Reference List

This list includes references used to derive specimen records as well as those with scientific name Blackfordia virginica listed in key words.

Results also available in (click to export table to spreadsheet)

REFTypeCut-and-Paste Reference
33625 Journal Article Calder, D.R. 1971. Hydroids and hydromedusae of southern Chesapeake Bay. Special Papers in Marine Science S1(1):1-125.
33626 Journal Article Calder, D.R. 1972. Phylum Cnidaria, Special Scientific Report. Virginia Institute of Marine Science 65:97-102.
26266 Database California Department of Fish and Game. 2009. California Aquatic Non-native Organism Database (CANOD). California Department of Fish and Game, Office of Spill Prevention and Response. Created on 03/08/2011. Accessed on 07/20/2011.
33628 Journal Article Chícharo, M.A., Leitao, T., Range, P., Gutierrez, C., Morales, J., Morais, P., and V. Chícharo. 2009. Alien species in the Guadiana Estuary (SE-Portugal/SW-Spain): Blackfordia virginica (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) and Palaemon macrodactylus (Crustacea, Decapoda): potential impacts and mitigation measures. Aquatic Invasions 4:501-506.
10319 Report Cohen, A.N., and J.T. Carlton. 1995. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species in a United States Estuary, A Case Study of the Biological Invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta. A report for the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC and The National Sea Grant College Program Connecticut Sea Grant.
26508 Journal Article Harrison, G.F., K. Kim, and A.G. Collins. 2013. Low genetic diversity of the putatively introduced, brackish water hydrozoan, Blackfordia virginica (Leptothecata: Blackfordiidae), throughout the United States, with a new record for Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 126(2):91-102.
33725 Journal Article Jaspers, C., B. Huwer, N. Weiland-Bräuer, and C. Clemmesen. 2018. First record of the non-indigenous jellyfsh Blackfordia virginica (Mayer, 1910) in the Baltic Sea. Helgoland Marine Research 72(1):13.
33631 Report Kimbar, J. 2014. Blackfordia virginica: The Black Sea Jellyfish. University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
1383 Journal Article Mills, C.E., and F. Sommer. 1995. Invertebrate introductions in marine habitats: two species of hydromedusae (Cnidaria) native to the Black Sea, Maeotias inexspectata and Blackfordia virginica, invade San Francisco Bay. Marine Biology 122:279-288.
13201 Journal Article Ruiz, G.M., P.W. Fofonoff, J.T. Carlton, M.J. Wonham, and A.H. Hines. 2000. Invasion of coastal marine communities in North America: Apparent patterns, processes, and biases. Annual Review of Ecological Systematics 31:481-531.
20841 Journal Article Wintzer, A.P., M.H. Meek, P.B. Moyle, and B. May. 2011. Ecological insights into the polyp stage of non-native hydrozoans in the San Francisco Estuary. Aquatic Ecology 45:151-161.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2021]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [10/24/2021].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted. For queries involving fish, please contact Matthew Neilson. For queries involving invertebrates, contact Amy Benson.