The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Hybognathus placitus
Hybognathus placitus
(Plains Minnow)
Native Transplant

Copyright Info
Hybognathus placitus Girard, 1856

Common name: Plains Minnow

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Woodling (1985); Robison and Buchanan (1988); Sublette et al. (1990); Page and Burr (1991).

Size: 13 cm.

Native Range: Missouri, Arkansas, Red, Brazos, and Colorado River drainages, from Montana and North Dakota south to New Mexico and Texas; Mississippi River from mouth of Missouri River to mouth of Ohio River (Page and Burr 1991).

Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Hybognathus placitus are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
NM198119904Pecos Headwaters; Upper Pecos; Upper Pecos-Black; Upper Pecos-Long Arroyo
TX196119954Los Olmos; Lower Devils; Lower Pecos; Lower Pecos-Red Bluff Reservoir
UT198219821Lower San Juan
WY196319631Yellowstone Headwaters

Table last updated 6/24/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

Means of Introduction: Bait bucket release. It was apparently introduced in 1968 into the Pecos River system of New Mexico from the Canadian drainage (Sublette et al. 1990) and spread downstream to Texas.

Status: Established and very abundant in the Pecos River in New Mexico and Texas. Bestgen et al. (1989) stated that the species is now the most abundant fish in the Pecos River and accounted for more than 80% of the catch at some sites. Tyus et al. (1982) listed it as an incidental record in the Colorado River basin, a category that was defined as occurring in very low numbers and known from only a few point collections.

Impact of Introduction: The extirpation of the native Rio Grande silvery minnow, Hybognathus amarus, from the Pecos River has been attributed to wholesale displacement by introduced H. placitus through competitive exclusion (Hoagstrom et al. 2010). Hybognathus amarus was last taken in the Pecos River in 1968 (Bestgen et al. 1989).

Remarks: Voucher specimens: Texas (TNHC 15686, TNHC 5654).

References: (click for full references)

Bestgen, K.R., S.P. Platania, J.E. Brooks, and D.L. Propst. 1989. Dispersal and life history traits of Notropis girardi (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), introduced into the Pecos River, New Mexico. American Midland Naturalist 122:228-235.

Hoagstrom, C.W., N.D. Zymonas, S.R. Davenport, D.L. Propst, and J.E. Brooks. 2010. Rapid species replacements between fishes of the North American plains: a case history from the Pecos River. Aquatic Invasions 5:141-153.

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Guide Series, vol. 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Robison, H.W., and T.M. Buchanan. 1998. Fishes of Arkansas. University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, AR.

Sublette, J.E., M.D. Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM.

Tyus, H.M., B.D. Burdick, R.A. Valdez, C.M. Haynes, T.A. Lytle, and C.R. Berry. 1982. Fishes of the upper Colorado River basin: distribution, abundance, and status. 12-70 in W.H. Miller, H.M. Tyus, and C.A. Carlson, eds. Fishes of the upper Colorado River system: present and future, Western Division, American Fisheries Society.

Woodling, J. 1985. Colorado's little fish: a guide to the minnows and other lesser known fishes in the state of Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver, CO.

FishBase Summary

Author: Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson

Revision Date: 5/29/2019

Peer Review Date: 2/2/2012

Citation Information:
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson, 2024, Hybognathus placitus Girard, 1856: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?SpeciesID=545, Revision Date: 5/29/2019, Peer Review Date: 2/2/2012, Access Date: 6/24/2024

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [6/24/2024].

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For general information and questions about the database, contact Wesley Daniel. For problems and technical issues, contact Matthew Neilson.