Lepomis gulosus
Lepomis gulosus
Native Transplant
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Lepomis gulosus (Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829)

Common name: Warmouth

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Moyle (1976); Becker (1983); Page and Burr (1991); Etnier and Starnes (1993); Jenkins and Burkhead (1994). Other names: Chaenobryttus gulosus and C. coronarius.

Size: 31 cm.

Native Range: Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins from western Pennsylvania to Minnesota, and south to the Gulf; Atlantic and Gulf slope drainages from Rappahannock River, Virginia, to the Rio Grande, Texas and New Mexico (Page and Burr 1991).

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Alaska auto-generated map
Hawaii auto-generated map
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Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
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Guam Saipan
Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences: These fish have been introduced into the Colorado River and reservoirs on the Salt River, Arizona (Minckley 1973; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.); the Colorado River, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the Central Valley, the San Diego, Feather, Lower Sacramento, Imperial Reservoir, Tulare-Buena Vista, Suisun Bay, and San Joaquin drainages in California (Smith 1896; Shebley 1917; Evermann and Clark 1931; Lampman 1946; Lanse 1965; Moyle 1976; Dill and Cordone 1997; Sommer et al. 2001; Matern 2002); Rio Grande headwaters (San Luis Valley) and probably other areas of the state in Colorado (Ellis 1974; Zuckerman and Behnke 1986; Beckman 1952); the coastal plain of Delaware (Lee et al. 1976, 1981; Raasch and Altemus 1991); the Snake River from C.J. Strike Reservoir to Brownlee Reservoir, and the Boise River, Idaho (Smith 1896; Lampman 1946; Linder 1963; Simpson and Wallace 1978; Idaho Fish and Game 1990); central Indiana (Nelson and Gerking 1968); possibly in reservoirs in eastern Kansas (native status uncertain) (Cross 1967); middle and upper Cumberland, upper Green, and Barren drainages in Kentucky (Burr and Warren 1986); probably introduced in the coastal plain, and the Piedmont and the ridge and valley section (Potomac drainage) of Maryland (Lee et al. 1976, 1981; Starnes et al. 2011); Big Ole Lake of Minnesota (MMNH 38114); the southern and eastern parts of Missouri (Pflieger 1997); Colorado River in Nevada (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.); West Sturgeon Pond in New Jersey (George Horvath, personal communication); Pecos and Rio Grande drainages in New Mexico (Sublette et al. 1990); Woodbury Creek in Orange County and the Saw Kill in Dutchess County, and the Susquehanna drainage in New York (Smith 1985; Hocutt et al. 1986; Schmidt 1986); probably introduced in the upper New, French Broad-Holston, and upper Tennessee drainages in North Carolina (Bailey et al. 1954; Menhinick 1991); southern Ohio drainages including the Ohio and Scioto (Trautman 1981); the Willamette, Columbia, Coos, Ronde, Siltcoos, Tualatin rivers, Catherine Creek, Cemetary Lake, Dormans Pond, Tahkenitch Lake, Wildace Lake, Prescott Slough, Beale Lake, and Devil's Lake, Oregon (Lampman 1946; also see Bond 1994; Anonymous 2001; Logan 1995; ); the lower Delaware drainage, Pennsylvania (Cooper 1981; Schmidt 1986); possible stock contamination in the Carite Reservoir and collected in other non-specific locations in Puerto Rico (Erdsman 1984; Lee 1983); the New and Holston drainages, probably introduced in the York, Rappahonnock, and Potomac drainages, and possibly introduced in the James drainage in Virginia (Hocutt et al. 1986; Jenkins and Burkhead 1994; Starnes et al. 2011); collected in Columbia River near Kalama (Chapman 1933, 1942) and lakes in Washington including Loon and Silver (Cowlitz County) lakes (Smith 1896; Lampman 1946; Wydoski and Whitney 1979; Fletcher, personal communication); and the Wolf and Fox systems, and eastern Wisconsin drainages (Becker 1983).

Means of Introduction: Intentional stocking for sportfishing in most locations. Presumably accidentally stocked in Arizona with either bluegills L. macrochirus or bass Micropterus sp. (Minckley 1973). Likely gained access to the Wolf and Fox systems in Wisconsin via the artificial Fox-Wisconsin Canal at Portage which connects the Mississippi and Great Lakes basins (Becker 1983). Introductions into eastern Wisconsin were probably from fish rescue operations in the 1870s to 1930s that transplanted stranded fish from the Mississippi River to other locations (Becker 1983).

Status: Established in most locations where introduced.

Impact of Introduction: Warmouth hybridize with other Lepomis species (Moyle 1976). Minckley (1973) described this fish as "pugnacious". Warmouth compete directly with other Lepomis species for macroinvertebrates (Madsen et al. 1994). Introduced predatory centrarchids are likely responsible for the decline of native ranid frogs in California and for the decline of California tiger salamander Ambystoma californiense populations (Hayes and Jennings 1986; Dill and Cordone 1997).

Remarks: There was no mention of this species' introduction in Utah by Sigler and Miller (1963), Sigler and Sigler (1987, 1996).

References: (click for full references)

Anonymous 2001. Oregon's Warm Water Fishing with Public Access. [online]. URL at http://www.dfw.state.or.us/warm_water_fishing/index.asp

Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Madison Press, Madison, WI.

Dill, W.A., and A.J. Cordone. 1997. History and status of introduced fishes in California, 1871-1996. Fish Bulletin 178. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA. http://content.cdlib.org/view?docId=kt8p30069f&brand=calisphere&doc.view=entire_text.

Erdsman, D.S.  1984.  Exotic fishes in Puerto Rico, p 162-176, In:  W.R.Jr. Courtenay and J.R.Jr. Stauffer, eds. Distribution, Biology, and Management of Exotic Fishes. John Hopkins. Baltimore and London.

Etnier, D.A., and W.C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tenneessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN.

Hayes, M.P., and M.R. Jennings. 1986. Decline of ranid frog species in western North America: are bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) responsible? Journal of Herpetology 20(4):490-509.

Hocutt, C.H., R.E. Jenkins, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1986. Zoogeography of the fishes of the central Appalachians and central Atlantic Coastal Plain. 161-212 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Jenkins, R.E., and N.M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater Fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Linder. A. D. 1963. Idaho's Alien Fishes. TEBIWA, 6(2), 12-15.

Madsen, J.D., G.O. Dick, D. Honnell, J. Shearer, and R. M. Smart. 1994. Ecological assessment of Kirk Pond. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Miscellaneous Paper A-94-1, Vicksburg, Mississippi.

Minckley, W.L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona. Arizona Fish and Game Department Sims Printing Company, Inc, Phoenix, AZ.

Moyle, P.B. 1976. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Pflieger, W. 1997. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Environmental Conservation, Jefferson City, MO.

Sigler, F.F., and R.R. Miller. 1963. Fishes of Utah. Utah Department of Fish and Game, Salt Lake City, UT.

Sigler, W.F., and J.W. Sigler. 1987. Fishes of the Great Basin: a natural history. University of Nevada Press, Reno, NV.

Sigler, W.F., and J.W. Sigler. 1996. Fishes of Utah: a natural history. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, UT.Smith, C.L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

Sommer, T, B. Harrell, M. Nobriga, R. Brown, P. Moyle, W. Kimmerer, and L. Schemel. 2001. California's Yolo Bypass: Evidence that flood control can be compatible with fisheries, wetlands, wildlife, and agriculture. Fisheries. American Fisheries Society. 26 (8): 6-16.

Starnes, W.C., J. Odenkirk, and M.J. Ashton. 2011. Update and analysis of fish occurrences in the lower Potomac River drainage in the vicinity of Plummers Island, Maryland—Contribution XXXI to the natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 124(4):280-309.

Sublette, J.E., M.D. Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM.

Other Resources:
FishBase Summary

Author: Pam Fuller, and Matt Cannister

Revision Date: 1/20/2012

Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016

Citation Information:
Pam Fuller, and Matt Cannister, 2018, Lepomis gulosus (Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=376, Revision Date: 1/20/2012, Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016, Access Date: 3/22/2018

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

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Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2018]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [3/22/2018].

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