys; Long-Ruby Valleys; Lower Humboldt; Meadow Valley Wash; Middle Carson; Muddy; Pilot-Thousand Springs, Nevada, Utah; Smoke Creek Desert; South Fork Owyhee; Spring-Steptoe Valleys; Thousand-Virgin; Truckee; Upper Amargosa; Walker; West Walker; White
NH1940202016Ammonoosuc River-Connecticut River; Ashuelot River-Connecticut River; Black River-Connecticut River; Contoocook River; Headwaters Connecticut River; Merrimack River; Millers River; Nashua River; New England; Pemigewasset River; Piscataqua-Salmon Falls; Saco River; Upper Androscoggin River; Waits River-Connecticut River; West River-Connecticut River; Winnipesaukee River
NJ1871202413Cohansey-Maurice; Crosswicks-Neshaminy; Great Egg Harbor; Hackensack-Passaic; Lower Delaware; Lower Hudson; Mid-Atlantic Region; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Middle Delaware-Musconetcong; Mullica-Toms; Raritan; Rondout; Sandy Hook-Staten Island
NM1957201516Chaco; Jemez; Middle San Juan; Mimbres; Rio Grande-Albuquerque; Rio Grande-Santa Fe; San Francisco; Upper Canadian; Upper Gila; Upper Gila-Mangas; Upper Pecos-Black; Upper Pecos-Long Arroyo; Upper Rio Grande; Upper San Juan; Upper San Juan; Zuni
NY1930202120Bronx; Chemung; Chenango; Housatonic; Hudson-Wappinger; Lower Hudson; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Middle Hudson; Mohawk; Owego-Wappasening; Raquette; Rondout; Saranac River; Saugatuck; Schoharie; Seneca; St. Regis; Upper Delaware; Upper Hudson; Upper Susquehanna
NC1925201346Albemarle; Black; Cape Fear; Chowan; Coastal Carolina; Contentnea; Deep; Fishing; Haw; Little Pee Dee; Lower Cape Fear; Lower Catawba; Lower Dan; Lower Neuse; Lower Pee Dee; Lower Roanoke; Lower Tar; Lower Yadkin; Lumber; Lynches; Meherrin; Middle Neuse; Middle Roanoke; Neuse; New River; Northeast Cape Fear; Nottoway; Pamlico; Roanoke; Roanoke Rapids; Rocky; Seneca; South Fork Catawba; South Yadkin; Tugaloo; Upper Broad; Upper Cape Fear; Upper Catawba; Upper Dan; Upper Neuse; Upper New; Upper Pee Dee; Upper Tar; Upper Yadkin; Waccamaw; White Oak River
ND1980200510Apple Creek; Cedar; Knife; Lower Cannonball; Lower Heart; North Fork Grand; Painted Woods-Square Butte; Upper Cannonball; Upper Lake Oahe; West Missouri Coteau
OK197319972Arkansas-White-Red Region; Middle North Canadian
OR1888202365Alsea; Applegate; Brownlee Reservoir; Bully; Clackamas; Coast Fork Willamette; Coos; Coquille; Donner und Blitzen; Goose Lake; Guano; Harney-Malheur Lakes; Illinois; Jordan; Klamath; Lost; Lower Columbia; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Columbia-Sandy; Lower Crooked; Lower Deschutes; Lower John Day; Lower Malheur; Lower Owyhee; Lower Rogue; Lower Willamette; Middle Columbia-Hood; Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula; Middle Fork Willamette; Middle Rogue; Middle Snake-Payette; Middle Willamette; Molalla-Pudding; Necanicum; Nehalem; North Santiam; North Umpqua; Pacific Northwest; Pacific Northwest Region; Powder; Siletz-Yaquina; Siltcoos; Silver; Siuslaw; Sixes; South Santiam; South Umpqua; Sprague; Tualatin; Umatilla; Umpqua; Upper Crooked; Upper Deschutes; Upper Grande Ronde; Upper John Day; Upper Klamath; Upper Klamath Lake; Upper Malheur; Upper Rogue; Upper Willamette; Warner Lakes; Willamette; Willow; Wilson-Trusk-Nestuccu; Yamhill
PA1980202121Bald Eagle; Conococheague-Opequon; Crosswicks-Neshaminy; Delaware; Lehigh; Lower Juniata; Lower Susquehanna; Lower Susquehanna-Penns; Lower Susquehanna-Swatara; Lower West Branch Susquehanna; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Monocacy; Pine; Potomac; Schuylkill; Susquehanna; Upper Juniata; Upper Susquehanna; Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna; Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock; Upper West Branch Susquehanna
PR191520205Cibuco-Guajataca; Culebrinas-Guanajibo; Eastern Puerto Rico; Puerto Rico; Southern Puerto Rico
RI197920205Blackstone River; Narragansett; New England Region; Pawcatuck River; Quinebaug River
SC1960201220Black; Broad-St. Helena; Carolina Coastal-Sampit; Edisto River; Enoree; Lake Marion; Lower Catawba; Lower Pee Dee; Lower Savannah; Lynches; North Fork Edisto; Salkehatchie; Saluda; Seneca; South Fork Edisto; Stevens; Upper Broad; Upper Savannah; Waccamaw; Wateree
SD1934200338Angostura Reservoir; Bad; Cherry; Cheyenne; Elm; Fort Randall Reservoir; Grand; James; Keya Paha; Lake Thompson; Lewis and Clark Lake; Little White; Lower Belle Fourche; Lower Cheyenne; Lower James; Lower Lake Oahe; Lower Moreau; Lower White; Medicine; Medicine Knoll; Middle Big Sioux; Middle Cheyenne-Elk; Middle Cheyenne-Spring; Middle James; Middle White; Mud; North Fork Snake; Ponca; Rapid; Snake; South Fork Grand; Turtle; Upper James; Upper Lake Oahe; Upper Little Missouri; Upper Moreau; Vermillion; West Missouri Coteau
TX1941201885Amistad Reservoir; Austin-Travis Lakes; Bois D'arc-Island; Buchanan-Lyndon B. Johnson Lakes; Buffalo-San Jacinto; Caddo Lake; Cedar; Chambers; Colorado Headwaters; Denton; Double Mountain Fork Brazos; East Fork Trinity; El Paso-Las Cruces; Elm Fork Trinity; Farmers-Mud; Hubbard; International Falcon Reservoir; Jim Ned; Lake Fork; Lake Meredith; Lake O'the Pines; Lake Texoma; Lampasas; Leon; Little Cypress; Little Wichita; Los Olmos; Lower Angelina; Lower Brazos-Little Brazos; Lower Colorado-Cummins; Lower Frio; Lower Guadalupe; Lower Nueces; Lower Pecos-Red Bluff Reservoir; Lower Prairie Dog Town Fork Red; Lower Sulpher; Lower Trinity-Kickapoo; Lower Trinity-Tehuacana; Lower West Fork Trinity; Medina; Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney; Middle Brazos-Millers; Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto; Middle Colorado; Middle Colorado-Elm; Middle Guadalupe; Middle Sabine; Navasota; Navidad; North Bosque; North Concho; North Fork Double Mountain Fork Brazos; Paint; Palo Duro; Pecan Bayou; Richland; Rio Grande-Fort Quitman; San Ambrosia-Santa Isabel; San Fernando; San Gabriel; South Concho; South Laguna Madre; Sulphur Headwaters; Toledo Bend Reservoir; Toyah; Tule; Upper Angelina; Upper Clear Fork Brazos; Upper Colorado; Upper Guadalupe; Upper Neches; Upper North Fork Red; Upper Nueces; Upper Prairie Dog Town Fork Red; Upper Sabine; Upper Salt Fork Red; Upper San Antonio; Upper Trinity; Upper West Fork Trinity; Upper Wolf; West Fork San Jacinto; White; White Oak Bayou; Wichita; Yegua
UT1880202131Bear Lake; Great Salt Lake; Hamlin-Snake Valleys; Jordan; Kanab; Little Bear-Logan; Lower Bear-Malad; Lower Beaver; Lower Dolores; Lower Green-Desolation Canyon; Lower Green-Diamond; Lower Lake Powell; Lower San Juan; Lower San Juan-Four Corners; Lower Sevier; Lower Weber; Middle Bear; Middle Sevier; Montezuma; Provo; San Pitch; San Rafael; Sevier Lake; Southern Great Salt Lake Desert; Upper Bear; Upper Colorado-Dirty Devil; Upper Colorado-Kane Springs; Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir; Upper Lake Powell; Upper Virgin; Utah Lake
VT1980202217Ammonoosuc River-Connecticut River; Ashuelot River-Connecticut River; Black River-Connecticut River; Deerfield River; Headwaters Connecticut River; Hudson-Hoosic; Lake Champlain; Lamoille River; Mettawee River; Missiquoi River; Otter Creek; Passumpsic River; St. Francois River; Waits River-Connecticut River; West River-Connecticut River; White River; Winooski River
VA1961202244Albemarle; Appomattox; Banister; Blackwater; Chincoteague; Chowan; Conococheague-Opequon; Great Wicomico-Piankatank; Hampton Roads; James; Lower Chesapeake Bay; Lower Dan; Lower James; Lower Potomac; Lower Rappahannock; Lynnhaven-Poquoson; Mattaponi; Maury; Meherrin; Middle James-Buffalo; Middle James-Willis; Middle New; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; Middle Roanoke; Nanticoke; North Fork Shenandoah; Nottoway; Pamunkey; Potomac; Rapidan-Upper Rappahannock; Rivanna; Roanoke; Roanoke Rapids; Shenandoah; South Fork Shenandoah; Tangier; Upper Chesapeake; Upper Dan; Upper James; Upper New; Upper Roanoke; Upper Yadkin; York
WA1890202258Banks Lake; Chief Joseph; Colville; Deschutes; Dungeness-Elwha; Duwamish; Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake; Grays Harbor; Hangman; Hoh-Quillayute; Hood Canal; Kettle; Lake Chelan; Lake Washington; Lewis; Little Spokane; Lower Chehalis; Lower Columbia; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Columbia-Sandy; Lower Cowlitz; Lower Crab; Lower Skagit; Lower Snake; Lower Snake-Tucannon; Lower Spokane; Lower Yakima; Methow; Middle Columbia-Hood; Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula; Nisqually; Nooksack; Okanogan; Pacific Northwest Region; Palouse; Pend Oreille; Puget Sound; Puget Sound; Puyallup; Rock; San Juan Islands; Sanpoil; Similkameen; Skokomish; Skykomish; Snohomish; Snoqualmie; Stillaguamish; Strait of Georgia; Upper Chehalis; Upper Columbia-Entiat; Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids; Upper Crab; Upper Spokane; Upper Yakima; Walla Walla; Wenatchee; Willapa Bay
WV199320205Cacapon-Town; James; Middle New; Potomac; South Branch Potomac
WY1880199910Big Horn; Big Horn Lake; Blacks Fork; Lower Laramie; North Platte; Powder; South Platte; Upper Belle Fourche; Upper Cheyenne; Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir

Table last updated 6/20/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

Ecology: Largemouth bass occupy a variety of habitats ranging from large lakes, rivers, and reservoirs, to smaller waterbodies such as swamps, ponds, and creek pools. (Claussen 2015; Page and bur 2011; Robins et al. 2018). Although they thrive in most aquatic environments, M. salmoides tend to be most abundant in warm eutrophic lakes, rivers, and reservoirs that are highly vegetated. Bass are often associated with shallow shorelines, and they are commonly concentrated in areas with submerged structure such as logs, rocks, and aquatic macrophyte beds (Claussen 2015).

Largemouth Bass are opportunistic feeders that exploit a wide variety of prey. They feed predominately by sight, but also utilize their sense of smell and lateral line to capture prey (Janssen and Corcoran 1993). Because M. salmoides feed largely by sight, they prefer clear rather than turbid waters (Killgore et al. 1989; Sowa and Rabeni 1995). Largemouth Bass are voracious feeders and will consume almost any prey they can fit in their mouth and swallow whole. As adults, Largemouth bass are highly piscivorous, and they are often the dominant carnivores in the systems they inhabit (Howick and O’Brien 1983; Claussen 2015).

Means of Introduction: Intentional stocking for sportfishing. This species is an important sportfish, and it has been stocked extensively outside of its native range for purpose of angling (Maceina and Murphy 1992; Claussen 2015).

Status: Established in most locations.

Impact of Introduction: The introduction of Largemouth Bass usually impact populations of small native fishes directly through predation, sometimes resulting in the decline or extinction of such species (Minckley 1973). Species that have suffered such effects include relict dace (Relictus solitarius), Clover Valley speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus oligoporus), Independence Valley tui chub (Gila bicolor lethoporus) (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1985), a distinct population of Gila chub (G. intermedia), Monkey Spring pupfish (Cyprinodon sp.) (Minckley 1973), White River springfish (Crenichthys baileyi), Pahranagat roundtail chub (Gila robusta jordani) (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1985), Owens pupfish (Cyprinodon radiosus) (Miller and Pister 1971), wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) (Boucher 2003), and White River spinedace (Lepidomeda albivallis) (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1994). Jenkins and Burkhead (1994) speculated that introduced Largemouth Bass may have contributed to the demise of an isolated population of trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus) in the Potomac River in Virginia and Maryland. Introduced predatory centrarchids are likely responsible for the decline of native ranid frogs in California, California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense) populations (Hayes and Jennings 1986; Dill and Cordone 1997), and the Chiricahua leopard frog (Rana chiricahuensis) in southeastern Arizona (Rosen et al. 1995). In Squaw Creek Reservoir in northcentral Texas, introduced Florida largemouth intergrade with native northern largemouth (Whitmore and Hellier 1988). Nonnative predators, including Largemouth Bass, have been shown to reduce the abundance and diversity of native prey species in several Pacific Northwest rivers (Hughes and Herlihy 2012). The presence of Largemouth Bass, along with other introduced piscivores, reduced the richness of native minnow communities in Adirondack lakes (Findlay et al. 2000).

Remarks: This account includes introductions of both subspecies M. s. salmoides, the northern Largemouth Bass, and M. s. floridanus, the Florida Largemouth Bass. For instance, both subspecies have been introduced into Nevada (Deacon and Williams 1984). Tyus et al. (1982) gave a distribution map of the this species in the upper Colorado basin. MacCrimmon and Robbins (1975) showed a map depicting this species' native and introduced range. Jenkins and Burkhead (1994) reported the largemouth as introduced into the Roanoke drainage in Virginia. Recently prehistoric bones of M. salmoides were discovered near the Roanoke River in Roanoke, Virginia, indicating that the species is native there (Jenkins, personal communication).

Introduced Florida Largemouth Bass are known to hybridize with native populations of northern Largemouth Bass (Whitmore and Hellier 1988), with introgression of Florida bass genes into populations occurring rapidly (Gelwick et al. 1995) and dispersing away from original introduction/stocking sites (Ray et al. 2012).

References: (click for full references)

Bailey, R.M., and C.L. Hubbs. 1949. The black basses (Micropterus) of Florida, with description of a new species. Occassional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 516:1-40.

Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Madison Press, Madison, WI.

Boucher, D. 2003. Illegal fish stockings threaten Maine lakes and rivers. Available online at URL http://www.state.me.us

Claussen, J.E. 2015. Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802). Pages 27-34 in Tringali, M.D., J.M. Long, T.W. Birdsong, and M.S. Allen (eds.), eds. Black bass diversity: multidisciplinary science for conservation. Volume 82. American Fisheries Society. Bethesda, MD.

Deacon, J.E. and J.E. Williams. 1984. Annotated list of the fishes of Nevada. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 97(1):103-118.

Dill, W.A., and A.J. Cordone. 1997. History and status of introduced fishes in California, 1871-1996. California Department of Fish and Game Fish Bulletin, volume 178.

Etnier, D.A., and W.C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN.

Findlay, C.S., D.G. Bert, and L. Zheng. 2000. Effect of introduced piscivores on native minnow communities in Adirondack lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57:570-580. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/pdf/10.1139/f99-276

Gelwick, F.P., E.R. Gilliland, and W.J. Matthews. 1995. Introgression of the Florida largemouth bass genome into stream populations of northern largemouth bass in Oklahoma. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 124(4):550-560.

Hayes, M.P., and M.R. Jennings. 1986. Decline of ranid frog species in western North America: are bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) responsible? Journal of Herpetology 20(4):490-509.

Howick, G.L., and W.J. O'Brien. 1983. Piscivorous feeding behavior of largemouth bass: an experimental analysis. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 11(2):508-516. https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1983)112<508:PFBOLB>2.0.CO;2

Hughes, R.M. and A.T. Herlihy. 2012. Patterns in catch per unit effort of native prey fish and alien piscivorous fish in 7 Pacific Northwest USA rivers. Fisheries 37(5):201-211.

Janssen, J., and J. Corcoran. 1993. Lateral line stimuli can override vision to determine sunfish strike trajectory. Journal of Experimental Biology 176(1):299-305. https://jeb.biologists.org/content/176/1/299.short

Jenkins, R.E., and N.M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater Fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Killgore, K.J., R.P. Morgan II, and N.B. Rybicki. 1989. Distribution and abundance of fishes associated with submersed aquatic plants in the Potomac River. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 9:101-111.

MacCrimmon, H.R., and W.H. Robbins. 1975. Distribution of black basses in North America. 56-66 in R.H. Stroud, and H. Clepper, eds. Black bass biology and management. Sport Fishing Institute, Washington, D.C.

Maceina, M.J., and B.R. Murphy. 1992. Stocking Florida largemouth bass outside its native range. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 121:686-688.

Miller, R.R., and E.P. Pister. 1971. Management of the Owens pupfish, Cyprinodon radiosus, in Mono County, California. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 100(3):502-509.

Minckley, W. L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona. Arizona Fish and Game Department. Sims Printing Company, Inc., Phoenix, AZ.

Moyle, P.B. 2002. Inland fishes of California. 2nd edition. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr. 2011. Field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Peterson Field Guides series. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, MA.

Ray, J.W., M. Husemann, R.S. King, and P.D. Danely. 2012. Genetic analyses reveal dispersal of Florida bass haplotypes from reservoirs to rivers in central Texas. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 141(5):1269-1273.

Robins, R.H., L.M. Page, J.D. Williams, Z.S. Randall, and G.E. Sheehy. 2018. Fishes in the fresh waters of Florida: an identification guide and atlas. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, FL.

Rosen, P.C., C.R. Schwalbe, D.A. Parizek, Jr., P.A. Holm, and C.H. Lowe. 1995. Introduced aquatic vertebrates in the Chiricahua region: effects on declining native ranid frogs. 251-261 in Biodiversity and management of the Madrean Archipelago: the sky island of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-GTR-264.

Sowa, S.P., and C.F. Rabeni. 1995. Regional evaluation of the relation of habitat to distribution and abundance of smallmouth bass and largemouth bass in Missouri streams. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 12(2):240-251. https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1995)124<0240:REOTRO>2.3.CO;2

Tyus, H.M., B.D. Burdick, R.A. Valdez, C.M. Haynes, T.A. Lytle, and C.R. Berry. 1982. Fishes of the upper Colorado River basin: distribution, abundance, and status. 12-70 in W.H. 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1985. Recovery plan for the Pahranagat roundtail chub, Gila robusta jordani. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1994. White River spinedace, Lepidomeda albivallis, recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon.

Whitmore, D.H. and T.R. Hellier. 1988. Natural hybridization between largemouth and smallmouth bass (Micropterus). Copeia 1988(2):493-396.

FishBase Summary

Author: Fuller, P., Neilson, M., and Procopio, J.

Revision Date: 6/21/2019

Peer Review Date: 7/23/2015

Citation Information:
Fuller, P., Neilson, M., and Procopio, J., 2024, Micropterus salmoides (Lacep├Ęde, 1802): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?SpeciesID=401, Revision Date: 6/21/2019, Peer Review Date: 7/23/2015, Access Date: 6/20/2024

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [6/20/2024].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted.

For general information and questions about the database, contact Wesley Daniel. For problems and technical issues, contact Matthew Neilson.