Common name: European Toad
available through www.itis.gov
Native Range: Bufo Bufo is native to the following countries: Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Hungary; Italy; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; Moldova; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; San Marino; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom (Agasyan et al., 2009)
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Puerto Rico &
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps
Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Bufo bufo are found here.
Table last updated 5/14/2021
† Populations may not be currently present.
Means of Introduction: Stocked for biocontrol.
Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.
References: (click for full references)
Agasyan, A., A., Avisi, B. Tuniyev, J.C. Isailovic, P. Lymberakis, C. Andrén, D. Cogalniceanu, J. Wilkinson, N. Ananjeva, N. Üzüm, N. Orlov, R. Podloucky, S. Tuniyev, and U. Kaya. 2009. Bufo bufo
. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. http://www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 27 July 2015.
McKeown, S. 1996. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians in the Hawaiian Islands. Diamond Head Publishing, Inc, Los Osos, CA.
Oliver, J.A., and C.E. Shaw. 1953. The amphibians and reptiles of the Hawaiian Islands. Zoologica 38(5): 65-95.
Revision Date: 8/11/2015
Powell, R.S., 2021, Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=47, Revision Date: 8/11/2015, Access Date: 5/14/2021
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.