Reference List

This list includes references used to derive specimen records as well as those with scientific name Duttaphrynus melanostictus listed in key words.

Results also available in (click to export table to spreadsheet)

REFTypeCut-and-Paste Reference
37499 Journal Article Amram, M.F., R. Zainudin, and H.A. Wahid. 2018. Mating Calls of Selected Sarawak Toads (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae). Sains Malaysiana 47(1):1-7.
38959 Journal Article Bringsøe, H., M. Suthanthangjai, W. Suthanthangjai, and K. Nimnuam. 2020. Eviscerated alive: Novel and macabre feeding strategy in Oligodon fasciolatus (Günther, 1864) eating organs of Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799) in Thailand. Herpetozoa 33:157-163.
37520 Journal Article Brown, A.K., Z.J. Farris, G. Yesuf, B.D. Gerber, F. Rasambainarivo, S. Karpanty, M.J. Kelly, J.C. Razafimahaimodison, E. Larney, P.C. Wright, and S.E. Johnson. 2016. Modeling co-occurrence between toxic prey and naïve predators in an incipient invasion. Biodiversity and Conservation 25(13):2723-2741.
37521 Journal Article Döring, B., S. Mecke, M. Kieckbusch, M. O’Shea and H. Kaiser. 2017. Food spectrum analysis of the Asian toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799) (Anura: Bufonidae), from Timor Island, Wallacea. Journal of Natural History 51(11-12):607-623.
37471 Journal Article Fernando, V.A.K., J. Weerasena, G.P. Lakraj, I.C. Perera, C.D. Dangalle, S. Handunnetti, S. Premawansa, M.R. Wijesinghe. 2016. Lethal and sub-lethal effects on the Asian common toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus from exposure to hexavalent chromium. Aquatic Toxicology 177:98-105.
37523 Journal Article Jayawardena, U.A., J.R. Rohr, R.H. Amerasinghe, A.N. Navaratne, and R.S. Rajakaruna. 2017. Effects of agrochemicals on disease severity of Acanthostomum burminis infections (Digenea: Trematoda) in the Asian common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus. BMC Zoology 2(13):1-10.
37498 Book Chapter Kaiser, H., M. O'Shea, and C.M. Kaiser. 2014. Amphibians of Timor-Leste: A Small Fauna under Pressure. Pages 361-370 in Heatwole H. and I. Das, eds. Conservation Biology of Amphibians of Asia. Natural History Publications. Borneo.
37526 Journal Article Kennedi, U.F., M.D. Kusrini, A. Ariefiandy and A. Mardiastuti. 2020. Invasive toads are close to but absent from Komodo National Park. BIO Web of Conferences 19(00017):5.
38961 Journal Article Kharkongor, M. and R.N.K. Hooroo. 2017. Microscopic studies on the effects of cholopyrifos on the erythrocytes of Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799) tadpoles and its physiological significance. Pranikee-Journal of Zoological Society of Orissa 29:15-25.
23803 Journal Article Krysko, K.L., J.P. Burgess, M.R. Rochford, C.R. Gillette, D. Cueva, K.M. Enge, L.A. Somma, J.L. Stabile, D.C. Smith, J.A. Wasilewski, G.N. Kieckhefer, III, M.C. Granatosky, and S.V. Nielsen. 2011. Verified non-indigenous amphibians and reptiles in Florida from 1863 through 2010: Outlining the invasion process and identifying invasion pathways and stages. Zootaxa 3028:1-64.
37532 Journal Article Licata, F., G.F. Ficetola, K. Freeman, R.H. Mahasoa, V. Ravololonarivo, J.F.S.N. Fidy, A.B. Koto-Jean, E.R. Nahavitatsara, F. Andreone and A. Crottini. 2019. Abundance, distribution and spread of the invasive Asian toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus in eastern Madagascar. Biological Invasions 21:1615-1626.
39246 Journal Article Licata, F., R. Harison, G. Ficetola, K. Freeman, B. Muller, V. Ponga, F. Andreone, and A. Crottini. 2022. Toad invasion of Malagasy forests triggers severe mortality of a predatory snake. Biological Invasions 24:1189-1198.
37480 Journal Article Mahapatra, S., S.K. Dutta, and G. Sahoo. 2017. Opportunistic predatory behaviour in Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799) tadpoles. Current Science 112(8):1755-1759.
37487 Journal Article Mo, M. 2017. Asian Black-spined Toads (Duttaphrynus melanostictus) in Australia: An Invasion Worth Avoiding. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 24(3):155-161.
37481 Journal Article Mogali, S., S. Saidapur, and B. Shanbhag. 2017. Influence of desiccation threat on the metamorphic traits of the Asian common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Anura). Acta Herpetologica 12(2):175-180.
37497 Journal Article Moore, M., J.F.S.N. Fidy, and D. Edmonds. 2015. The new toad in town: Distribution of the Asian toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus, in the Toamasina area of eastern Madagascar. Tropical Conservation Science 8(2):440-455.
37535 Journal Article Ngo, B.V. and C.D. Ngo. 2013. Reproductive activity and advertisement calls of the Asian common toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae) from Bach Ma National Park, Vietnam. Zoological Studies 52(12):13.
38962 Journal Article O’Shea, M., A. Kathriner, S. Mecke, C. Sanchez, and H. Kaiser. 2013. ‘Fantastic Voyage’: a live blindsnake (Ramphotyphlops bramis) journeys through the gastrointestinal system of a toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus). Herpetology Notes 6:467-470.
37536 Journal Article Othman, S.N., Y. Chen, M. Chuang, D. Andersen, Y. Jang and A. Borzee. 2020. Impact of the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution and Anthropogenic Factors on the Dispersion of Asian Black-Spined Toads (Duttaphrynus melanostictus). Animals 10(7):1157.
37486 Journal Article Patel, H., P. Vaghashita, and S.K. Tank. 2016. Necrophiliac Behavior in the Common Asian Toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider 1799) in Western India. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 23(1):32-33.
37537 Journal Article Pearson, R.G. 2015. Asian common toads in Madagascar: an urgent effort to inform surveys and eradication efforts. Global Change Biology 21:9.
37479 Journal Article Pratihar, S. 2016. METABOLIC GENE EXPRESSION DURING THE PERIOD OF HIBERNATION IN INDIAN COMMON TOAD Duttaphrynus melanostictus. Russian Journal of Herpetology 24(1):75-77.
37496 Journal Article Qiu, D.J., X. Yu, M.J. Zhong, and L. Jin. 2020. A Comparison of Somatic Condition and Testis Mass in Black-Spectacled Toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus) between Two Populations at Different Altitudes. Pakistan Journal of Zoology NA:1-6.
37483 Journal Article Reardon, J.T., F. Kraus, M. Moore, L. Rabenantenaina, A. Rabinivo, N.H. Rakotoarisoa, and H.H. Randrianasolo. 2018. Testing tools for eradicating the invasive toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus in Madagascar. Conservation Evidence 15:12-19.
37538 Journal Article Rebelo, A. and J. Measy. 2017. Assessing the Impacts of Invasive Amphibians. FrogLog 25(1):27-28.
38963 Journal Article Rout, J., S. Mahapatra, and G. Sahoo. 2017. Breeding activities of the Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus) in Jagatsinghpur district, Odisha, India. Pranikee-Journal of Zoological Society of Orissa 29:33-40.
37500 Journal Article Soorae, P.S., G.J. Frankham, and A.A. Mohamed. 2020. The first record of the Asian common toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus Schneider, 1799 in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. BioInvasions Records 9(2):434-443.
37501 Journal Article Soorae, P.S., G.J. Frankham, and A.A. Mohamed. 2020. The first record of the Asian common toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus Schneider, 1799 in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. BioInvasions Records 9(2):434-443.
38965 Report Trainor, C.R. 2009. Survey of a population of Black-spined Toad Bufo melanostictus in Timor-Leste: confirming identity, distribution, abundance and impacts of an invasive and toxic toad. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Australia.
37541 Journal Article Wogan G.O.U., B.L. Stuart, D.T. Iskandar and J.A. McGuire. 2016. Deep genetic structure and ecological divergence in a widespread human commensal toad. Biology Letters 12:5.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [6/22/2024].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted.

For general information and questions about the database, contact Wesley Daniel. For problems and technical issues, contact Matthew Neilson.