† Populations may not be currently present.
Ecology: Found in lakes, ponds, cattle tanks, bogs, and sluggish portions of streams and rivers. Breeds in June and July producing 10,000 to 20,000 eggs. Tadpoles transform as quickly as 4 months in warmer climates and up to 3 years in colder locations. In colder climates, bullfrogs require year-round persistence of water for tadpoles to mature and over-winter. This species has been shown to be an alternative host to the glochidia of native unionid mussel Utterbackia imbecillis (Watters and O'Dee 1998).
The home range of the L. catesbeianus has been estimated to be around 1.6 km (Copper 2017).
Impact of Introduction:
Summary of species impacts derived from literature review. Click on an icon to find out more...In Wellfleet, Lithobates catesbeiana is apparently expanding its population and out-competing the native Green Frog (Lithobates clamitans). Larvae can have a significant impact upon benthic algae, and thus perturb aquatic community structure. Where introduced populations have been studied in the Western U.S., adults consume birds, rodents, frogs, snakes, turtles, lizards, and bats. They are voracious eaters who will also prey on their own young.
The introduced L. catesbeiana out-competes native amphibians in the modified portions of Trinity River, California (Fuller et al. 2011), indicating that habitat modification might aid in the establishment and spread of this species.
References: (click for full references)
Collins, J.T. and T.W. Taggart. 2009. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians, turtles, reptiles, and crocodilians. Sixth Edition. Publication of The Center for North American Herpetology, Lawrence. iv + 44p.
Cooper, M. 2017. Movement, habitat, and home range of introduced bullfrogs (Lithobates Catesbeianus) on Mad River gravel ponds (Humboldt Co., Ca, USA), with implications for hydro-modification as a method of management. Humboldt State University.
Crother, B.I. (chair). Committee on Standard and English and Scientific Names. 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular. No. 37. iii + 86p.
Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. De Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green, and W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297:1-370 + Fig. 50 foldout.
LeClere, J. 2002. Bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. Reptiles and Amphibians of Minnesota [online]. Available at URL: http://herpnet.net/Minnesota-Herpetology/frogs_toads/Bull_frog.html
Watters, T.G. and S.H. O'Dee. 1998. Metamorphosis of freshwater mussel glochidia (Bivalvia: Unionidae) on amphibians and exotic fishes. Am. Midl. Nat. 139: 49-57.
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