Common name: Forest Coqui
Synonyms and Other Names: Puerto Rican robber frog, coquí de la montaña
available through www.itis.gov
Identification: Eleutherodactylus portoricensis is a small leptdodactylid (rain frog) about 32-42 mm (1.25-1.65 in) long (Schwartz and Henderson, 1991; Joglar, 1998). The dorsal coloration of adults is highly variable, ranging from yellow, tan or gray, with or without a variable pattern, sometimes exhibiting light lateral stripes (Schwartz and Henderson, 1991; Joglar, 1998; Rivero, 1998). Mountain coqui are very easily confused with E. coqui and exhibit many of the pattern variations seen in this similar species (Schwartz and Henderson, 1991; Rivero, 1998; also illustrated in Joglar, 1998). Like E. coqui, mountain coqui have toe disks (toepads) for climbing (Joglar, 1998). The males' call is a repeated "ko-KEE" that also sounds confusingly like the call of E. coqui; however, these two notes are normally repeated at shorter intervals in E. portoricenis than in E. coqui (Rivero, 1998). A CD recording of both these species is provided by Rivero (1998). Also see the species account titled "Eleutherodactylus coqui Thomas, 1966" on this website.
Size: 32-42 mm head-body length
Native Range: The mountain coqui is native to the moist highlands of Puerto Rico (Schwartz and Thomas, 1975; Frost, 1985; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985, 1991; Powell et al., 1996; Joglar, 1998; Rivero, 1998; Hedges, 1999; Thomas, 1999).
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Puerto Rico &
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps
Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Eleutherodactylus portoricensis are found here.
Table last updated 2/3/2023
† Populations may not be currently present.
Means of Introduction: Prior to 1965, a herpetologist released several E. portoricensis in Sunset Park, South Miami, Dade County, Florida (King and Krakauer, 1966; Smith and Kohler, 1978). The identity of the species of Eleutherodactylus involved was not verified.
Status: Not established (King and Krakauer, 1966; Smith and Kohler, 1978). The specific identity of these Eleutherodactylus remains questionable (see remarks below).
References: (click for full references)
Frost, D. R. (editor). 1985. Amphibian Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographical Reference. Allen Press, Inc. and The Association of Systematics Collections. Lawrence, Kansas. 732 pp.
Hedges, S. B. 1999. Distribution patterns of amphibians in the West Indies. Pp. 211-254. In: W. E. Duellman (editor). Patterns of Distribution of Amphibians. A Global Perspective. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 633 pp.
Joglar, R. L. 1998. Los Coquíes de Puerto Rico. Su Historia Natural y Conservación. Editorial de las Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan. 232 pp.
King, [F.] W., and T. Krakauer. 1966. The exotic herpetofauna of southeast Florida. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 29(2):144-154.
Powell, R., R. W. Henderson, K. Adler, and H. A. Dundee. 1996. An annotated checklist of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Pp. 51-91, plates 1-8. In: R. Powell and R. W. Henderson (editors). Contributions to West Indian Herpetology. A Tribute to Albert Schwartz. Contributions to Herpetology 12. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca. 475 pp.
Rivero, J. A. 1998. Los Anfibios y Reptiles de Puerto Rico. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Puerto Rico. Segunda Edición Revisada. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan. 510 pp. + CD.
Schwartz, A., and R. W. Henderson. 1985. A Guide to the Identification of the Amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies Exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee. 165 pp.
Schwartz, A., and R. W. Henderson. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies: Descriptions, Distributions, and Natural History. University of Florida Press, Gainesville. 720 pp.
Schwartz, A., and R. Thomas. 1975. A check-list of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication (1):1-216.
Smith, H. M., and A. J. Kohler. 1978. A survey of herpetological introductions in the United States and Canada. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 1977 80(1-2):1-24.
Thomas, R. 1966. New species of Antillean Eleutherodactylus. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 28(4):375-391.
Thomas, R. 1999. The Puerto Rico area. Pp. 169-179. In: B. I. Crother (editor). Caribbean Amphibians and Reptiles. Academic Press, San Diego. 495 pp.
Townsend, D. S. 1996. Patterns of parental care in frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus. Pp. 229-239. In: R. Powell and R. W. Henderson (editors). Contributions to West Indian Herpetology. A Tribute to Albert Schwartz. Contributions to Herpetology 12. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Ithaca. 475 pp.
Revision Date: 7/15/2002
Somma, L.A., 2023, Eleutherodactylus portoricensis Schmidt, 1927: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?SpeciesID=63, Revision Date: 7/15/2002, Access Date: 2/3/2023
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.