The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Exoglossum maxillingua
Exoglossum maxillingua
(Cutlip Minnow)
Native Transplant

Copyright Info
Exoglossum maxillingua (Lesueur, 1817)

Common name: Cutlip Minnow

Synonyms and Other Names: Exoglossum annulatum Rafinesque, 1818; E. lesurianum Rafinesque, 1818; E. nigrescens Rafinesque, 1818; E. vittatum Rafinesque, 1818.

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Smith (1985); Page and Burr (1991); Jenkins and Burkhead (1994). Exoglossum be distinguished from most other North American cyprinids by the presence of a central bony plate flanked by fleshy lobes on the lower jaw. Exoglossum maxillingua can be distinguished from the Tonguetied Minnow E. laurae by the size and distinctiveness of the fleshy lobes on the lower jaw (much larger and distinct in E. maxillingua) and the absence of barbels at the corner of the mouth (present in E. laurae).

Size: 16 cm.

Native Range: Atlantic Slope from St. Lawrence River drainage, Quebec, to upper Roanoke River, North Carolina (absent in Connecticut River and other rivers in Northeast); Lake Ontario drainage, Ontario and New York (Page and Burr 1991).

Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Exoglossum maxillingua are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
CT198820112Farmington River; Outlet Connecticut River
MA199719971Farmington River
NH201620161Black River-Connecticut River
NY193420091Upper Allegheny
PA192719981Middle Allegheny-Tionesta
VT200520051Black River-Connecticut River
VA195619943Kanawha; Middle New; Upper New
WV197319932Middle New; Upper New

Table last updated 4/18/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

Means of Introduction: Probable bait bucket release. The first records of this species (and hybrids with E. laurae) in the New drainage are from 1956 from the Walker Creek system, a heavily fished area (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).

Status: Established in Massachusetts, Virginia, and West Virginia. Reported in Connecticut and Vermont.

Impact of Introduction: Cutlips minnows in the New drainage are known to hybridize with the Tonguetied Minnow E. laurae (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).

Remarks: In their treatment of this species in the New-Kanawha drainage, Jenkins and Burkhead (1994) listed it as introduced possibly established, whereas Stauffer et al. (1995) listed the species as native, but possibly introduced. Jenkins and Burkhead (1994), citing Smith (1905), reported that the occurrence of E. maxillingua in the Passaic drainage, New Jersey, may be due to dispersal via a canal.

References: (click for full references)

Hartel, K.E., D.B. Halliwell, and A.E. Launer. 2002. Inland fishes of Massachusetts. Massachusetts Audubon Society, Lincoln, MA.

Jenkins, R.E., and N.M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Langdon, R.W., M.T. Ferguson, and K.M. Cox. 2006. Fishes of Vermont. Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife, Waterbury, VT.

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes - North America north of Mexico. Volume 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Smith, C.L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

Smith, E. 1905. Exoglossum east of the Delaware basin. Science 22(552): 110-120.

Stauffer, J.R., Jr., J.M. Boltz, and L.R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Whitworth, W.R. 1996. Freshwater fishes of Connecticut. Bulletin 114. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Department of Environmental Protection, Hartford, CT.

Other Resources:
FishBase Summary

Author: Leo Nico, and Matt Neilson

Revision Date: 12/4/2013

Peer Review Date: 12/4/2013

Citation Information:
Leo Nico, and Matt Neilson, 2024, Exoglossum maxillingua (Lesueur, 1817): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=530, Revision Date: 12/4/2013, Peer Review Date: 12/4/2013, Access Date: 4/18/2024

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [4/18/2024].

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