Common name: Longnose Crayfish
Synonyms and Other Names: Cambarus longirostris is a species complex. Two recently published studies describe three new species within this complex (C. andersoni, C. diupalma, and C. lentiginosus). More information about the species complex can be found in the studies, Jones and Eversole (2015, 2016). As it is unclear which species within the species complex the introduced specimens are, all introduced specimens are treated as C. longirostris.
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Identification: Body color is olive to brownish-orange (Hobbs 1981). Elongated, tapering rostrum lacking marginal spines and tubercles (Hobbs 1981). Large gaps between propodus and dactyl of chelae when closed (Hobbs 1981). In addition to the above characteristics, C. andersoni has a ventral spine on the rostrum and defined tubercle on chelae (Jones and Eversole 2015). Cambarus diupalma has ventrally acute abdominal pleura (Jones and Eversole 2016). Cambarus lentiginosus has a dorsal median carina on rostrum, enlarged tubercle on opposable dactyl, and abdomen with speckled pigmentation (Jones and Eversole 2016).
Size: 4.3 cm carapace length (James 1966).
Native Range: Cambarus longirostris species complex is native to the Tennessee River Basin from western Virginia through eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina to northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi (Hobbs 1989; Schuster and Taylor 2004). Within this range, C. andersoni is endemic to southward flowing tributaries of the Tennessee River in southern Tennessee and northern Alabama, C. diupalma is endemic to the Mountain Fork tributary of the Flint River, and C. lentiginosus is endemic to the Flint River watershed in southern Tennessee and northern Alabama (Jones and Eversole 2015, 2016).
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Puerto Rico &
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps
Although this species is listed as introduced into the headwaters of the Savannah River in South Carolina by Hobbs (1989), the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) identifies the species in the Savannah River as an undescribed, native species, Cambarus sp. nov “B”, which is a separate species from C. longirostris (Price 2005; SCDNR 2015). Therefore, the taxon in the Savannah River may be native.
Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Cambarus longirostris are found here.
Table last updated 12/2/2023
† Populations may not be currently present.
Ecology: Found in rocky substrates in streams, commonly in riffles (Hobbs 1981, 1989). Digs burrows in the fall, moves into them before stream freezes, and then emerges in the spring (Hobbs 1981). Males are in reproductive condition during spring and fall months (Simmons and Fraley 2010).
Means of Introduction: Unknown.
Status: Established (Hobbs 1989; Price 2005).
Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.
References: (click for full references)
Hobbs, H.H., Jr. 1981. The crayfishes of Georgia. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 318:1-549.
Hobbs, H.H., Jr. 1989. An illustrated checklist of the American crayfishes (Decapoda: Astacidae, Cambaridae, and Parastacidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology Number 480. Washington, D.C. 236 pp.
James, H. A. 1966. A study of the range and variations of the subspecies of Cambarus longulus (Decapoda, Astacidae). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 119(3544):1-24.
Jones, D.R., and A.G. Eversole. 2015. Two new crayfishes of the genus Cambarus (Decapoda: Cambaridae) from Northern Alabama and South Central Tennessee, U.S.A. Zootaxa 4058(2):151-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4058.2.1.
Jones, D.R., and A.G. Eversole. 2016. A New Crayfish of the Genus Cambarus (Decapoda: Cambaridae) From the Flint River Drainage in Northern Alabama and South Central Tennessee, U.S.A. Zootaxa 4103(1):43-53. http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4103.1.4.
Price, J. 2005. Cambarus sp. nov “B”. South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Columbia, South Carolina. http://www.dnr.sc.gov/cwcs/pdf/CambarusspnovB.pdf. Accessed: 26 April 2016.
Schuster, G.A., and C.A. Taylor. 2004. Report on the crayfishes of Alabama: Literature and museum database review, species list with abbreviated annotations and proposed conservation statuses. Illinois Natural History Survey, Technical Report 2004(12):53 pp.
Simmons, J. W., and S. J. Fraley. 2010. Distribution, status, and life-history observations of crayfishes in western North Carolina. Southeastern Naturalist 9(sp3):79-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1656/058.009.s316. Accessed: 20 January 2017.
South Carolina Department of Natural Resources. 2008. South Carolina Aquatic Invasive Species Management Plan. South Carolina Aquatic Invasive Species Task Force, Columbia, SC. http://www.dnr.sc.gov/invasiveweeds/aisfiles/SCAISplan.pdf. Accessed: 26 April 2016.
South Carolina Department of Natural Resources. 2015. South Carolina’s state wildlife action plan (SWAP). South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Columbia, South Carolina. http://www.dnr.sc.gov/swap/main/2015StateWildlifeActionPlan-chaptersonly.pdf. Accessed: 20 January 2017.
Durland Donahou, A.
Revision Date: 5/2/2018
Peer Review Date: 6/27/2017
Durland Donahou, A., 2023, Cambarus longirostris Faxon, 1885: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=206, Revision Date: 5/2/2018, Peer Review Date: 6/27/2017, Access Date: 12/3/2023
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.