Reference List

This list includes references used to derive specimen records as well as those with scientific name Didymosphenia geminata listed in key words.

Results also available in (click to export table to spreadsheet)

REFTypeCut-and-Paste Reference
19172 News 2005. Invasive algae show up in some TVA tailwaters. TVA. 2005 (August):3 pp.
19312 News 2010. Felt sole ban in works for Md. streams no concern to Salisbury retailer. The Daily Times. 2010 (May 24):2 pp.
15876 News Associated Press. 2006. River Algae Prompts Concern for Trout. Environmental News Network . 2006 (March 8). (accessed on November 12, 2006).
37231 Journal Article Beville, S.T., G.N. Kerr, and K.F.D. Hughey. 2012. Valuing impacts of the invasive alga Didymosphenia geminata on recreational angling. Ecological Economics 82:1-10.
30525 Journal Article Bhatt, J.P., A. Bhaskar, and M.K. Pandit. 2008. Biology, distribution and ecology of Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) Schmidt an abundant diatom from the Indian Himalayan rivers. Aquatic Ecology 42:347-353.
37232 Journal Article Bickel, T.O., and G.P Closs. 2008. Impact of Didymosphenia geminata on hyporheic conditions in trout redds: reason for concern? Marine and Freshwater Research 59(11):1028-1033.
30506 Journal Article Blanco, S. and L. Ector. 2009. Distribution, ecology and nuisance effects of the freshwater invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye)M. Schmidt: a literature review. Nova Hedwigia 88(3-4):347-422.
37330 Report Bothwell, M.L., and S.A. Spaulding. 2008. Proceedings of the 2007 International Workshop on Didymosphenia geminata. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Nanaimo, BC.
25833 Journal Article Bothwell, M.L., D.R. Lynch, H. Wright, and J. Deniseger. 2009. On the boots of fishermen: the history of didymo blooms on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Fisheries 34(8):382-388.
30523 Thesis or Dissertation Byle, J. 2014. Ecological Drivers and Species Interactions of Whirling Disease. Unpublished M.S. thesis. University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.
37334 Report Clancy, N. G., J. Brahney, J. Curtis, and P. Budy. 2020. Consequences of Didymo blooms in the transnational Kootenay River basin
. Department of Watershed Sciences at Utah State University, Logan, UT.
19292 News DePalma, A. 2009. An unsightly algae extends its grip to crucial New York stream. The New York Times. 2009 (June 15):2 pp.
27548 News Dunnigan, J. 2014. Didymo research grows interesting Kootenai River facts. The Western News. Libby, MT. Created on 03/25/2014. Accessed on 06/16/2015.
37327 Journal Article Ejaz, H., E. Somanader, U. Dave, H. Ehrlich, and M.A. Rahman. 2021. Didymo and Its Polysaccharide Stalks: Beneficial to the Environment or Not?. , 2(1), pp.69-79. Polysaccharides 2(1):69-79.
26212 Database GBIF. 2013. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Database. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed on 05/01/2013.
30507 Journal Article Gillis, C. and I. Lavoie. 2014. A preliminary assessment of the effects of Didymosphenia geminata nuisance growths on the structure and diversity of diatom assemblages of the Restigouche River basin, Quebec, Canada. Diatom Research 29(3):281-292.
37243 Journal Article Gillis, C.A., and M. Chalifour. 2010. Changes in the macrobenthic community structure following the introduction of the invasive algae Didymosphenia geminata in the Matapedia River (Québec, Canada). Hydrobiologia 647(1):63-70.
19285 News Graves, L. 2006. Didymo's nothing to joke about in the world of fishing. Times-Dispatch. 2006 (June 30):3 pp. TD_BasicArticle&c=MGArticle&cid=1149188841589&path=!sports&s=104585593484 4.
30520 Web Page Hoddle, M. 2017. Didymo (or Rock Snot) Didymosphenia geminata (Bacilariophyceae:Cymbellales). Accessed on 08/16/2017.
27462 Database iMapInvasives. 2018. Pennsylvania iMapInvasives. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pittsburgh, PA. Accessed on 12/15/2016.
30518 Journal Article Jackson, L.J., L. Corbett, and G. Scrimgeour. 2016. Environmental constraints on Didymosphenia geminata occurrence and bloom formation in Canadian Rocky Mountain lotic systems. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 73:964-972.
19289 News James, A. 2009. Schumer wants war on killer algae. The Times Herald Record. 2009 (April 9):2 pp.
19288 News James, A. 2009. Didymo algae found in Esopus Creek. The Times Herald-Record. Middletown, NY. 2009 (August 30):2 pp.
27537 Journal Article James, D.A. 2015. Do-Wah-Didymo. South Dakota Conservation Digest 82(2):20-22.
15877 News Jared, G. 2006. ADEQ meeting: Talks focus on river algae. Baxter Bulletin, Baxter, Arkansas. 2006 (March 11). (accessed on April 10, 2006).
19287 News Kemble, W.J. 2009. Clean your equipment, state urges creek users. Daily Freeman. 2009 (April 29):2 pp.
19790 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
28563 Journal Article Khan-Bureau, D.A., E.A. Morales, L. Ector, M.S. Beauchene, and L.A. Lewis. 2016. Characterization of a new species in the genus Didymosphenia and of Cymbella janischii (Bacillariophyta) from Connecticut, USA. European Journal of Phycology 51(2):203-216.
30524 Journal Article Kilroy, C., S.T. Larned, and B.J.F. Biggs. 2009. The non-indigenous diatom Didymosphenia geminata alters benthic communities in New Zealand rivers. Freshwater Biology:1990-2002.
30519 Journal Article Kristiansen, J. 1996. Dispersal of freshwater algae - a review. Hydrobiologia 336:151-157.
18881 Journal Article Kumar, S., S.A. Spaulding, T.J. Stohlgren, K.A. Hermann, T.S. Schmidt, and L.L. Bahls. 2009. Potential habitat distribution for the freshwater diatom Didymosphenia geminata in the continental US. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7(8):415-420.
28167 Database Les, D.H., and R.S. Capers. 2012. George Safford Torrey Herbarium (CONN). University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.
19290 News Lyle, M. 2009. Fly-fishing: Despite preventive measures, didymo spreading. Daily Gazette. 2009 (May 7):2 pp.
27552 News Lyle, M. 2013. Fly-fishing: Bothwell changing mind on didymo movement. The Daily Gazette. Schenectady, NY. Created on 08/08/2013. Accessed on 06/16/2015.
27957 News Lynch, J. 2015. Michigan hit with new invasive species. The Detroit News. Detroit, MI. Created on 09/03/2015. Accessed on 09/10/2015.
28384 Report Maryland Department of Natural Resources. 2016. Maryland Aquatic Nuisance Species Management Plan. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, MD.
27952 News Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. 2015. Michigan confirms two new invasive species. Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. Lansing, MI.,4561,7-135-3308_3323-364099--,00.html. Created on 09/04/2015. Accessed on 09/09/2015.
30499 Web Page Midwest Invasive Species Information Network (MISIN). 2017. Didymo Didymosphenia geminata . Accessed on 08/10/2017.
30301 Journal Article Moffat, M.C. 1994. An Ultrastructural Study of Didymosphenia geminata (Bacillariophyceae). Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 113(1):59-71.
30521 Web Page Myers, J. 2015. Lake Superior's low phosphorous spurs 'rock snot'. Accessed on 08/16/2017.
30502 Web Page Pennsylvania Sea Grant. 2013. Didymo Didymosphenia geminata. Accessed on 08/15/2017.
19286 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
30511 Web Page River Alliance of Wisconsin. 2009. Didymo / Rock Snot (Didymosphenia geminat) A Threat to Wisconsin's Waters. Accessed on 08/18/2017.
37240 Journal Article Root, S., and C.M. O'Reilly. 2012. Didymo control: increasing the effectiveness of decontamination strategies and reducing spread. Fisheries 37(10):440-448.
31508 Database South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks. 2018. Aquatic invasive species by waterbody. South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks, Pierre, SD. Created on 09/14/2015. Accessed on 11/15/2018.
15857 News Stark, M. 2006. Slimy Alga Threatens Rivers. Mississippi Interstate Cooperative Resource Association, Bettendorf, IA. 15 (3):6. (accessed on 11/01/2006).
19291 News Thomson, C. 2009. Invasive algae found in Garrett Co.'s Savage River. The Baltimore Sun. 2009 (December 16):2 pp.
34823 Database U.S. Geological Survey. 2020. BioData - Aquatic Bioassessment Data for the Nation. Collection data for Didymosphenia geminata. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA. Accessed on 10/01/2020.
37329 Journal Article Whitton, B.A., N.T.W. Ellwood, and B. Kawecka. 2009. Biology of the freshwater diatom Didymosphenia: a review. Hydrobiologia 630(1):1-37.
37328 Journal Article Wysokowski, M., P. Bartczak, S. Żółtowska‐Aksamitowska, A. Chudzińska, A. Piasecki, E. Langer, V.V. Bazhenov, I. Petrenko, T. Noga, A.L. Stelling, and H. Ehrlich. 2017. Adhesive stalks of diatom Didymosphenia geminata as a novel biological adsorbent for hazardous metals removal. CLEAN–Soil, Air, Water 45(11):1600678.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2021]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [11/27/2021].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted. For queries involving fish, please contact Matthew Neilson. For queries involving invertebrates, contact Amy Benson.