The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Etheostoma rufilineatum
Etheostoma rufilineatum
(Redline Darter)
Native Transplant

Copyright Info
Etheostoma rufilineatum (Cope, 1870)

Common name: Redline Darter

Synonyms and Other Names: Nothonotus rufilineatus (Near and Keck 2005; Near et al. 2012).

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Similar in size, shape and color to other species of Nothonotus darters, but can be distinguished by the presence of black dashes on the cheek and cream-colored spots on the caudal fin base (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994; Page and Burr 2011).

Size: to 8.5 cm SL

Native Range: Tennessee and Cumberland River drainages; Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994; Page and Burr 2011).

Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Etheostoma rufilineatum are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
VA201120121Upper New

Table last updated 12/8/2021

† Populations may not be currently present.

Means of Introduction: Unknown.

Status: Established

Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.

References: (click for full references)

Jenkins, R.E., and N.M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Near, T.J., C.M. Bossu, G.S. Bradburd, R.L. Carlson, R.C. Harrington, P.R. Hollingsworth, Jr., B.P. Keck, and D.A. Etnier. 2012. Phylogeny and temporal diversification of darters (Percidae: Etheostomatinae). Systematic Biology 60(5):565-595.

Near, T.J., and B.P. Keck. 2005. Dispersal, vicariance, and timing of diversification in Nothonotus darters. Molecular Ecology 14:3485-3496.

Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr. 2011. Field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Peterson Field Guides series. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, MA.

Other Resources:

Author: Neilson, M.E.

Revision Date: 5/6/2019

Peer Review Date: 10/22/2012

Citation Information:
Neilson, M.E., 2021, Etheostoma rufilineatum (Cope, 1870): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=2886, Revision Date: 5/6/2019, Peer Review Date: 10/22/2012, Access Date: 12/9/2021

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2021]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [12/9/2021].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted. For queries involving fish, please contact Matthew Neilson. For queries involving invertebrates, contact Amy Benson.