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The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.




Lepomis gulosus
Lepomis gulosus
(Warmouth)
Fishes
Native Transplant
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Lepomis gulosus (Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829)

Common name: Warmouth

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Moyle (1976); Becker (1983); Page and Burr (1991); Etnier and Starnes (1993); Jenkins and Burkhead (1994). Other names: Chaenobryttus gulosus and C. coronarius.

Size: 31 cm.

Native Range: Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins from western Pennsylvania to Minnesota, and south to the Gulf; Atlantic and Gulf slope drainages from Rappahannock River, Virginia, to the Rio Grande, Texas and New Mexico (Page and Burr 1991).

US auto-generated map Legend USGS Logo
Alaska auto-generated map
Alaska
Hawaii auto-generated map
Hawaii
Caribbean auto-generated map
Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
Guam auto-generated map
Guam Saipan
Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Lepomis gulosus are found here.

StateYear of earliest observationYear of last observationTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
Arizona195519913Imperial Reservoir; Lower Colorado Region; Lower Salt
California1891200216Butte Creek; California Region; Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Honcut Headwaters-Lower Feather; Imperial Reservoir; Lower Colorado; Lower Sacramento; Pajaro; Sacramento Headwaters; San Diego; San Joaquin Delta; San Pablo Bay; Suisun Bay; Tulare-Buena Vista Lakes; Upper San Joaquin; Upper Yuba
Colorado189419861San Luis
Delaware197619862Broadkill-Smyrna; Delaware Bay
Florida199819981Choctawhatchee Bay
Georgia195520089Broad; Canoochee; Little; Lower Ocmulgee; Middle Flint; Ocoee; Ohoopee; Upper Flint; Upper Ogeechee
Idaho189219938Brownlee Reservoir; C.J. Strike Reservoir; Lower Bear-Malad; Lower Boise; Middle Bear; Middle Snake-Succor; Payette; Upper Snake-Rock
Iowa198719875Lake Red Rock; Middle Iowa; Nodaway; Upper Chariton; West Nodaway
Kansas191320089Chikaskia; Little Osage; Lower Kansas; Marmaton; Middle Arkansas; Middle Kansas; Neosho Headwaters; South Fork Ninnescah; Upper Kansas
Kentucky1986200820Barren; Licking; Little Sandy; Little Scioto-Tygarts; Lower Cumberland; Lower Green; Lower Kentucky; Lower Levisa; Middle Green; North Fork Kentucky; Ohio Brush-Whiteoak; Pond; Red; Rough; South Fork Kentucky; South Fork Licking; Upper Cumberland; Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland; Upper Green; Upper Kentucky
Maryland194719986Lower Potomac; Monocacy; Patuxent; Potomac; Tangier; Upper Chesapeake
Michigan200420041Flint
Minnesota198320012Big Fork; Upper St. Croix
Missouri1975200811Big Piney; Harry S. Truman Reservoir; Lake of the Ozarks; Lower Gasconade; Lower Missouri; Lower Missouri-Crooked; Lower Missouri-Moreau; Lower Osage; Pomme De Terre; Thompson; Upper Grand
Nevada199119911Lower Colorado
New Jersey200820172Crosswicks-Neshaminy; Lower Delaware
New Mexico198119904Elephant Butte Reservoir; Lower Pecos-Red Bluff Reservoir; Upper Gila; Upper Gila-Mangas
New York193619965Hudson-Wappinger; Lower Hudson; Middle Hudson; Seneca; Upper Susquehanna
North Carolina194920098French Broad-Holston; Lower Neuse; Northeast Cape Fear; Upper French Broad; Upper Little Tennessee; Upper New; Upper Tennessee; Watauga
Ohio1929200926Ashtabula-Chagrin; Black-Rocky; Cedar-Portage; Cuyahoga; Grand; Hocking; Kanawha; Licking; Little Scioto-Tygarts; Lower Scioto; Mahoning; Middle Ohio-Laughery; Muskingum; Muskingum; Ohio Brush-Whiteoak; Ohio Region; Paint; Raccoon-Symmes; Sandusky; Southern Lake Erie; Tuscarawas; Upper Great Miami; Upper Ohio-Beaver; Upper Scioto; Walhonding; Wills
Oklahoma198020087Cache; Farmers-Mud; Lower Cimarron-Skeleton; Lower Washita; Middle Washita; Northern Beaver; Upper Washita
Oregon1893201314Coos; Lower Columbia; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Malheur; Lower Willamette; Middle Willamette; Pacific Northwest; Siletz-Yaquina; Siltcoos; Siuslaw; Tualatin; Upper Fox; Upper Grande Ronde; Upper Willamette
Pennsylvania1930200010Beaver; Conococheague-Opequon; French; Lake Erie; Lower Delaware; Lower Monongahela; Monocacy; Shenango; Upper Monongahela; Youghiogheny
Puerto Rico191619832Eastern Puerto Rico; Puerto Rico
Tennessee1991200822Caney; Emory; Harpeth; Hiwassee; Holston; Lower Clinch; Lower Cumberland; Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake; Lower French Broad; Lower Little Tennessee; Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga; Nolichucky; Obey; Ocoee; Powell; Sequatchie; South Fork Cumberland; Stones; Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull Reservoir; Upper French Broad; Watauga; Watts Bar Lake
Texas198019807Cedar; Chambers; Lake Texoma; Little Wichita; Middle Canadian-Spring; Richland; Wichita
Virginia1893201018James; Kanawha; Lower Chesapeake Bay; Lower Potomac; Mattaponi; Middle James-Buffalo; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; Pamunkey; Potomac; Powell; Shenandoah; South Fork Holston; South Fork Shenandoah; Upper Clinch; Upper New; Upper Roanoke; York
Washington1892200512Colville; Deschutes; Lake Washington; Lewis; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Cowlitz; Lower Snake-Tucannon; Nisqually; Pacific Northwest Region; Pend Oreille; Puget Sound; Upper Chehalis
West Virginia198119954Little Muskingum-Middle Island; Lower Kanawha; Upper Ohio-Shade; Upper Ohio-Wheeling
Wisconsin1983200824Bad-Montreal; Castle Rock; Eau Claire; Flambeau; Lake Dubay; Lower Chippewa; Lower St. Croix; Lower Wisconsin; Manitowoc-Sheboygan; Milwaukee; Namekagon; Oconto; Peshtigo; Pike-Root; Red Cedar; South Fork Flambeau; Sugar; Upper Chippewa; Upper Fox; Upper Fox; Upper Rock; Upper St. Croix; Upper Wisconsin; Wolf

Table last updated 5/25/2018

† Populations may not be currently present.


Means of Introduction: Intentional stocking for sportfishing in most locations. Presumably accidentally stocked in Arizona with either bluegills L. macrochirus or bass Micropterus sp. (Minckley 1973). Likely gained access to the Wolf and Fox systems in Wisconsin via the artificial Fox-Wisconsin Canal at Portage which connects the Mississippi and Great Lakes basins (Becker 1983). Introductions into eastern Wisconsin were probably from fish rescue operations in the 1870s to 1930s that transplanted stranded fish from the Mississippi River to other locations (Becker 1983).

Status: Established in most locations where introduced.

Impact of Introduction: Warmouth hybridize with other Lepomis species (Moyle 1976). Minckley (1973) described this fish as "pugnacious". Warmouth compete directly with other Lepomis species for macroinvertebrates (Madsen et al. 1994). Introduced predatory centrarchids are likely responsible for the decline of native ranid frogs in California and for the decline of California tiger salamander Ambystoma californiense populations (Hayes and Jennings 1986; Dill and Cordone 1997).

Remarks: There was no mention of this species' introduction in Utah by Sigler and Miller (1963), Sigler and Sigler (1987, 1996).

References: (click for full references)

Anonymous 2001. Oregon's Warm Water Fishing with Public Access. [online]. URL at http://www.dfw.state.or.us/warm_water_fishing/index.asp

Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Madison Press, Madison, WI.

Dill, W.A., and A.J. Cordone. 1997. History and status of introduced fishes in California, 1871-1996. Fish Bulletin 178. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA. http://content.cdlib.org/view?docId=kt8p30069f&brand=calisphere&doc.view=entire_text.

Erdsman, D.S.  1984.  Exotic fishes in Puerto Rico, p 162-176, In:  W.R.Jr. Courtenay and J.R.Jr. Stauffer, eds. Distribution, Biology, and Management of Exotic Fishes. John Hopkins. Baltimore and London.

Etnier, D.A., and W.C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tenneessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN.

Hayes, M.P., and M.R. Jennings. 1986. Decline of ranid frog species in western North America: are bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) responsible? Journal of Herpetology 20(4):490-509.

Hocutt, C.H., R.E. Jenkins, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1986. Zoogeography of the fishes of the central Appalachians and central Atlantic Coastal Plain. 161-212 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Jenkins, R.E., and N.M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater Fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Linder. A. D. 1963. Idaho's Alien Fishes. TEBIWA, 6(2), 12-15.

Madsen, J.D., G.O. Dick, D. Honnell, J. Shearer, and R. M. Smart. 1994. Ecological assessment of Kirk Pond. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Miscellaneous Paper A-94-1, Vicksburg, Mississippi.

Minckley, W.L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona. Arizona Fish and Game Department Sims Printing Company, Inc, Phoenix, AZ.

Moyle, P.B. 1976. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Pflieger, W. 1997. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Environmental Conservation, Jefferson City, MO.

Sigler, F.F., and R.R. Miller. 1963. Fishes of Utah. Utah Department of Fish and Game, Salt Lake City, UT.

Sigler, W.F., and J.W. Sigler. 1987. Fishes of the Great Basin: a natural history. University of Nevada Press, Reno, NV.

Sigler, W.F., and J.W. Sigler. 1996. Fishes of Utah: a natural history. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, UT.Smith, C.L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

Sommer, T, B. Harrell, M. Nobriga, R. Brown, P. Moyle, W. Kimmerer, and L. Schemel. 2001. California's Yolo Bypass: Evidence that flood control can be compatible with fisheries, wetlands, wildlife, and agriculture. Fisheries. American Fisheries Society. 26 (8): 6-16.

Starnes, W.C., J. Odenkirk, and M.J. Ashton. 2011. Update and analysis of fish occurrences in the lower Potomac River drainage in the vicinity of Plummers Island, Maryland—Contribution XXXI to the natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 124(4):280-309.

Sublette, J.E., M.D. Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM.

Other Resources:
FishBase Summary

Author: Pam Fuller, and Matt Cannister

Revision Date: 1/20/2012

Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016

Citation Information:
Pam Fuller, and Matt Cannister, 2018, Lepomis gulosus (Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=376, Revision Date: 1/20/2012, Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016, Access Date: 6/17/2018

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

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Page Last Modified: Wednesday, May 23, 2018

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The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2018]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [6/17/2018].

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