The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Lepomis gulosus
Lepomis gulosus
Native Transplant

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Lepomis gulosus (Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829)

Common name: Warmouth

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Moyle (1976); Becker (1983); Page and Burr (1991); Etnier and Starnes (1993); Jenkins and Burkhead (1994). Other names: Chaenobryttus gulosus and C. coronarius.

Size: 31 cm.

Native Range: Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins from western Pennsylvania to Minnesota, and south to the Gulf; Atlantic and Gulf slope drainages from Rappahannock River, Virginia, to the Rio Grande, Texas and New Mexico (Page and Burr 1991).

Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Lepomis gulosus are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
AZ195519913Imperial Reservoir; Lower Colorado Region; Lower Salt
CA1891200216Butte Creek; California Region; Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Honcut Headwaters-Lower Feather; Imperial Reservoir; Lower Colorado; Lower Sacramento; Pajaro; Sacramento Headwaters; San Diego; San Joaquin Delta; San Pablo Bay; Suisun Bay; Tulare-Buena Vista Lakes; Upper San Joaquin; Upper Yuba
CO189419861San Luis
DE197619862Broadkill-Smyrna; Delaware Bay
FL198819983Choctawhatchee Bay; Santa Fe; Vero Beach
GA195520089Broad; Canoochee; Little; Lower Ocmulgee; Middle Flint; Ocoee; Ohoopee; Upper Flint; Upper Ogeechee
ID189219938Brownlee Reservoir; C.J. Strike Reservoir; Lower Bear-Malad; Lower Boise; Middle Bear; Middle Snake-Succor; Payette; Upper Snake-Rock
IA198719873Lake Red Rock; Middle Iowa; West Nodaway
KS191320067Chikaskia; Lower Kansas, Kansas; Middle Arkansas; Middle Kansas; Neosho Headwaters; South Fork Ninnescah; Upper Kansas
KY1986200817Barren; Licking; Little Sandy; Little Scioto-Tygarts; Lower Green; Lower Kentucky; Lower Levisa; Middle Green; Ohio Brush-Whiteoak; Pond; Red; Rough; South Fork Kentucky; South Fork Licking; Upper Cumberland; Upper Green; Upper Kentucky
MD194720198Gunpowder-Patapsco; Lower Potomac; Monocacy; Patuxent; Potomac; Severn; Tangier; Upper Chesapeake
MI200420203Betsie-Platte; Flint; Manistique River
MN200120012Big Fork; Rainy
MO197520209Big Piney; Harry S. Truman Reservoir; Lake of the Ozarks; Lower Gasconade; Lower Missouri; Lower Missouri-Moreau; Lower Osage; Niangua; Pomme De Terre
NV199119911Lower Colorado
NJ200820212Crosswicks-Neshaminy; Lower Delaware
NM198119904Elephant Butte Reservoir; Lower Pecos-Red Bluff Reservoir; Upper Gila; Upper Gila-Mangas
NY193619965Hudson-Wappinger; Lower Hudson; Middle Hudson; Seneca; Upper Susquehanna
NC194920168French Broad-Holston; Lower Neuse; Northeast Cape Fear; Upper French Broad; Upper Little Tennessee; Upper New; Upper Tennessee; Watauga, North Carolina, Tennessee
OH1929202322Black-Rocky; Cuyahoga; Grand; Hocking; Kanawha; Licking; Little Scioto-Tygarts; Lower Scioto; Muskingum; Muskingum; Ohio Brush-Whiteoak; Ohio Region; Paint; Raccoon-Symmes; Sandusky; Southern Lake Erie; Tuscarawas; Upper Great Miami, Indiana, Ohio; Upper Ohio-Beaver; Upper Scioto; Walhonding; Wills
OK198020187Cache; Lower Cimarron-Skeleton; Lower Washita; Middle Washita; Northern Beaver; Upper Washita; West Cache
OR1893201313Coos; Lower Columbia; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Malheur; Lower Willamette; Middle Willamette; Pacific Northwest; Siletz-Yaquina; Siltcoos; Siuslaw; Tualatin; Upper Grande Ronde; Upper Willamette
PA1930200010Beaver; Conococheague-Opequon; French; Lake Erie; Lower Delaware; Lower Monongahela; Monocacy; Shenango; Upper Monongahela; Youghiogheny
PR191619832Eastern Puerto Rico; Puerto Rico
TN1991202321Caney; Emory; Harpeth; Hiwassee; Holston; Lower Clinch; Lower Cumberland; Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake; Lower French Broad; Lower Little Tennessee; Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga; Obey; Ocoee; Powell; Sequatchie; South Fork Cumberland; Stones; Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull Reservoir; Upper French Broad; Watauga, North Carolina, Tennessee; Watts Bar Lake
TX195920207Cedar; Chambers; East Galveston Bay; Lake Texoma; Little Wichita; Middle Nueces; Richland
VA1893201018James; Kanawha; Lower Chesapeake Bay; Lower Potomac; Mattaponi; Middle James-Buffalo; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; Pamunkey; Potomac; Powell; Shenandoah; South Fork Holston; South Fork Shenandoah; Upper Clinch, Tennessee, Virginia; Upper New; Upper Roanoke; York
WA1892200512Colville; Deschutes; Lake Washington; Lewis; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Cowlitz; Lower Snake-Tucannon; Nisqually; Pacific Northwest Region; Pend Oreille; Puget Sound; Upper Chehalis
WV198120234Little Muskingum-Middle Island; Lower Kanawha; Upper Ohio-Shade; Upper Ohio-Wheeling
WI1983200817Castle Rock; Eau Claire; Lake Dubay; Manitowoc-Sheboygan; Milwaukee; Namekagon; Oconto; Peshtigo; Pike-Root; Red Cedar; South Fork Flambeau; Upper Chippewa; Upper Fox; Upper Rock; Upper St. Croix; Upper Wisconsin; Wolf

Table last updated 6/23/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

Means of Introduction: Intentional stocking for sportfishing in most locations. Presumably accidentally stocked in Arizona with either bluegills L. macrochirus or bass Micropterus sp. (Minckley 1973). Likely gained access to the Wolf and Fox systems in Wisconsin via the artificial Fox-Wisconsin Canal at Portage which connects the Mississippi and Great Lakes basins (Becker 1983). Introductions into eastern Wisconsin were probably from fish rescue operations in the 1870s to 1930s that transplanted stranded fish from the Mississippi River to other locations (Becker 1983).

Status: Established in most locations where introduced.

Impact of Introduction: Warmouth hybridize with other Lepomis species (Moyle 1976). Minckley (1973) described this fish as "pugnacious". Warmouth compete directly with other Lepomis species for macroinvertebrates (Madsen et al. 1994). Introduced predatory centrarchids are likely responsible for the decline of native ranid frogs in California and for the decline of California tiger salamander Ambystoma californiense populations (Hayes and Jennings 1986; Dill and Cordone 1997).

Remarks: There was no mention of this species' introduction in Utah by Sigler and Miller (1963), Sigler and Sigler (1987, 1996).

References: (click for full references)

Anonymous 2001. Oregon's Warm Water Fishing with Public Access. [online]. URL at http://www.dfw.state.or.us/warm_water_fishing/index.asp

Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Madison Press, Madison, WI.

Dill, W.A., and A.J. Cordone. 1997. History and status of introduced fishes in California, 1871-1996. Fish Bulletin 178. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA. http://content.cdlib.org/view?docId=kt8p30069f&brand=calisphere&doc.view=entire_text.

Erdsman, D.S.  1984.  Exotic fishes in Puerto Rico, p 162-176, In:  W.R.Jr. Courtenay and J.R.Jr. Stauffer, eds. Distribution, Biology, and Management of Exotic Fishes. John Hopkins. Baltimore and London.

Etnier, D.A., and W.C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tenneessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN.

Hayes, M.P., and M.R. Jennings. 1986. Decline of ranid frog species in western North America: are bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) responsible? Journal of Herpetology 20(4):490-509.

Hocutt, C.H., R.E. Jenkins, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1986. Zoogeography of the fishes of the central Appalachians and central Atlantic Coastal Plain. 161-212 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Jenkins, R.E., and N.M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater Fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Linder. A. D. 1963. Idaho's Alien Fishes. TEBIWA, 6(2), 12-15.

Madsen, J.D., G.O. Dick, D. Honnell, J. Shearer, and R. M. Smart. 1994. Ecological assessment of Kirk Pond. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Miscellaneous Paper A-94-1, Vicksburg, Mississippi.

Minckley, W.L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona. Arizona Fish and Game Department Sims Printing Company, Inc, Phoenix, AZ.

Moyle, P.B. 1976. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Pflieger, W. 1997. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Environmental Conservation, Jefferson City, MO.

Sigler, F.F., and R.R. Miller. 1963. Fishes of Utah. Utah Department of Fish and Game, Salt Lake City, UT.

Sigler, W.F., and J.W. Sigler. 1987. Fishes of the Great Basin: a natural history. University of Nevada Press, Reno, NV.

Sigler, W.F., and J.W. Sigler. 1996. Fishes of Utah: a natural history. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, UT.Smith, C.L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

Sommer, T, B. Harrell, M. Nobriga, R. Brown, P. Moyle, W. Kimmerer, and L. Schemel. 2001. California's Yolo Bypass: Evidence that flood control can be compatible with fisheries, wetlands, wildlife, and agriculture. Fisheries. American Fisheries Society. 26 (8): 6-16.

Starnes, W.C., J. Odenkirk, and M.J. Ashton. 2011. Update and analysis of fish occurrences in the lower Potomac River drainage in the vicinity of Plummers Island, Maryland—Contribution XXXI to the natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 124(4):280-309.

Sublette, J.E., M.D. Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM.

Other Resources:
FishBase Summary

Author: Pam Fuller, and Matt Cannister

Revision Date: 1/7/2020

Peer Review Date: 1/20/2012

Citation Information:
Pam Fuller, and Matt Cannister, 2024, Lepomis gulosus (Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=376, Revision Date: 1/7/2020, Peer Review Date: 1/20/2012, Access Date: 6/23/2024

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


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Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [6/23/2024].

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