Common name: Cutlip Minnow
Synonyms and Other Names: Exoglossum annulatum Rafinesque, 1818; E. lesurianum Rafinesque, 1818; E. nigrescens Rafinesque, 1818; E. vittatum Rafinesque, 1818.
available through www.itis.gov
Identification: Smith (1985); Page and Burr (1991); Jenkins and Burkhead (1994). Exoglossum be distinguished from most other North American cyprinids by the presence of a central bony plate flanked by fleshy lobes on the lower jaw. Exoglossum maxillingua can be distinguished from the Tonguetied Minnow E. laurae by the size and distinctiveness of the fleshy lobes on the lower jaw (much larger and distinct in E. maxillingua) and the absence of barbels at the corner of the mouth (present in E. laurae).
Size: 16 cm.
Native Range: Atlantic Slope from St. Lawrence River drainage, Quebec, to upper Roanoke River, North Carolina (absent in Connecticut River and other rivers in Northeast); Lake Ontario drainage, Ontario and New York (Page and Burr 1991).
Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Exoglossum maxillingua are found here.
Table last updated 2/27/2023
† Populations may not be currently present.
Means of Introduction: Probable bait bucket release. The first records of this species (and hybrids with E. laurae) in the New drainage are from 1956 from the Walker Creek system, a heavily fished area (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).
Status: Established in Massachusetts, Virginia, and West Virginia. Reported in Connecticut and Vermont.
Impact of Introduction: Cutlips minnows in the New drainage are known to hybridize with the Tonguetied Minnow E. laurae (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).
References: (click for full references)
Hartel, K.E., D.B. Halliwell, and A.E. Launer. 2002. Inland fishes of Massachusetts. Massachusetts Audubon Society, Lincoln, MA.
Jenkins, R.E., and N.M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.
Langdon, R.W., M.T. Ferguson, and K.M. Cox. 2006. Fishes of Vermont. Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife, Waterbury, VT.
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes - North America north of Mexico. Volume 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.
Smith, C.L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.
Smith, E. 1905. Exoglossum east of the Delaware basin. Science 22(552): 110-120.
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., J.M. Boltz, and L.R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.
Whitworth, W.R. 1996. Freshwater fishes of Connecticut. Bulletin 114. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Department of Environmental Protection, Hartford, CT.
Leo Nico, and Matt Neilson
Revision Date: 12/4/2013
Peer Review Date: 12/4/2013
Leo Nico, and Matt Neilson, 2023, Exoglossum maxillingua (Lesueur, 1817): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=530, Revision Date: 12/4/2013, Peer Review Date: 12/4/2013, Access Date: 4/1/2023
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.