References: (click for full references)
Bennett, W.A., R.J. Currie, P.F. Wagner, and T.L. Beitinger. 1997. Cold tolerance and potential overwintering of the red-bellied piranha Pygocentrus nattereri
in the United States. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 126:841-849.
Cardoza, J.E., G.S. Jones, T.W. French, and D.B. Halliwell. 1993. Exotic and translocated vertebrates of Massachusetts, 2nd edition. Fauna of Massachusetts Series 6. Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Publication 17223-110-200-11/93-C.R, Westborough, MA.
Courtenay, W.R., Jr. - Florida Atlantic University (retired), Boca Raton, FL.
Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and D.A. Hensley. 1979. Survey of introduced non-native fishes. Phase I Report. Introduced exotic fishes in North America: status 1979. Report Submitted to National Fishery Research Laboratory, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Gainesville, FL.
Courtenay, W.R., Jr., D.A. Hensley, J.N. Taylor, and J.A. McCann. 1984. Distribution of exotic fishes in the continental United States. Pages 41-77 in W.R. Courtenay, Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr., eds. Distribution, biology and management of exotic fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
Courtenay, W.R., Jr., D.P. Jennings, and J.D. Williams. 1991. Appendix 2: Exotic fishes. Pages 97-107 in Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott, eds. Common names and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. 5th edition. American Fisheries Society. Bethesda, MD.
Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1990. The introduced fish problem and the aquarium fish industry. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 21(3):145-159.
Courtenay, W.R., Jr., H.F. Sahlman, W.W. Miley, II, and D.J. Herrema. 1974. Exotic fishes in fresh and brackish waters of Florida. Biological Conservation 6(4):292-302.
Cudmore-Vokey, B. and E.J. Crossman. 2000. Checklists of the fish fauna of the Laurentian Great Lakes and their connecting channels. Can. MS Rpt. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2500: v + 39p.
Devick, W.S. - Division of Aquatic Resources, Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Devick, W.S. 1992. The great piranha hunt. Hawaii Fishing News 17(10)6-7.
Duponchelle, F., F. Lino, N. Hubert, J. Panfili, J.-F. Renno, E. Baras, J.P. Torrico, R. Dugue, and J. Nuñez. 2007. Environment-related life-history trait variations of the red-bellied piranha Pygocentrus nattereri in two river basins of the Bolivian Amazon. Journal of Fish Biology 71:1113-1134.
Fink, W.L. 1993. Revision of the piranha genus Pygocentrus (Teleostei, Characiformes). Copeia 1993(3):665-687.
Hartel, K. 1992. Non-native fishes known from Massachusetts freshwaters. Occasional Reports of the Museum of Comparative Zoology Fish Department 2:1-9.
Howells, R.G., R.L. Benefield, and J.M. Mambretti. 1991. Records of pacus (Colossoma spp.) and piranhas (Serrasalmus spp.) in Texas. Texas Parks and Wildlife, Management Data Series 70, Austin, TX.
Jenkins, R.E., and N.M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.
Latta, W.C. - Fisheries Scientist Emeritus, Michigan DNR. Response to NBS-G nonindigenous questionaire. 1992.
Loftus, W.F., and J.A. Kushlan. 1987. Freshwater fishes of southern Florida. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum of Biological Science 31(4):147-344.
Middleton, K. 1988. Man-eating fish found in river. Athens News Courier, 1 September 1988. 105(177):1-2.
Moreno, D. - Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, Cleveland, OH.
Queiroz, H.L., M.B. Sobanski, and A.E. Magurran. 2010. Reproductive strategies of red-bellied piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri Kner, 1858) in the white waters of the Mamirauá flooded forest, central Brazilian Amazon. Environmental Biology of Fishes 89:11-19.
Radtke, R.L. 1995. Forensic biological pursuits of exotic fish origins: piranha in Hawaii. Environmental Biology of Fishes 43:393-399.
Sazima, I. and S. de Andrade Guimarães. 1987. Scavenging on human corpses as a source for stories about man-eating piranhas. Environmental Biology of Fishes 20(1):75-77.
Sazima, I., and F.A. Machado. 1990. Underwater observations of piranhas in western Brazil. Environmental Biology of Fishes 28:17-31.
Schainost, S. - Rivers and Streams Program, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Lincoln, NE.
Stone, S. 1987. 6-inch prianha found in pit at Indian Lakes. Virginia Pilot and Ledger Star, 23 August 1987.
Stroud, R.A. 1976. Ohio piranha. Sport Fishing Institute Bulletin 272:3.
Uetanabaro, M., T. Wang, and A.S. Abe. 1993. Breeding behaviour of the red-bellied piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri, in nature. Environmental Biology of Fishes 38:369-371.
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.